Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Climate Change and Carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean basin ,contributions of no tillage systems

645 views

Published on

Climate Change and Carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean basin ,contributions of no tillage systems

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Climate Change and Carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean basin ,contributions of no tillage systems

  1. 1. Climate change and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean basin: Contributions of No-tillage systems Dr. Rachid MRABET http://rachidmrabet.googlepages.com rachidmrabet@gmail.com 4th Mediterranean Meetings on No-tillage systems Setif, Algeria, May 3 -5 2010
  2. 2. Features of Mediterranean Basin Myriad of atmospheric and climatic processes Regional vs global influences Mistral, Tramontane, Bora, Etesiens, Sirocco A semi-closed basin Sea-land interaction & contrasts
  3. 3. No More land for production: case of Morocco 7,4 7,6 7,8 8 8,2 8,4 8,6 8,8 9 9,2 9,4 1971 1982 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001 2003 Year AgriculturalArea(MillionsHa) •The land available to produce this extra food is shrinking because of urbanization and use of agricultural land for other purposes.
  4. 4. Agriculture as driver of global warming Carbon Dioxide is the most important GHG Other GHG (Methane, Nitrous Oxide) more powerful Still 77% of total GHG in CO2 equivalent is due to CO2 Agricultural land use contributes 32% of all GHG: 24% of all CO2 61% of all CH4 and N2O The major largest components are: Deforestation: 18.3% Nitrogen emissions from soils: 6% Methane from livestock: 5%
  5. 5. Projected Impacts of Climate Change Source: Stern Review
  6. 6. Pressures on Med-countries •Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission •Control of desertification & erosion •Sustainable environment-friendly agricultural productions •Reduction in reliance on fossil fuels
  7. 7. Air Temperature (°C): 2070-2099 vs. 1961-1990 using AORCM Winter Summer (Somot et al., 2007) •Increased temperature •Global warming • frequency, duration and intensity of hot periods “canicules”
  8. 8. 9 Winter Summer (Somot et al., 2007) Rainfall (mm/d): 2070-2099 vs. 1961-1990 using AORCM Rainfall totals are likely to decline between 4 and 27%.  Frequency of extreme storm events
  9. 9. Drought is Morocco’s leading natural hazard 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 mm year Total seasonal rainfall measured throughout Meknes Agourai Ain Jemaa Sidi Slimane 609 mm 453 mm
  10. 10. Cereal yield trends
  11. 11. Focus on Water & Food, Africa & Asia
  12. 12. Impact of climate change on crop productivity for cereals and food legumes Giannakopoulos et al., 2009
  13. 13. Wheat consumption CHABANE, 2010 Algeria
  14. 14. Mediterranean basin is the hotest spot region Living with drought and dealing with climate change are unavoidable Drought is expected to continue and get linked to desertification, the longer we wait, the fewer our options!!!
  15. 15. Major Global Challenges with conventional agriculture •Poor Energy Efficiency •Poor Fertilizer Efficiency •Poor Water Efficiency } Its not difficult to fix, if we try All guarantee poor carbon balance
  16. 16. What is no-tillage?
  17. 17. BA C NO-TILL SYSTEM A = Absence of soil tillage: No Mechanical Soil Disturbance B = Biodiversity: Crop Rotation / Cover Crops; Integrating Livestock & Farming C = Cover of the soil: Permanent Cover with Crop Residues No-tillage is like a three legged stool Pillars that Sustain the No-tillage System
  18. 18. Conservation agriculture motion
  19. 19. Argentina Brazil USA Australia Conservation Agriculture
  20. 20. Before….. Actually
  21. 21. C O N S E R V A T I O N A G R I C U L T U R E Organisations Partnerships Policies Industries/Technologies R&DTraining CA Capacity Building Financing Knowledge Management
  22. 22. Environmental Impact of CA
  23. 23. Question! Conservation agriculture has large environmental benefits, but is it climate-friendly?
  24. 24. Emission Mechanisms Inputs:(energy) Fuel, Machinery Herbicides Fertilisers Outputs:(losses) Gaseous Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide & methane Nitrate in runoff and drainage Carbon & Nitrate in eroded soil } } Easily Quantified For Known Systems. Substantial System Effects Highly Variable, Poorly Understood. Very Large System Effects,
  25. 25. Atmospheric Carbon as CO2 Plant biomass and roots left on or in the soil contribute to Soil Carbon or Soil Organic Matter and all associated environmental and production benefits. Energy from bio-fuels CO2 CO2 Biological carbon cycle.Fossil carbon cycle. CO2 CEnergy from fossil fuels RenewableNonrenewable
  26. 26. 60% reduction in fuel 20% reduction in fertilizer/pesticides 50% reduction in machinery no burning Conservation Agriculture mitigating climate change
  27. 27. Franzluebbers (2005) Soil Tillage Res. 83:120-147 Nitrogen Fertilization (kg . ha-1 . yr-1 ) 0 100 200 300 Change in Soil Organic Carbon (Mg . ha-1 . yr-1 ) 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Conventional Tillage Nitrogen Fertilization (kg . ha-1 . yr-1 ) 0 100 200 300 Change in Soil Organic Carbon (Mg . ha-1 . yr-1 ) 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Conventional Tillage No Tillage Soil Carbon Sequestration Nitrogen fertilization effect
  28. 28. Nitrous Oxide Emission Interaction of tillage with soil type Rochette (2008) Soil Till. Res. 101:97-100 Soil Aeration N2O Emission (kg N . ha -1 ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Good Medium Conventional tillage No tillage Poor p = 0.06 45 site-years of data reviewed Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom, USA
  29. 29. C Crop biomass is a critical component of the biological carbon cycle! Soil carbon is an important link between sustainability and productivity within agricultural ecosystems. Soil Surface Carbon comes into crop biomass and system through photosynthesis. Carbon goes out of the soil system mainly through respiration.
  30. 30. - increased water holding capacity and use efficiency - increased cation exchange capacity - reduced soil erosion - improved water quality - improved infiltration, less runoff - decreased soil compaction - improved soil tilth and structure - reduced air pollution - reduced fertilizer inputs - increased soil buffer capacity - increased biological activity - increased nutrient cycling and storage - increased diversity of microflora - increased adsorption of pesticides - gives soil aesthetic appeal - increased capacity to handle manure and other wastes - more wildlife Carbon central hub of environmental quality. C Environmental benefits are spokes that emanate from the Carbon hub of the “Environmental Sustainability wheel.”
  31. 31. Soil Carbon Sequestration Soil organic carbon can be sequestered with adoption of conservation agricultural practices Enhanced soil fertility and soil quality Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions Soil erosion reduction is most notable Long-term changes are most scientifically defensible
  32. 32. Soil C vs Time
  33. 33. Carbon in Med-Soils Country Soil order Horizon (cm) Years NT CT References France Alfisol 0-5 4 21.5 17.3 Monnier et al. (1976) Alfisol 0-5 33 22.6 11.0 Oorts (2006) & Oorts et al. (2007b) Syria Inceptisol 0-10 10 17.5 11.0 Ryan (1998) Tunisia Isohumic Fersialitic 0-20 0-20 4 4 27.5 22.4 24.1 15.5 Ben Moussa-Machraoui et al. (2010) Morocco Calcixeroll 0-5 5 17.3 16.6 Mrabet (2008a) Calcixeroll 0-2.5 11 28.9 23.5 Mrabet et al. (2001) Italy Cambisol 0-40 3 7.5 7.5 Borin et al. (1997) Entisol 0-10 - 20.1 14.3 Basso et al. (2002) Portugal Cambisol 0-20 3 14.82 12.94 Basch et al. (2008) Vertisol 0-10 - 25.3 19.1 Carvalho & Basch (1995) Spain Xerocrept 0-5 18 22.5 15 Álvaro-Fuentes et al. (2008) Xerofluvent 0-5 15 18.81 8.8 Álvaro-Fuentes et al. (2008) Calciorthid 0-5 16 13.7 8.7 Álvaro-Fuentes et al. (2008) Calcisol 0-5 7 12.55 10.17 Fernandez-Ugalde et al. (2009) Haploxeralf 0-5 14 11 7 Hernanz et al. (2002) Haploxeralf 0-10 8 11.6 8.8 Medeiros et al. (1996) Xerofluvent 0-5 3 17.2 15.7 López-Garrido et al. (2009)
  34. 34. Temporal SOC dynamics from 2010 to 2100 for the different management scenarios Alavaro-Funentes and Paustian, 2010
  35. 35. Re-building soil organic matter Ogle et al., 2005
  36. 36. No-Till: CO2 emission! Reicosky and Lindstrom, 1993
  37. 37. Reicosky y = 0,0792x + 9,7647 R2 = 0,9698 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Severity of disturbance (cm2 ) CER(gCO2m-2 ) MP SS RM MK NT L128 Cumulative Carbon Dioxide Loss after 24 hours
  38. 38. Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2007 No-Till: CO2 emission!
  39. 39. Akbolat et al., 2009 No-Till: CO2 emission!
  40. 40. Oorts et al., 2007 No-Till: CO2 emission!
  41. 41. Runoff projections with respect to climate change scenarios
  42. 42. Runoff reduction ! Jordán et al., 2010
  43. 43. Soil loss reductions! Fleskens & Stroosnijder (2008) Portugal & Italie
  44. 44. Sediment loss reductions! 0 40 80 120 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 40 80 120 0 100 200 300 400 500 Y = X 0 40 80 120 Sediments. Cover, g m-2 0 100 200 300 400 500 Sediments.Tillage,gm-2 Y = 2X In 80,3% of cases the relation between N/C has been greater to 2 In 92,4% of cases the relation between N/C has been greater to 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cover, % 0 20 40 60 80 100 Sedimentconcentration,gL-1 Tillage Plant cover Espejo-Pérez et al. 2006
  45. 45. Water capture & movement in soils with No-Tillage systems .1Improved water entry in place of water runoff .2Reduced water evaporation .3Channels and macropore in place of crust and slacking for improved water distribution and movement in soil profile .4Water storage for seasonal availability and use by crops Ruan et al., 2001
  46. 46. NT vs CT for Cereals in Med-Basin
  47. 47. Yield variability vs climate! yield CT = 0,0033 Rainfall + 1,4116 R2 = 0,1823 yield NT = 0,0028 Rainfall + 2,01 R2 = 0,1457 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Rainfall (mm) GrainYield(Mg/ha) No-tillage Conventional Tillage Mrabet, 2010
  48. 48. Yield Variability vs climate! De Vita et al., 2007
  49. 49. Drought Management!
  50. 50. Water evaporation suppression or water management with crop residues! 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Cumulativesoilevaporation(mm) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Cumulative potential evaporation (mm) OD SW DP CH RT NT-0 NT-80 Mrabet, 1997 Seasonal Carry over of soil water to crop critical stages Water gain
  51. 51. No-till Residue Cover Suppression of Soil Water Evaporation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 CumulativeSoilEvaporation(mm) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Cumulative Potential Evaporation (mm) 0 50 60 80 100 No-till Residue Cover Percent Mrabet (1997)
  52. 52. Water Conservation: securing water against drought 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 50 60 80 100 Residue cover under no-tillage Timetowiltingpoint(days) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Disk plow Stubble Mulch Chisel Rotary tiller Off-set disk No-tillage w ith 60% cover Tillage System Timetowiltingpoint(days) Keeping the soil moist longer as residue cover increase! Halting evaporation process in semi-arid areas! Mrabet, 1997
  53. 53. Precipitation storage efficiency •Low and highly variable rainfall are major sources of risk for farms of drylands! •Precipitation storage efficiency increases as tillage intensity is reduced during the summer fallow period. •The increased soil water storage is a result of both maintained crop residues at the surface and no-turing and mixing of the soil moisture.
  54. 54. Conservation agriculture: mitigating climate change through Drought managementHigh reduction in CO2 emission High environmental resilience Carbon sequestration
  55. 55. Lets finish this talk with these important statements! .1The fact is no one has ever advanced a scientific reason for plowing (Edward H. Faulkner, 1943). .2No-tillage systems are means for capturing the synergy between climate change adaptation and mitigation and prevention of desertification (Virdin, 2001).
  56. 56. Transforming research efforts and development (farmers) achievement s on policy issues Think Thank To get all elites and leaders in research, development and education with international organisations and NGOs for the same objectives. Lobbying Transform weakness on strenghts to convince policy and industries. « Climate change is a shared responsability and the future is no longer as it used to be »
  57. 57. Merci “You’ve got to be very careful if you don’t know where you’re going, because you might not get there.”

×