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Recent Findings from the OER Research Fellows

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Presentation given at #OpenEd2016 (Open Education Conference)

Published in: Education

Recent Findings from the OER Research Fellows

  1. 1. Recent Findings from the OER Research Fellows • John Hilton III, @johnhiltoniii, http://openedgroup.org • Marcela Chiorescu • Christina Hendricks • Royce Kimmons • Christopher N. Lawrence • Ozgur Ozdemir • Tsung-han Weng
  2. 2. Who Are the OER Research Fellows?
  3. 3. Andrew Wesolek Clemson University Arthur Gill Greeen UBC and Okanagan College Brian Lindshield Kansas State University Dongho Kim The University of Georgia Emily Frank Louisiana State University Farhad Dastur Kwantlen Polytechnic University Heather M. Ross University of Saskatchewan Jonathan Arnett Kennesaw State Universtiy Kathleen Barrett University of West Georgia Kim Grewe Northern Virginia Community College Merinda McLure Colorado State University Olga Belikov Brigham Young University Sarai Blincoe Longwood University Serena Henderson Athabasca University Stephen Monroe University of Mississippi Tanya M. Spilovoy North Dakota University System Tarah Kerr Brigham Young University Tomohiro Nagashima Stanford Graduate School of Education Virginia Coleman-Prisco Northeastern University Yao Xiong The Pennsylvania State University Yu-Ju Lin Georgia State University Alesha Baker Oklahoma State University Amy Sandy Columbus State University Chrissy Spencer Georgia Tech Christina Hendricks University of British Columbia Christopher N. Lawrence Middle Georgia State University Colin Madland Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC Deanna Cozart The University of Georgia Emily Croteau Valdosta State University Eulho Jung Indiana University Feng-Ru Sheu Kent State Huimei Delgado Purdue University Jonathan Lashley Clemson University Judy Orton Grissett Georgia Southwestern State University Justin N. Whiting Indiana University Marcela Chiorescu Georgia College Ozgur Ozdemir Indiana University Rajiv Jhangiani Kwantlen Polytechnic University Robert Bodily Brigham Young University Royce Kimmons Brigham Young University Sarah Stager The Pennsylvania State University Shuya Xu Indiana University Susan E. Hrach Columbus State University Tsung-han Weng University of Kansas
  4. 4. Andrew Wesolek Clemson University Arthur Gill Green UBC and Okanagan College Brian Lindshield Kansas State University Dongho Kim The University of Georgia Emily Frank Louisiana State University Farhad Dastur Kwantlen Polytechnic University Heather M. Ross University of Saskatchewan Jonathan Arnett Kennesaw State Universtiy Kathleen Barrett University of West Georgia Kim Grewe Northern Virginia Community College Merinda McLure Colorado State University Olga Belikov Brigham Young University Serena Henderson Athabasca University Stephen Monroe University of Mississippi Tanya M. Spilovoy North Dakota University System Tarah Kerr Brigham Young University Tomohiro Nagashima Stanford Graduate School of Education Virginia Coleman-Prisco Northeastern University Yao Xiong The Pennsylvania State University Yu-Ju Lin Georgia State University
  5. 5. What is the Purpose of the OER Fellows Program? •Build capacity in OER researchers. •Encourage high quality research around the COUP framework (“Cost savings, Outcomes, Use, Perceptions”). •Connect researchers in the United States and Canada with OER research opportunities.
  6. 6. How is the project working since we began in Sept. 2015? •43 OER Research Fellows •Many articles in process •18 articles submitted •1 article accepted •1 article published
  7. 7. Let’s Hear From Some of the OER Research Fellows… Marcela Chiorescu "Exploring Open Educational Resources for College Algebra" Christina Hendricks & Ozgur Ozdemir “Instructor and student experiences with open textbooks, from the California Open Online Library for Education (Cool4Ed)” Royce Kimmons “Student Voice in Textbook Evaluation: Comparing Open and Restricted Textbooks” Christopher N. Lawrence "Adopting an Open Content Textbook in Introduction to American Government" Tsung-han Weng Adopting OER Textbooks in Higher Education: A Qualitative Inquiry of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions
  8. 8. Exploring Open Educational Resources for College Algebra Dr. Marcela Chiorescu Georgia College
  9. 9. Georgia College (GC) • Georgia's public liberal arts university • Located in Milledgeville, middle Georgia • About 5900 undergraduate students • GC’s students must complete 3 hours in the area A2 Quantitative Skills • College Algebra is offered as a hybrid course
  10. 10. My main research questions for this study: • How much money did the students save because of my adoption of open and affordable course materials? • Did students achieve different levels of academic success as a result of the new curriculum?
  11. 11. Before Spring 2015 • MyMathLab access code: access to e-textbook, homework, quizzes and tests Total Cost: $114 Spring 2015 • Free open e-textbook; • WebAssign access code: access to homework, quizzes and tests Total Cost: $27.95 Savings in Spring 2015: $86.05 savings for every student and a total of $13,681.95 savings for all students registered.
  12. 12. • “I did not know this when I enrolled but the price difference made me very happy and it relieved a lot of stress to know I was paying so little.” (College Algebra student course via anonymous survey) • “I was enrolled by my adviser because freshmen do not make their own schedules. However, I am very thankful that the course materials were offered at such a great price! It definitely encourages me to take and continue with the course!” (College Algebra student course via anonymous survey) • “Needed elective, but the low cost was awesome.” (College Algebra student course via anonymous survey)
  13. 13. College Algebra Spring 2014 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Fall 2015 Percentage of students who earned C or better 78.2% 80.9% 84.3% 77.2% Table 1. Percentage of students who earned C or better
  14. 14. A B C D F W Spring 2014 (151 students) 29.8% 35.8% 12.6% 5.3% 6.6% 9.9% Fall 2014 (147 students) 27.9% 34% 19.1% 6.8% 3.4% 8.8% Spring 2015 (159 students) 37.1% 34% 13.2% 5.7% 5% 5% Fall 2015 (149 students) 29.5% 32.9% 14.8% 4.7% 8.1% 10% Table 2. Grade Distribution
  15. 15. Instructor and student experiences with open textbooks, from the California Open Online Library for Education (Cool4Ed) Christina Hendricks – University of British Columbia- Vancouver Ozgur Ozdemir – Indiana University Open Education Conference, Nov. 2016 15
  16. 16. California Community Colleges California State University University of California 3 http://coolfored.org/
  17. 17. Research Questions • Faculty motivations for adopting OT or other OER • Cost savings for students • Student perceptions/attitudes (as reported by faculty) • Impact on student learning and retention • Other benefits and drawbacks 17
  18. 18. Methods Data collection 51 Faculty ePortfolios • About the (1) book, (2) course, (3) open textbook adoption, and (4) faculty bio • 30 Postsecondary Institutions • 7 Disciplinary Areas Data analysis Content Analysis • Open Coding 18
  19. 19. Findings: RQ1 19 Note: N=51 80% 44% 24% 20% COST SAVING CONTENT REPURPOSING ACCESSIBILITY MOTIVATING FACTORS
  20. 20. Findings: RQ2 • Typical costs for new textbooks reported by faculty: $50 to over $275 per book, average $140 • 32 faculty members reported how many students teach/year • Estimated total cost savings: $706,740 per year, for 5733 students ($123/student) 6 #textbookbrokebc image, by UBC undergraduate student society
  21. 21. Findings: RQ3 Note: N=40 97% 43% 40% 0% 15% 0% COST SAVING CONTENT ACCESSIBILITY STUDENTS ATTITUDE Positive Attitude Negative Attitude 7
  22. 22. Findings: RQ4 Note: N=51 39% 16% 0 45% 16% 12% 0 72% YES, IMPROVED STAYED THE SAME DECLINED NOT ASSESSED/UNSURE LEARNING & RETENTION Student Learning Improved? Student Retention Improved? 8
  23. 23. Findings: RQ5 Note: N=51 9 61% 86% 14% 39% 14% 86% COLLABORATED MORE WITH OTHER FACULTY? USED WIDER RANGE OF MATERIALS? DRAWBACKS OF USING OER? OTHER BENEFITS OR FRAWBACKS Yes No
  24. 24. Some conclusions • Cost savings: most prominent concern for faculty (80%) & students (93% of those that reported student views) • Content: only 4% of portfolios showed negative views by faculty, 12% by students • Adaptability: noted as important on 40% of portfolios 24
  25. 25. Adopting OER Textbooks in Higher Education: A Qualitative Inquiry of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions Tsung-han Weng Department of Curriculum and Teaching University of Kansas
  26. 26. BACKGROUND • In recent years, Open Educational Resources (OER) has received a considerable amount of attention in educational field in which free educational materials are accessible to everyone • However, several challenges still exist: • Pedagogical instructional model • Research gap
  27. 27. METHODOLOGY • In this study, I adopted a qualitative case study with 2 university professors and 35 students from one economics class and one statistics class • The research instruments used in this study included semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and on-site classroom observations • After all the data were collected, the researcher adopted an inductive thematic analysis
  28. 28. FINDINGS • Students have ambivalent attitudes towards the OER textbooks • While most students pinpointed the benefits of using OER textbooks, such as saving money and easily access online, some of them did not perceive the textbooks to be of high quality, questioning the content knowledge, pictures, and layouts of the textbooks
  29. 29. FINDINGS •Teachers have ambivalent attitudes towards the OER textbooks •Teachers who adopted the OER textbooks mentioned that the textbooks were beneficial to reduce students’ financial pressure, however, they pointed out that they need to spend much more time preparing the course materials, such as PowerPoint, handouts, and assessment
  30. 30. CONCLUSION •Limitation of this study •Educational Implications
  31. 31. Royce Kimmons
  32. 32. Research Questions 1. How can student voice guide the evaluation and selection of a course textbook? 2. What can this teach us about potential comparative quality of open textbooks?
  33. 33. Broad Evaluation Rank Type Content Design Pedagogy Cost Overall Amado et al. (2015) 1 Open .79 .35 .95 1.00 .71 Kuster et al. (2015) 2 Restricted 1.00 .70 .47 .00 .64 Olson (2003) 3 Restricted .89 .43 .74 .26 .63 Straw (2015) 4 Restricted .36 .66 .56 .26 .51 Watt (2014) 5 Open .38 .54 .31 1.00 .46 Crawford (2014) 6 Restricted .89 .44 .09 .00 .40 Taylor (2014) 7 Restricted .29 .48 .32 .26 .36 Kerzner (2015) 8 Restricted .66 .42 .07 .26 .35 Mean .66 .50 .44 .38 .51
  34. 34. Deep Evaluation Type Chapters Evaluated Pages Words Content Design Pedagogy Overall Amado et al. (2015) Open 5 180 41K .91 .25 .80 .78 Kuster et al. (2015) Restricted 13 85 20K .76 .38 .68 .73
  35. 35. Results & Implications • There is more to textbook quality than mere accuracy • Open textbooks can be of similar quality to restricted textbooks • Polyphony (student + instructor voice) is valuable for both authoring and evaluating texts • Textbook value may be dependent upon factors influenced by classroom context and expectations (e.g., role of the instructor)
  36. 36. #
  37. 37. Adopting an Open Content Textbook in Introduction to American Government Christopher N. Lawrence Assistant Chair and Assistant Professor of Political Science Middle Georgia State University @DrLawrenceMGA http://www.cnlawrence.com/
  38. 38. Affordable Learning Georgia  Initiative launched by University System of Georgia in 2013, partnering with the California State University system.  Goal: reduce student materials costs by:  Using existing open content materials.  Creating new open content materials.  Taking advantage of materials already licensed by USG through university/college libraries.
  39. 39. Our Project  Replace traditional, proprietary texts in POLS 1101 (American Government) with an open content textbook.  Use student performance measures and student surveys to determine whether open content text leads to superior outcomes by comparing classes before and after intervention.  Classes are delivered by faculty members with different styles and approaches.  Classes are taught in fully-online, partially-online (hybrid), and face-to-face settings.
  40. 40. Data and Methods  Two semesters’ data:  Fall 2014: Traditional texts.  Spring 2015: Open content text (Lenz and Holman, University Press of Florida).  Survey of students at end of course with Likert and open-ended items.  Objective performance measures:  Cumulative final exam grade.  Course failure and withdrawal rates.
  41. 41. Baseline Findings  Fall 2014: student survey administered at conclusion of the semester using traditional textbooks.  Cost of textbooks was not a substantial barrier: most students obtained used or new copies. Few took advantage of library reserve copy or electronic copies.  Students were generally satisfied with the quality and value of the traditional texts in use.  Most students indicated that the traditional texts should continue to be used in future terms.
  42. 42. Comparative Findings  Spring 2015: open content textbook survey.  Some cost savings; students used online text instead of buying used print copies.  Perceived quality was substantially lower.  Decline in overall satisfaction, willingness to recommend use in future terms.  Objective student performance: roughly comparable.
  43. 43. Issues Encountered  Student confusion due to:  Poor or incomplete editing of textbook.  Haphazard graphic design and layout.  Faculty challenges due to:  Lack of ancillary materials.  Fixed textbook content (cannot be revised).  Need to concentrate on sustainability:  Funding for creating, updating materials.  Support for course redesign and ancillaries.
  44. 44. Next Steps  Examine effectiveness of other OER texts in political science  OpenStax College text, released Fall 2016  American Government in the Information Age (Github, Another Copy)  Others?  POLS 1101 Course Redesign  Part of USG Gateways to Completion project  Potential to integrate OERs into redesigned POLS 1101  Thanks!
  45. 45. Recent Findings from the OER Research Fellows • John Hilton III, @johnhiltoniii, http://openedgroup.org • Marcela Chiorescu • Christina Hendricks • Royce Kimmons • Christopher N. Lawrence • Ozgur Ozdemir • Tsung-han Weng

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