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Research on Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks from BC, Canada

Research on Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks from BC, Canada

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Slides from three research studies about open textbooks & other open educational resources focusing on students in postsecondary institutions in British Columbia, Canada.

Slides from three research studies about open textbooks & other open educational resources focusing on students in postsecondary institutions in British Columbia, Canada.

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Research on Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks from BC, Canada

  1. 1. Christina Hendricks Department of Philosophy Rajiv Jhangiani Department of Psychology Colin Madland Coord. Edu Technologies Experiences, Perceptions & Outcomes of Using Open Textbooks: Research from the BC OER Research Fellows Open Education Conference, November 2016
  2. 2. William & Flora Hewlett Foundation 23 Fellows 2015-2017 http://openedgroup.org/fellowship Cost Outcomes Use Perceptions COUP OER Research Fellowships
  3. 3. Open Textbook Student Survey Physics 100 (UBC) Christina Hendricks Sr. Instructor, Philosophy Co-PI’s: Stefan Reinsberg, Georg Rieger Physics & Astronomy, UBC Data will be made open soon
  4. 4. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC Physics 100 CC BY-SA 4.0 CTLT, UBC Fall 2015 & Spring 2016, OpenStax College Physics Completed survey responses: 143
  5. 5. 46% 39% 10% Grade A B C D F PHYSICS 100 AT UBC 66% 13% 5% 3% Major Sciences Health Undecided Forestry First year: 85% Second year: 9% Female: 71% Male: 27%
  6. 6. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC Which actions have you taken to reduce book costs? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Rented Downloaded Borrowed (library) Shared E-book Used (bookstore) Resold Off campus
  7. 7. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC How often taken following actions b/c of txtbk costs? 84% 81% 75% 43% 15% 17% 23% 43% 1% 3% 3% 13% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Dropped Fewer courses Diff. section Didn't buy Never Rarely or Sometimes Often or Very Often
  8. 8. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC How did you access the open textbook? Printed some readings Bought hard copy Downloaded PDF Inside EdX website 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
  9. 9. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC Do you prefer print or digital textbooks? 45% 25% 30%Print Digital No strong preference
  10. 10. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC How important are the following features of your OT? 50% 61% 86% 92% 94% 19% 22% 11% 5% 4% 1% 14% 3% 3% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Can print Mobile access Access anywhere Free of cost Customized to course Very or somewhat Average Somewhat not or not
  11. 11. PHYSICS 100 AT UBC How rate quality of your open textbook compared to traditional? Worse 5% Same 74% Better 21% Would have preferred to buy traditional textbook? Strongly agree 5% Somewhat agree 13% No preference 18% Somewhat disagree 23% Strongly disagree 41%
  12. 12. THE PERCEPTIONS, USE, & IMPACT OF OPEN TEXTBOOKS A SURVEY OF POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS IN BC Rajiv Jhangiani, Ph.D. Open Studies Teaching Fellow Faculty, Department of Psychology @thatpsychprof
  13. 13. THE SAMPLE • 320 STUDENTS FROM 12 POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS • RECRUITED VIA KNOWN FACULTY ADOPTERS • ONLINE SURVEY Female 64% Male 36% SEX Yes 52% No 48% ES/SL
  14. 14. 46% 33% 11% 5% 5% Teaching-intensive university College Research-intensive university Technical institute Other
  15. 15. 15% 1% 2% 3% 12% 4% 4% 14% 18% 3% 24% Business & Consumer Science Communication & Information Education Engineering & Technology Health Science Humanities Professional, Career, & Technical Science Social Science Visual & Performing Arts Other
  16. 16. 69% 44% 24% working at least part-time working >15 hours/week hold a student loan
  17. 17. ACTUAL SPENDING ON TEXTBOOKS (PAST 12 MONTHS) RANGE: $0-$3000; MEAN: $698; MEDIAN: $500 46 15.5 22.7 7.8 8.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Not purchased the required textbook Percentage of Respondents Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very Often
  18. 18. ACTUAL SPENDING ON TEXTBOOKS (PAST 12 MONTHS) RANGE: $0-$3000; MEAN: $702 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Used interlibrary loan copies Leased e-chapters Rented e-textbooks Rented print textbooks Used library reserve copies Leased e-textbook Shared textbooks with classmates Downloaded textbooks from the internet Purchased used copies from the campus store Sold used textbooks Purchased textbooks from a source other than the campus store Unaffected by the cost of textbooks
  19. 19. Percentage of Respondents n Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very Often Taken fewer courses 307 72.6 10.7 11.7 2.6 2.3 Not registered for a specific course 307 73.9 10.7 11.1 4.2 0.0 Dropped or withdrawn from a course 305 82.6 8.9 6.6 1.6 0.3 Earned a poor grade 307 70.4 13.0 11.7 3.9 1.0
  20. 20. HOW DO YOU ACCESS YOUR OPEN TEXTBOOK? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Print (home) Print (other) Print (SFU) Smartphone Tablet E-reader PDF Online 79% Chapters as needed
  21. 21. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU ARE THE FOLLOWING FEATURES OF YOUR OPEN TEXTBOOK? 17.2 21.6 16.4 10 1.3 2.6 22.5 22.1 20.1 14 6.2 8.4 26.8 19.4 22.4 21.7 22.9 21.1 17.2 20.3 20.5 28.5 36.1 30 16.3 16.7 20.5 25.8 33.5 37.9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Shareability Permanent retention Option to print Convenience/portability Immediate access Cost savings Not important at all Of little importance Of average importance Very important Absolutely essential
  22. 22. Below average 3% Average 34% Above average 36% Excellent 27% HOW WOULD YOU RATE THE QUALITY OF YOUR OPEN TEXTBOOK? Strongly agree 6% Slightly agree 13% Neither 24% Slightly disagree 15% Strongly disagree 42% WOULD YOU HAVE PREFERRED A TRADITIONAL TEXTBOOK? FAIR PRICE: ~$63
  23. 23. “ ” It's portable and can be accessed at any computer. The problem of forgetting to bring the textbook to a study session or friend’s house is a problem of the past. I can study anywhere at any time. It also helps with limiting the amount of things I have to carry around. I used to carry a backpack with 3 different textbooks and binders and it put a strain on the back. If only all courses used this format it would help not only financially but also physically.
  24. 24. “ ” I like I like being able to print it for cheap and that way I don't feel guilty about highlighting all over it. It is compiled with only the necessary information for the course. Many courses do not include a number of sections out of textbooks and I find myself reading unnecessary content.
  25. 25. Jhangiani, R. S. & Jhangiani, S. (in press). Investigating the perceptions, use, and impact of open textbooks: A survey of post-secondary students in British Columbia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. @thatpsychprof Rajiv.Jhangiani@kpu.ca
  26. 26. Exploring the Remix Hypothesis Colin Madland Director, TWU Online, OER Research Fellow
  27. 27. 28 Remix Hypothesis "changes in students outcomes occurring in conjunction with OER adoption correlate positively with faculty remixing activities.” ~Wiley Wiley, D. (2015). The Remix Hypothesis. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3813
  28. 28. 29 Level 1 – Realign – Minimal Impact Level 2 – Rethink – Modest to Large Impact Level 0 – Replace – 0 Impact
  29. 29. 30 In which of these ways, if any, have you used or created Open Educational Resources?
  30. 30. 31 Faculty (N=4) Administrators (N=8) Instructional Designers (N=5) Students (N=29) N % Used 4 50 Adapted 2 25 Created 2 25 N % Used 4 50 Adapted 2 25 Created 2 25 N % Used 4 100 Adapted 4 100 Created 3 75 N % Used 20 80 Adapted 7 28 Created 4 16
  31. 31. 32 For a typical course, how often do you use the required texts?
  32. 32. 33
  33. 33. 34 How often did you use the textbooks for this course?
  34. 34. 35
  35. 35. 36 In relation to textbooks used in other courses, how would you rate the quality of the textbook used for this course?
  36. 36. 37
  37. 37. 38 For which of the following purposes have you used OER in the context of studying at TRU?
  38. 38. 39
  39. 39. 40
  40. 40. 41 My experience has been very good. I do not have a lot of experience, mainly just using the BC open textbook for my course. Using this resource has saved me a lot of time and money, allowing me to help pay for insurance for my car. [The] open textbook has been nice because it saved me money, only drawback is not being able to highlight text while studying I have enjoyed it. It helps me explore my lectures further, and really helps with my understanding of the topic.
  41. 41. 42 The use of OER in the classroom leads to improved grades.
  42. 42. 43 Faculty (N=4) Administrators (N=8) Instructional Designers (N=5) Students (N=29) N % A or SA 0 0 Neutral 7 100 D or SD 0 0 N % A or SA 4 58 Neutral 3 42 D or SD 0 0 N % A or SA 1 33 Neutral 1 34 D or SD 1 33 N % A or SA 14 56 Neutral 9 36 D or SD 1 4
  43. 43. 44 What does adoption COST?
  44. 44. NOTHING MONEY TIME 45 Faculty Administrators Instructional Designers Students EFFORT
  45. 45. Didn’t buy textbook for a course: rarely to very often Christina: 95% Christina: 56% Quality of OT same or better than traditional textbooks Would have preferred traditional textbook: slightly to strongly agree Rajiv: 54% Christina: 18% Rajiv: 19% Colin: 96% Rajiv: 97%
  46. 46. Contact & Slides Christina Hendricks c.hendricks@ubc.ca @clhendricksbc Rajiv Jhangiani rajiv.jhangiani@kpu.ca @thatpsychprof Colin Madland Colin.madland@twu.ca @colinmadland Slides: https://is.gd/BC_OER_Fellows_OpenEd16 Capitals & Underscores!

Editor's Notes

  • 811 students completed course across both terms

    152 completed at least half (18.7%); 143 completed all (17.6%)

  • This one has new data

  • updated
    200-400 = 48%
    400-600 = 28%


    Mostly students in sciences; I wonder if many of them read this wrong and thought per semester. College board says $1200 per year is average. These were also mostly 1st year students so may not have much experience with paying for textbooks per year.
  • This one has been edited with the new data

    Bought off campus: 68%
    Downloaded from internet (w/o paying): 15%
    Rented: 13%
  • Updated with new data

    Didn’t buy:
    Never: 43.3
    Rarely or sometimes: 43.3
    Sometimes or higher: 38%
    Rarely or higher: 56.6

    Diff section
    Sometimes or higher: 14%
    Rarely or higher: 25.4%
  • Updated with new data

    in website: 85
    PDF: 24
    Print: 11
    Printed some readings: 7
  • This one has been edited with the new data

  • updated
    “having it customized to our course made the readings seem more useful and less overwhelming, as we knew exactly what information to draw from the assigned readings.”

    “Education should be easily accessible and certain students should not be unable to get better grades just because they couldn't afford the textbook.”

    “Some people will use it some people won't but the fact that it is free and available for everyone, I believe, encourages people to use it. You can either print it out or have it online and that diversity in choice is great for different demographics of students.”

    “I don't have to pay for texts I only use for 3 months“

    “It does not cost my money and it is easy for students to understand when instructors customize the contents according to lectures.”
  • Updated with new data

    Same or better: 95%

    Disagree somewhat or strongly: 64%
    Agree somewhat or strongly: 18%
    Disagree or no pref: 82%

    “Purchasing a textbook for this course is simply not needed. I feel that purchasing a textbook would be a waste of money as we were only required to read short portions of the book each week. Thus obtaining the entire book would be a waste of space and trees.”

    “This textbook only included relevant information. This is 100x better than sifting through a normal 300+ page textbook. Accessible anytime and extremely helpful - as I am disabled and unable to lift a heavy book.”

    “The online textbook was more tailored to our readings, easily accessible online, not heavy, and costed no extra money!”
  • Textbook behaviours, impact of textbook costs on educational choices, how they interact with their OT, what features they most care about, perception of quality
  • The great majority of respondents were students at either teaching-intensive universities (46%) or colleges (33%), with the remainder at research-intensive universities (11%), technical institutes (5%), and a private graduate university (5%).
    The median respondent was a first-year undergraduate student enrolled in 3 courses (the threshold for categorization as a full-time student), had enrolled in 7-9 courses over the previous 12 months (including the current semester), and had an average grade (across all of their undergraduate coursework) of 70-80%.
  • These individuals were more likely to hold a student loan [r(307) = .16, p = .01] and be working more hours per week [r(254) = .13, p = .05].
  • Only 18% reported not being influenced by the cost of textbooks.
    Respondents were slightly more likely to report purchasing their textbooks from a source other than their campus store (57%) than purchasing used textbooks at their campus bookstore (51%). Thirty percent of respondents reported downloading textbooks from the internet, 26% reported sharing their textbooks with classmates, 21% leased commercial e-textbooks (only 3% leased individual e-chapters), 10% used a reserve copy of the textbook at the university library, 7% rented textbooks in print format, and 4% rented textbooks in digital format. Just over half (52%) of respondents reported selling their used textbooks. Once again, these individuals were more likely to be working more hours per week [r(265) = .20, p = .001].
  • Although in every case the sum of those who reported these outcomes “often” and “very often” amounted to less than 5% (see Table 1), those who reported working more hours per week were more likely to drop or withdraw from a course due to the cost of textbooks [r(251) = .13, p = .04].
    Thirty percent of respondents reported earning a poorer grade in a course because of textbook costs. These individuals were more likely to self-identify as a member of a visible minority group [r(252) = .14, p = .03], hold a student loan [r(305) = .14, p = .02], and be working more hours per week [r(253) = .15, p = .02].
  • 43% used it in print format
  • 70% of respondents rated “immediate access” as either “very important” or “absolutely essential.” This was followed closely by “cost savings” (68%), and then convenience and portability of the digital format (54%), ability to print pages (41%), ability to keep it forever (37%), and ability to share it with others
  • Students who only used the free digital formats of their open textbook estimated a higher fair price (M = $66.74, SD = $48.92) than students who printed their open textbook (M = $56.57, SD = $46), although this difference did not attain statistical significance [t(131) = 1.14, p = .26].
  • If cost were not a factor 44% of respondents would have preferred using their textbook in only print format, 41% would have preferred using both print and digital formats, and only 16% would have preferred using only digital format(s). Respondents who preferred using only the print format indicated that this preference was based on a desire to write in and highlight a print copy (85%), e-textbooks being inconvenient to read (64%), difficult to navigate (60%), incompatible with print disability solutions (11%), and not having access to required technology to access e-textbooks (6%).
    These ratings were supported by respondents’ open-ended comments about what they disliked about their open textbook. Of the 31 comments, 12 referred to issues with usability (e.g., requirement of internet access, inability to highlight, difficulty with reading on a screen, etc.), and eight referred to additional benefits of the print format (e.g., reduced distractibility, tangible reminder to complete readings, etc.).
  • Level 0 – Replace At this level faculty engage in no remixing whatsoever. They simply adopt OER (most often an open textbook) in place of a commercial textbook and preserve other aspects of the course as they taught it previously. I hypothesize no changes in student outcomes when faculty Replace – except possibly in one special case. In the case of students who are particularly financially disadvantaged, where faculty were previously assigning very expensive textbooks, there may be a small positive effect attributable to the increased percentage of students who can access the core instructional materials of the course.
    Level 1 – Realign At this level faculty remix their open course materials. In my work to date, this has most often involved faculty stripping a course’s content down to its bare learning outcomes, and then selecting the OER from multiple sources that they feel will best support student learning of specific course learning outcomes. I hypothesize small to modest positive changes in student outcomes when faculty Realign.
    Level 2 – Rethink At this level faculty remix both course materials and pedagogy. In conjunction with the Realign activities described above, faculty create or select new learning activities and assessments – possibly inviting students to co-create and openly share them – often leveraging the unique pedagogical possibilities provided by the 5R permissions of OER. (This is what I refer to as open pedagogy.) I hypothesize modest to large positive changes in student outcomes when faculty Rethink.

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