The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT

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  • This is the first two experiments (same treatments), but conducted on fresh area of pasture
  • N use efficiency is important where labile C is available, and in practice NUE has remained static in Australia.
  • The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT

    1. 1. The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NORP) Peter Grace n2o.net.au N 2 O Network
    2. 2. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Graeme Schwenke (NSW I&I) </li></ul><ul><li>Louie Barton (UWA) </li></ul><ul><li>Clemens Scheer (QUT) </li></ul><ul><li>Sally Officer & Kevin Kelly (Vic DPI) </li></ul><ul><li>Weijin Wang (Qld DERM) </li></ul><ul><li>Deli Chen & Helen Suter (Uni Melb.) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why N 2 O? <ul><li>Global warming potential is 300 x CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Principally emitted from N sources applied to soils </li></ul><ul><li>Intimately linked to crop and pasture production and resource use efficiency (profitability) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation is a permanent, avoided emission </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification Fertiliser etc
    5. 5. Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
    6. 6. Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification LABILE CARBON Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
    7. 7. Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification N 2 /N 2 O = 30+ Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
    8. 8. NORP Objectives <ul><li>Reduced uncertainty re the magnitude of N 2 O, CH 4 and CO 2 emissions in response to management. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence based mitigation practices and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the accuracy of simulation models and the national greenhouse gas inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical support for NAMI (National Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative) </li></ul>
    9. 9. NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe
    10. 15. NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Rainfed grains
    11. 16. Wongan Hills, Western Australia <ul><li>Louise Barton , UWA </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed, lupin-wheat & wheat-wheat rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing N 2 O emissions by raising soil pH (via liming). </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing CO 2 emissions from urea by substituting urea with grain-legume fixed N. </li></ul>
    12. 17. Tamworth, New South Wales <ul><li>Graeme Schwenke , I&I NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed grains </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing N 2 O emissions through inclusion of grain. legumes to reduce N fertilizer inputs within a rotation. </li></ul>
    13. 18. Hamilton, Victoria <ul><li>Sally Officer, DPI Vic </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed, legume/wheat rotation after pasture </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from direct drilled and conventionally sown legume/wheat rotations, with and without the use of nitrification inhibitors. </li></ul>Late August Early October Late November
    14. 19. NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Irrigated grains/cotton Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains
    15. 20. Kingsthorpe, Queensland <ul><li>Peter Grace , Queensland University of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated cotton-grains </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing N 2 O emissions through irrigation and nitrogen management. </li></ul>
    16. 21. NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Irrigated grains/cotton Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains Dairy
    17. 22. Terang, Victoria <ul><li>Kevin Kelly, DPI Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of inhibitors on N 2 O emissions following the application of urine to high rainfall dairy pastures. </li></ul>
    18. 23. NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains
    19. 24. Mackay, Queensland <ul><li>Dr Weijin Wang, Sugar Research & Development Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed, sugar cane </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing N fertilizer inputs through use of legume-fixed N. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of nitrification inhibitors on N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    20. 25. NORP Core Field Sites + Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Narrabri Griffith Wollongbar
    21. 26. Daily N 2 O flux (+/- inhibitor) - dairy Terang (Vic) Kelly et al. unpublished
    22. 27. Hourly N 2 O flux – wheat Wongan Hills (WA) Barton et al. unpublished
    23. 28. www.N2O.net.au Repository
    24. 29. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Wide range in N 2 O emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal. </li></ul>
    25. 30. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Wide range in N 2 O emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal. </li></ul>
    26. 31. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Wide range in N 2 O emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal. </li></ul>
    27. 32. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Wide range in N 2 O emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal. </li></ul>
    28. 33. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%. </li></ul><ul><li>Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    29. 34. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%. </li></ul><ul><li>Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    30. 35. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%. </li></ul><ul><li>Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    31. 36. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%. </li></ul><ul><li>Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    32. 37. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Magnitude of N 2 O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    33. 38. Top 10 findings to date <ul><li>Magnitude of N 2 O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N 2 O emissions. </li></ul>
    34. 39. Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
    35. 40. Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
    36. 41. Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
    37. 42. Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Cereals)* *FAOSTAT
    38. 43. Regional N 2 O Emission Potential Low Medium High No data/uncertain Grace et al. unpublished
    39. 44. Conclusions <ul><li>Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations. </li></ul>
    40. 45. Conclusions <ul><li>Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive and profitable farming requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations. </li></ul>
    41. 46. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
    42. 47. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
    43. 48. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
    44. 49. Conclusions <ul><li>Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining productivity & profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across climates and soils emphasises the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations. </li></ul>
    45. 50. THANK YOU

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