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Beyond Free
The BC Open Textbook Project
Clint Lalonde
Manager, Open Education
VIU January 15, 2015
Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution
Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks
Implications of textbook costs
6 beyond free benefits
The BC Open Textbook Project
Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of
all BC post-secondary institutions under a
collaborative service delivery framework
1
2
3
Open Education & Professional Learning
Student Services & Data Exchange
Collaborative Programs & Shared Services
1
Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of
all BC post-secondary institutions under a
collaborative service delivery framework
OER Global Logo by Jonathas Mello is licensed under a CC-BY 30 License
Support & promote the development & use of Open Educational Resources
Support the development of effective teaching & learning practices
Open Education & Professional Learning
Online Program Development Fund (OPDF)
2003-2012
$9 million invested
153 grants awarded
100% participation across system
83% partnerships
47 credentials developed in whole or part
355 courses, 12 workshops, 19 web sites/tools and 396
course components (learning objects, labs, textbooks,
manuals, videos)
What are Open Educational Resources?
“Open Educational Resources (OERs) are
any type of educational materials that are
in the public domain or introduced with an
open license. The nature of these open
materials means that anyone can legally
and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share
them.”
UNESCO
The 5 R’s of Open
• Make and own copiesRetain
• Use in a wide range of waysReuse
• Adapt, modify, and improveRevise
• Combine two or moreRemix
• Share with othersRedistribute
Adapted (color change) from Open Education: A “Simple” Introduction by David Wiley released under CC-BY license
Creative Commons logo by Creative Commons used under a CC-BY 3.0 License
CC license image from Copyright in Education & Internet in South African Law used under CC-BY 2.5 South Africa license
Beyond Free Benefit #1
Faculty have full legal right to
customize & contextualize open
textbooks to fit their pedagogical
needs
Where do they come from?
Choices for students (and for adapters)
Old Leather books, by Wyoming_Jackrabbit used under a CC-BY-NC-SA
Okay, free & why it is important
Average student debt difficult to pay off, CBC, March 11, 2014
Student Debt in Canada, Canadian Federation of Students, Fall 2013
Textbooks are expensive
Image credit: Beyond Textbooks by Thomas used under CC-BY license
Students spend
$1200/yr on textbooks
3x rate of inflation in
10 years (6x 1985)
2nd biggest
educational expense
after tuition
Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG
Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
“The cardinal lesson is that
prices rise unchecked if the
people who order the goods
aren’t paying the prices. “
http://www.wsj.com/articles/craig-richardson-the-250-econ-101-textbook-1421192341?mod=WSJ_Opinion_LatestHeadlines
Why textbook prices keep rising
Planet Money, NPR
October 3, 2014
Start talking about cost
Course Textbook Bookstore
CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00
MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50
MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95
COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95
COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95
MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95
MINE 1107 None -
PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37
SURV 1145 None -
Total $999.25
2 Year Mining Exploration Program
Term 1 (of 4)
Course Textbook Bookstore Amazon
CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00 $214.20
MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50 $140
MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95 $155
COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95 $36.20
COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95 $165.25
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95 $151.40
MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95 $89.95
MINE 1107 None - -
PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37 n/a
SURV 1145 None - -
Total $999.25 $952
2 Year Mining Exploration Program
Term 1 (of 4)
How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014
How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014
What is going on here?
65% students have
not purchased a
textbook for a course
during their academic
career because of
price
Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG
Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
Free is more than a good deal
Textbook Costs vs Student Success
Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus
Slide: CC-BY Cable Green, Creative Commons via http://www.project-kaleidoscope.org/






60%+ do not purchase books at some point due to book cost
35% take fewer courses due to book cost
31% choose not to register for a course due to book cost
23% regularly go without textbooks due to book cost
14% have dropped a course due to book cost
10% have withdrawn from a course due to book cost
Students Get Savvier about Textbook Buying,
The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2013
Emma Anderson, 21
Political science, U. of California at Berkeley
“Usually when I don’t buy it, it’s because I’ve found that you actually don’t
need it for the class.”
Jennifer Bi, 20
Economics, U. of California at Berkeley
“My most expensive class was clinical psych, because she writes the textbook
herself, and it has a new edition every semester or something ridiculous. So it was
like almost $200. And the thing is that you can’t use the previous edition, because
she changes it herself because she knows the textbooks sell well. It’s like so
manipulative.”
Marie Efira, 63
Anthropology, Foothill College
“I had to take very few classes, because each time the price of the book more
than doubles the tuition fee. It took me much longer to get my degree.”
Source: http://www.wmnf.org/news_stories/usf-student-shows-his-peers-how-to-download-textbooks-online-for-free
Beyond Free Benefit #2
Retain for future use
iPod DRM by *n3wjack's world in pixels used under CC-BY-SA license
eBook on eBook by DWRL at U Texas used under CC-BY-SA-NC license
Beyond Free Benefit #3
Day 1 access to resources
“My textbook is…
…back-ordered
…in the mail
…out of stock
…the wrong edition
…on hold until my student loan arrives
…not needed until I decide I want this course”
How often do students start the term
without the resources they need?
Faculty have:
Right to customize
The textbook
Students have:
Day 1 access to that
customized textbook
+
Beyond Free Benefit #4
Improved Learning
“Many students attending HCC have difficulty with the cost of
college. Some students do not purchase books at all; other
students use outdated editions or non-assigned books.
In addition, the cost of textbooks may prevent students from
taking an optimal course load. A reduced course load means
more years in college and reduces the likelihood of
completion.
For these reasons, faculty were concerned that the cost of
textbooks was interfering with student success.
A faculty committee, with the support of administration,
decided to make cost a primary consideration in the textbook
adoption process.”
Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning:
The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning:
The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
“A group of six full-time and six adjunct HCC psychology faculty
members participated in the adaptation of FWK’s Introduction
to Psychology textbook.
The adaptation was necessary in order to lower the reading
level to one that the faculty felt was appropriate for HCC
students (12th grade) and to incorporate additional learning
objectives and key terms that they had identified as being
essential to the course.
Additional video links, relevant examples, and cross-cultural
information were also added to the text.”
Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning:
The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
Spring 2011, Traditional
Textbook (n = ~370
students)
Fall 2012, open Textbook
(n = ~370 students)
GPA 1.6 2.0
Withdrawl Rate 14% 7.1%
Department Final
Exam
67.6% 71.1%
Table 1. Aggregated data, spring 2011 (traditional text) versus fall 2011 free text:
multiple campuses and instructors.
Beyond Free Benefit #5
Opportunities for collegial
collaboration to create
stronger resources
Sprints
2 Days
17 Psych Faculty
6 Institutions
850 Questions
Sprints
Sprints
Beyond Free Benefit #6
Opportunities for Authentic
Learning Activities
5.5 million view per month. The most visited chemistry website in the world.
Delmar Larsen now offers extra credit to students who
submit entries. He assigns a rating system to new
articles based on the author's expertise and
experience, with articles moving up as they are edited
and vetted.
Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013
UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013
UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
The Project
open.bccampus.ca
BC Open Textbook Project
40 free & open textbooks for highest
enrolled 1st & 2nd year post-secondary
subjects in BC
2014 – 20 for skills & training
First province in Canada
2014 – AB & SASK MOU
$1 million
2014 - $1 million
Visual notes of John Yap announcement, Giulia Forsythe Used under
CC-SA license
Why are we doing this project?
To increase access to higher education by reducing student costs
To give faculty more control over their instructional resources
To improve learning outcomes for students
Annie Lennox campaigns with Oxfam at the AIDS Conference by Oxfam used under CC-BY-NC-ND license
The Project
Don’t reinvent it by Andrea Hernandez released under CC-BY-NC-SA and based on Wheel by Pauline Mak released
under CC-BY license
79
Faculty Reviews
291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY
Reviews > Adaptations
My Adventures Adapting a Chemistry Textbook291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY
Faculty Reviews
Faculty Reviewers
Publish Many
Write Once
14
Results
Year Faculty Sections Students Savings
2013 12 18 553 $84,560
2014 39 75 2570 $360,196.50
2015
(Jan-April)
31 68 2142 $252,285.65
Total 82 161 5265 $697,042.15
Outreach

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Beyond Free Open Textbooks - VIU

  • 1. Beyond Free The BC Open Textbook Project Clint Lalonde Manager, Open Education VIU January 15, 2015 Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution
  • 2. Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks Implications of textbook costs 6 beyond free benefits The BC Open Textbook Project
  • 3. Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of all BC post-secondary institutions under a collaborative service delivery framework 1 2 3 Open Education & Professional Learning Student Services & Data Exchange Collaborative Programs & Shared Services
  • 4. 1 Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of all BC post-secondary institutions under a collaborative service delivery framework OER Global Logo by Jonathas Mello is licensed under a CC-BY 30 License Support & promote the development & use of Open Educational Resources Support the development of effective teaching & learning practices Open Education & Professional Learning
  • 5. Online Program Development Fund (OPDF) 2003-2012 $9 million invested 153 grants awarded 100% participation across system 83% partnerships 47 credentials developed in whole or part 355 courses, 12 workshops, 19 web sites/tools and 396 course components (learning objects, labs, textbooks, manuals, videos)
  • 6. What are Open Educational Resources? “Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them.” UNESCO
  • 7. The 5 R’s of Open • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute Adapted (color change) from Open Education: A “Simple” Introduction by David Wiley released under CC-BY license
  • 8. Creative Commons logo by Creative Commons used under a CC-BY 3.0 License CC license image from Copyright in Education & Internet in South African Law used under CC-BY 2.5 South Africa license
  • 9. Beyond Free Benefit #1 Faculty have full legal right to customize & contextualize open textbooks to fit their pedagogical needs
  • 10. Where do they come from?
  • 11. Choices for students (and for adapters) Old Leather books, by Wyoming_Jackrabbit used under a CC-BY-NC-SA
  • 12. Okay, free & why it is important
  • 13. Average student debt difficult to pay off, CBC, March 11, 2014 Student Debt in Canada, Canadian Federation of Students, Fall 2013
  • 14. Textbooks are expensive Image credit: Beyond Textbooks by Thomas used under CC-BY license
  • 15. Students spend $1200/yr on textbooks 3x rate of inflation in 10 years (6x 1985) 2nd biggest educational expense after tuition Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
  • 16. “The cardinal lesson is that prices rise unchecked if the people who order the goods aren’t paying the prices. “ http://www.wsj.com/articles/craig-richardson-the-250-econ-101-textbook-1421192341?mod=WSJ_Opinion_LatestHeadlines
  • 17. Why textbook prices keep rising Planet Money, NPR October 3, 2014
  • 19. Course Textbook Bookstore CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00 MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50 MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95 COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95 COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95 New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95 MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95 MINE 1107 None - PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37 SURV 1145 None - Total $999.25 2 Year Mining Exploration Program Term 1 (of 4)
  • 20. Course Textbook Bookstore Amazon CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00 $214.20 MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50 $140 MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95 $155 COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95 $36.20 COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95 $165.25 New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95 $151.40 MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95 $89.95 MINE 1107 None - - PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37 n/a SURV 1145 None - - Total $999.25 $952 2 Year Mining Exploration Program Term 1 (of 4)
  • 21. How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014
  • 22. How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014 What is going on here?
  • 23. 65% students have not purchased a textbook for a course during their academic career because of price Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
  • 24. Free is more than a good deal
  • 25. Textbook Costs vs Student Success Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus Slide: CC-BY Cable Green, Creative Commons via http://www.project-kaleidoscope.org/       60%+ do not purchase books at some point due to book cost 35% take fewer courses due to book cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to book cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to book cost 14% have dropped a course due to book cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to book cost
  • 26. Students Get Savvier about Textbook Buying, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2013 Emma Anderson, 21 Political science, U. of California at Berkeley “Usually when I don’t buy it, it’s because I’ve found that you actually don’t need it for the class.” Jennifer Bi, 20 Economics, U. of California at Berkeley “My most expensive class was clinical psych, because she writes the textbook herself, and it has a new edition every semester or something ridiculous. So it was like almost $200. And the thing is that you can’t use the previous edition, because she changes it herself because she knows the textbooks sell well. It’s like so manipulative.” Marie Efira, 63 Anthropology, Foothill College “I had to take very few classes, because each time the price of the book more than doubles the tuition fee. It took me much longer to get my degree.”
  • 27.
  • 29. Beyond Free Benefit #2 Retain for future use
  • 30. iPod DRM by *n3wjack's world in pixels used under CC-BY-SA license eBook on eBook by DWRL at U Texas used under CC-BY-SA-NC license
  • 31. Beyond Free Benefit #3 Day 1 access to resources
  • 32. “My textbook is… …back-ordered …in the mail …out of stock …the wrong edition …on hold until my student loan arrives …not needed until I decide I want this course” How often do students start the term without the resources they need?
  • 33. Faculty have: Right to customize The textbook Students have: Day 1 access to that customized textbook +
  • 34. Beyond Free Benefit #4 Improved Learning
  • 35. “Many students attending HCC have difficulty with the cost of college. Some students do not purchase books at all; other students use outdated editions or non-assigned books. In addition, the cost of textbooks may prevent students from taking an optimal course load. A reduced course load means more years in college and reduces the likelihood of completion. For these reasons, faculty were concerned that the cost of textbooks was interfering with student success. A faculty committee, with the support of administration, decided to make cost a primary consideration in the textbook adoption process.” Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
  • 36. Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012 “A group of six full-time and six adjunct HCC psychology faculty members participated in the adaptation of FWK’s Introduction to Psychology textbook. The adaptation was necessary in order to lower the reading level to one that the faculty felt was appropriate for HCC students (12th grade) and to incorporate additional learning objectives and key terms that they had identified as being essential to the course. Additional video links, relevant examples, and cross-cultural information were also added to the text.”
  • 37. Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012 Spring 2011, Traditional Textbook (n = ~370 students) Fall 2012, open Textbook (n = ~370 students) GPA 1.6 2.0 Withdrawl Rate 14% 7.1% Department Final Exam 67.6% 71.1% Table 1. Aggregated data, spring 2011 (traditional text) versus fall 2011 free text: multiple campuses and instructors.
  • 38. Beyond Free Benefit #5 Opportunities for collegial collaboration to create stronger resources
  • 39. Sprints 2 Days 17 Psych Faculty 6 Institutions 850 Questions
  • 42. Beyond Free Benefit #6 Opportunities for Authentic Learning Activities
  • 43. 5.5 million view per month. The most visited chemistry website in the world. Delmar Larsen now offers extra credit to students who submit entries. He assigns a rating system to new articles based on the author's expertise and experience, with articles moving up as they are edited and vetted. Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013 UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
  • 44. Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013 UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
  • 47. BC Open Textbook Project 40 free & open textbooks for highest enrolled 1st & 2nd year post-secondary subjects in BC 2014 – 20 for skills & training First province in Canada 2014 – AB & SASK MOU $1 million 2014 - $1 million Visual notes of John Yap announcement, Giulia Forsythe Used under CC-SA license
  • 48. Why are we doing this project? To increase access to higher education by reducing student costs To give faculty more control over their instructional resources To improve learning outcomes for students Annie Lennox campaigns with Oxfam at the AIDS Conference by Oxfam used under CC-BY-NC-ND license
  • 49. The Project Don’t reinvent it by Andrea Hernandez released under CC-BY-NC-SA and based on Wheel by Pauline Mak released under CC-BY license
  • 50. 79
  • 51. Faculty Reviews 291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY
  • 52. Reviews > Adaptations My Adventures Adapting a Chemistry Textbook291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY
  • 55. 14
  • 56. Results Year Faculty Sections Students Savings 2013 12 18 553 $84,560 2014 39 75 2570 $360,196.50 2015 (Jan-April) 31 68 2142 $252,285.65 Total 82 161 5265 $697,042.15