International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) is the largest teacher-based, non-profit organisation in the field of educational technology. http://www.iste.org/learn/computational-thinking
Applying skills to different contexts Making things for a purpose, audience Capability Learn different languages Make things work, make things happen
P6 + CAS curriculum for schools
Then click where it says ‘reviews’ and then ‘see inside’
LSBU PGCE Computing in Primary Schools
Primary and School Direct PGCE
London South Bank University
Senior Lecturer, Primary ICT/Computing
To understand the requirements of the new
Computing curriculum at KS1-4
To understand why programming and sequencing is
important for all age phases
Practical ways to teach pupils
about Computer Science
and ICT at KS1 & KS2
The new curriculum for Computing (Sept 2014)
New computing curriculum
Statutory from Sept 2014
Varied picture as to how schools are implementing this
Unpick and highlight key phrases/terminology
Look at KS3/4 PoS (why?)
Why the change from ICT
What is Computing Education?
Computing is the combination of:
More of a focus on IT and CS
Do you have an understanding of how technology works?
Have you been taught it?
How do you intend to teach it?
What are we aiming for?
To teach CS like other sciences
using investigation, experimentation, problem solving, learning the ‘craft’ of coding,
planning, writing, testing, debugging etc.
Children are capable users and producers, digitally literate, digital citizens.
Computing and CS - where do I start?
Encourage children to answer ‘what if…’ questions.
Helps them to become problem solvers and
Programming, control tech, game design challenges
children and teachers, but is incredibly inspiring.
You do not need to know the answers to everything!
Programming lends itself well to the approach of
letting children explore for themselves the different
possibilities – aka tinkering!
How can we facilitate this?
With the children!
Physical activities involving sequencing and directions
Remote control toys, ‘floor robots’ or programmable toys
Children can experiment moving
toys and robots from one place
They are learning about (STOP!):
planning, routes, predicting,
order, sequencing and……
Activities at EYFS & KS1
Electronic, remote control and relational toys
a) Simple turn on/off devices e.g. torch
b) Then more functions e.g. washing machine, toaster, microwave, camera.
c) More values/choices e.g. tape recorder, photocopier, TV, radio.
Instructions – following and giving
e.g. Cooking recipes, sequencing games, puzzles, blindfold,
use toys and puppets.
Story context e.g. Incy Wincy spider, red riding hood avoiding the
Structured and free play activities.
Simple programmable toys or floor robots e.g. Pixie, BeeBot.
More complex programmable robots e.g. Roamer, Probot.
Activities at EYFS & KS1/2
After programming robots, the next step can be an
on-screen representation, or ideally, combining abstract &
Simple programing software e.g. 2Go by 2Simple, Focus on Beebot.
Online activities e.g. guiding a spaceship to a planet or finding your
way through a maze.
Then move onto more complex programming software.
Using simple sequencing/programming software
Examples of programming & sequencing software:
2Go by 2Simple (Purple Mash)
2DIY by 2Simple
Focus on Beebot
What ‘shape’ do these instructions make?
Challenge: can you make the letter K?
Themes of new PoS (in no particular order)
Networks and the Internet
Communication and collaboration
Design, criticality, responsibility
Computational thinking (CT) explained
(people do this not computers!)
1. Algorithm a step-by-step procedure for calculations.
Algorithmic thinking developing a sequence of precise and unambiguous instructions.
2. Logical reasoning the process of using relational, systematic series of steps.
3. Abstraction is the art of taking the details out of a problem so that you can make a
solution work for many things e.g. tube map.
In order to change a sequence of instructions into an algorithm, abstraction needs to
4. Decomposition also known as factoring, refers to the process by which a complex
problem or system is broken down into parts that are easier to conceive, understand,
program, and maintain.
5. Generalised patterns/pattern recognition is the ability to notice similarities or
common differences that will help us make predictions or lead us to shortcuts.
I know an algorithm to draw a square, how can I adapt it to draw other polygons?
6. Evaluation = making judgements.
Subject knowledge & general resources:
....a step-by-step procedure for calculations.
….a series of actions to perform to get a job done.
….coming up with sequences that guarantee particular jobs are done.
….devising efficient ways of doing things:
two different ways of doing something could
both guarantee to get the job done but one
may be quicker than the other and so better.
What is an algorithm?
KS1: understand what algorithms are; how they are
implemented as programs on digital devices; and that
programs execute by following precise and unambiguous
KS2: use logical reasoning to explain how some simple
algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms
Real life applications
How algorithms rule the world:
Just for fun - The friendship algorithm: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0xgjUhEG3U
Follow algorithms (recipes, instructions, maths)
Unpick simple algorithms
Create your own algorithms (what scaffolding is needed?)
Sandwich Bot: Program your teacher to make a Jam Sandwich
Human crane algorithm activity: http://code-it.co.uk/ks1/crane/humancrane
Swap puzzle activity: http://www.cs4fn.org/algorithms/swappuzzle/
Barefoot CAS crazy character algorithms: http://barefootcas.org.uk/programme-of-
Sorting and searching algorithms: http://csunplugged.org/searching-algorithms
The Art of Nathan Selikoff: http://nathanselikoff.com/training/what-is-an-algorithm
Improve your subject knowledge - video and lesson on TED:
Algorithmic homework! The birthday algorithm
Top 10 Resources for teaching
1. Computing At School (CAS) is the subject association for all those interested in
Computing in school.
Register for free for everything computing - resources, forum, events, CPD etc.
2. Barefoot Computing project (part of CAS) is helping teachers to teach the
computer science elements of the primary computing curriculum. They provide
free high-quality, resources and CS workshops to support
primary school teachers in England: http://barefootcas.org.uk/
3. Quick Start Computing is part of CAS & offers a CPD
toolkit for primary teachers - http://www.quickstartcomputing.org
4. Computer Science unplugged - computer science
without a computer: http://csunplugged.org/
5. Phil Bagge’s Computer Science site: http://code-it.co.uk/
Top 10 Resources for teaching CS/Computing
6. BBC Schools Primary Computing resources:
7. Computing ITT & CPD wiki contains sections on each area of new curric & age
phases (including a short EYFS section) plus self study sections for teachers and
resources to use with children: https://sites.google.com/site/primaryictitt
8. Simon Haughton - ICT teacher:
9. Amazing ICT’s computing page - lots of resources and ideas here:
10. Code.org is an example of one of the many places to learn
all about core computing and programming concepts: http://code.org/
Computing curriculum + assessment
The guidance from the DfE on Assessment of 2014 Curriculum states:
‘Assessment levels have been removed and will not be replaced.’
‘Schools have the freedom to develop their own means of assessing pupils' progress towards
end of key stage expectations.’
‘Many schools already have good assessment systems in place and may choose to continue
using these systems, provided they suit the new national curriculum.’
‘Ofsted’s inspections will be informed by whatever pupil tracking data schools choose to keep’.
It is expected that ALL children will be able to do what’s in the PoS by the end of each KS.
Focus on ‘stage’ not ‘age’.
The recommendation is that AfL will be built into the curriculum.
SEN pupils for whom P-Levels should still be used - there are no P-Levels for computing at
present so use ICT ones and check with your school for guidance.
Info on this page accessed: 4/2/16 - Click here to access and download the full guidance:
Assessing Computing continued…
Computing progression pathways
A useful overview of pupil progression through the different
The focus of this assessment framework is progression
through and across strands of computing.
STAGE not age.
Download with guidance from:
Guidance on assessment:
Overview of assessment & computing:
Summary so far
New Computing curriculum - Sept 2014
Schools are implementing this in a variety of ways
Not just about coding/programming - much broader focus on
computer science, digital literacy and information technology
Computational thinking: being able to think like a computer scientist
Practical experience for children is important but computational
thinking doesn’t necessarily need computers = unplugged
Understanding of how things work - hardware and networking,
searching, capability - digital citizenship, e-safety.
Assessment – stage not age - no levels - use AfL to show all children
have achieved expectations of PoS by end of KS.
Computing curriculum at KS2
Have another look……
Writing, testing and refining more complex
programs that include:
Selection, repeat, variables, inputs, outputs
Understand networks and search technologies.
Design and create a range
of programs, systems and
content that accomplish
Understanding the bigger picture
Computers get things done by a machine executing
a program, written in some language.
Much of the power of computers comes from their
ability to store and manipulate very large amounts
Computers are essentially
Computers are part of
a wider context.
Get the kit, work out what it is,
what it does and why it’s important.
What’s inside the case?
What does the inside of a
computer look like?
Lesson from Learn Free: http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/7
Here's a great blog entry from a teacher about his lesson
where the children took a computer apart. Although this
particular lesson was with secondary school children the approach
and many of the activities are appropriate for primary too.
Also see VLE for today’s session.
Computing challenge questions
? How do computers work?
? How is information stored?
? How do devices communicate with each other?
? Is there a difference between data & information?
Working with binary
Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros
A binary number is made up of only 0s and 1s.
How can we represent words and numbers using just these two
0 1 0 0 1 = ?
CS Unplugged: http://www.csunplugged.org/binary-numbers
Binary numbers in 60 seconds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdFmSlFojIw
Maths Is fun: http://www.mathsisfun.com/binary-number-system.html
How can pictures be represented in the form of binary digits:
Teaching about networks & the Internet
Resources for teaching about computer networks
How does the internet work?
James May finds out how exactly the internet knows where to send you.
Or the Naked Science video for children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oj7A2YDgIWE
The Internet: A Network of Networks
There and Back Again: A Packet's Tale - How does the Internet work?
How does the internet work?
Sending an email
Year 5 planning http://www.code-it.co.uk/netintsearch.html
What happens in an internet minute?
Try searching for: ‘amazing internet facts’ ‘internet infographic’ and looking
on YouTube for ‘how email works’ ‘how the internet works’ etc.
Click the image to start your virtual tour……
Image from: https://soa.princeton.edu/content/liam-young-brave-new-now-f%2713-studio
Where in the world is this?
Activities at KS2
Progression EYFS - KS2:
from a 'concrete' hands on approach
and writing basic sequences of instructions
to an on-screen simulation
and to writing more complex programs.
Programmable robots & mats
Linking models, inputs and outputs including sensors (data logging).
Learning different programming languages (craft of coding).
- Focus on Beebot - 2DIY
- LOGO & ‘turtle’ programs - Kodu
- Roamer world - Scratch
- Flowol 4 - Alice
- Junior Control Insight - various apps
Focus on Beebot http://www.focuseducational.com/category/Bee-Bot-Resources/6
LOGO & ‘turtle’ programs http://logo.twentygototen.org/
Roamer world http://www.valiant-technology.com/uk/pages/roamer_rworld.php
Junior Control Insight http://www.logotron.co.uk/controljnr/
Flowol 4 http://www.flowol.com/Flowol4.aspx
Links to iPad apps http://amazingict.co.uk/computing
Scratch - programming toolkit
Scratch is a free programming toolkit from MIT http://scratch.mit.edu/
Programs are written to control objects (sprites) moving on a stage
by joining command blocks together.
Programs can include repetition, response to
input such as the mouse and other outputs,
such as sound.
The toolkit allows pupils to develop their
programs to pursue their own creative ideas.
ScratchED is an online community for educators:
Example Scratch games making project on BBC Cracking the Code:
Try it out for yourself - tinker!
Let the children try it out - tinker!
Explore existing projects and decompose: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/105104/
Watch videos: Search YouTube ‘intro to scratch’ etc.
Plan an introductory lesson/walkthrough:
Resources also available via Computing top 10
e.g. CAS (refer to earlier slide)
If you need help:
Ask the children!
Find help on Scratch site: http://scratched.media.mit.edu/resources/new-scratch
or online e.g.: http://learnscratch.org/
Flowol 4 - robotics and programming software
Flowol 4 software allows students of all ages to develop logical
reasoning and problem solving talents, develop programming
skills and explore the world of automatic, autonomous systems
and robots. http://www.flowol.com/
Program inputs and outputs using flowchart symbols.
Control a 2D or 3D mimic e.g. fairground ride, train set.
Attach your computer to an interface box and model and see your
program work in real life.
As an LSBU PGCE student you can download and install Flowol 4
for FREE. See Module site on VLE > ICT and Computing resources section
Good practice = do it for a purpose!
Establish a clear purpose for the activity.
Just learning how to use software is ICT skills.
Enabling children to explore a context where a control or
programming outcome might be useful will make sure that
the software is used as a tool and not just an end in itself.
Where children control a product that they have researched,
designed and made the links between real life, D&T and ICT
Example: Design and create your Bedroom of the Future …..
Benefits of control & programming activities
To use the computer for a purpose.
To understand how things work, to make them work, to know what to do if something goes
wrong. To be producers and creators not just expert consumers.
Computers & devices we use are not magical - they need precise instructions in order to
perform a task.
Designing a control system or game involves higher order thinking skills:
Resilience & perseverance: Pupils will discover that
there can be more than one correct answer.
Cross curricular opportunities.
CT is an academic discipline that creates independent learners,
evaluators and potentially designers of new technology.
Programming languages for primary
Pupils can start with full languages as soon as they are ready and willing to
learn how to program.
It's a clean, easy to understand and quite powerful
The standard language used to create web pages.
code.org: Learn core computing and programming concepts
CoderDojo: The open source global movement of free coding clubs for young people
Code Academy: http://www.codecademy.com/schools/curriculum/resources
Code Club: A network of volunteer-led after school coding clubs. https://www.codeclub.org.uk/
1. The web is not the Internet
2. Programming is much more than coding
3. Computer Science is much more than
Recommended starting resources for subject knowledge:
If you didn’t know 1, 2, 3 then you will need to improve
your subject knowledge!!
Extra resources to support KS2 teaching
See links given previously and a few more here…
Programming Basics: An overview of some of the most common techniques
used in computer programming.
Networks and the Internet: Lecture from University of Roehampton
Computer Science for fun (CS4F): http://www.cs4fn.org/
BBC Make it Digital: http://www.bbc.co.uk/makeitdigital
BBC Cracking the Code short films: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01r9tww
SAC Module reading list - has articles and links
DON’T FORGET - shared area on computers at LSBU all have resources on too
Ideas for CS related trips
The Science Museum
Centre for Computing history
National Museum of Computing Y6/7
Virtual tours e.g. Google data centre
Apple Store workshop
Theme parks - experience control technology 1st hand!
List of fab ideas here:
What is this?
We haven’t had time for…….
Web and HTML coding
Playing, designing & making computer games
(this fulfils many of the NC CS reqs)
Web hacking - try ‘hackasaurus’
Arduino, Raspberry Pi, crumble & MaKey MaKey
(why not use bananas as an input device??)
Toy hacking poor teddy!!
There is so much
more to discover
This presentation can be viewed online:
Try this - create your very own robot
Don’t forget my site for all
things primary ICT and computing