Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Speaking
Definition
What is Speaking?
• Speech is the vocalized form of human
communication
• Speech production takes places in real time
and ...
Coceptualization and Formulation
Conceptualization
Discourse type
Topic
Purpose
Formulation
Making strategic
choices: synt...
! Note that:
• In English, utterances tend to have a two-part
structure:
Topic + comment
Articulation
• It involves the use of the organs of speech to
produce sounds.
• Sounds are produced in a continuous stream...
Self-monitoring & repair
• It is a process that happens concurrently with
the stages of conceptualization, formulation
and...
Automaticity
Conceptualizing
Formulating
Articulating
Monitoring
Use of
prefabricated
chunks
Add-on
strategies
(chaining
together of
short phrases)
Fluency
Mean that a speaker’s attention...
! Note that:
Being under pressure or tired will affect a
speaker’s performance
! Note that:
• Speaking is like any other skill such as driving
or playing a musical instrument: the more you
practice, th...
Fluency
• Is fluency the ability to speak fast?
• It’s not only about speed, but pausing is
equally important.
• However, ...
Fluency
Another factor in the
perception of fluency is the
lenght of the run (number of
syllables between pauses)
Race-cal...
Interaction and turn-taking
• Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue is involved
in speaking.
• Turn-taking is negotiated beca...
Discourse markers
• That reminds me. (I’m continuing with the same topic)
• By the way… (I’m indicating a topic change)
• ...
Paralinguistics and sociocultural
knowledge
Genre knowledge
By its purpose:
• Transactional: for the purpose of conveying or exchanging
specific information
• Interpe...
Genre knowledge
PURPOSE PARTICIPATION PLANNING
Airport
anouncements
Transactional non-interactive planned
Sports
commentar...
The difference between written and
spoken discourse
Dell Hymes:
Speaking
Proficiency
Grammatical
competence
Sociolinguistic
competence
Discourse
competence
Strategic
competen...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Speaking presentation

621 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Speaking presentation

  1. 1. Speaking Definition
  2. 2. What is Speaking? • Speech is the vocalized form of human communication • Speech production takes places in real time and it is linear, i.e. utterance by utterance. • Planning is severly limited, therefore, it is the hardest of all four skills.
  3. 3. Coceptualization and Formulation Conceptualization Discourse type Topic Purpose Formulation Making strategic choices: syntax, vocabulary Beginning, middle and end
  4. 4. ! Note that: • In English, utterances tend to have a two-part structure: Topic + comment
  5. 5. Articulation • It involves the use of the organs of speech to produce sounds. • Sounds are produced in a continuous stream, some sounds merge with others. Handbag, baked beans • Continual changes in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausing serve to organize the sounds into meaninful words and utterances. • Proficients speakers produce 15 phonemes a second.
  6. 6. Self-monitoring & repair • It is a process that happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation. • Self-monitoring may result in a slowing down, pausing and backtracking or rephrasing of an utterance.
  7. 7. Automaticity Conceptualizing Formulating Articulating Monitoring
  8. 8. Use of prefabricated chunks Add-on strategies (chaining together of short phrases) Fluency Mean that a speaker’s attentional resources are thinly streched
  9. 9. ! Note that: Being under pressure or tired will affect a speaker’s performance
  10. 10. ! Note that: • Speaking is like any other skill such as driving or playing a musical instrument: the more you practice, the more likely you are to be able to chunk small units into larger ones.
  11. 11. Fluency • Is fluency the ability to speak fast? • It’s not only about speed, but pausing is equally important. • However, frequent pausing is a sure sign of a struggling speaker. • Natural sounding pauses| are those that occur at the ontersection of clauses, | or after groups of words that form a meaningful unit.|
  12. 12. Fluency Another factor in the perception of fluency is the lenght of the run (number of syllables between pauses) Race-callers and auctioners rather than constructing from scratch,use prefabricated chunks Pause fillers: uh, um, er Repeats • Long runs • Use of prefabricated chunks • Production strategies
  13. 13. Interaction and turn-taking • Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue is involved in speaking. • Turn-taking is negotiated because speakers are familiar with the rules and skills of turn- taking. Two rules are to be followed:  Long silences are to be avoided  Listen when other speakers are speaking
  14. 14. Discourse markers • That reminds me. (I’m continuing with the same topic) • By the way… (I’m indicating a topic change) • Well, anyway.. (I’m returning to the topic) • Like I say… (I’m repeating what I said before) • Yes, but.. (I’m indicating a difference of opinion) • Yes, no I know.. (I’m indicating agreement with a negative idea) • Uh-huh… (I’m listening)
  15. 15. Paralinguistics and sociocultural knowledge
  16. 16. Genre knowledge By its purpose: • Transactional: for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information • Interpersonal: For the purpose of maintaining social relationships By its interaction: • Non-inteactive or interactive By its planning: • Planned or unplanned
  17. 17. Genre knowledge PURPOSE PARTICIPATION PLANNING Airport anouncements Transactional non-interactive planned Sports commentary Transactional non-interactive Unplanned Job interview Transactional Interactive (partly) planned Service encounter Transactional Interactive Unplanned Joke telling Interpersonal (partly) interactive (partly) planned Leaving a voice- mail message Transactional or interpersonal non-interactive Unplanned Casual conversation interpersonal interactive Unplanned
  18. 18. The difference between written and spoken discourse
  19. 19. Dell Hymes: Speaking Proficiency Grammatical competence Sociolinguistic competence Discourse competence Strategic competence

×