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Nutrient supply, below ground processes and elevated CO2 change the nutritional quality of cyanogenic clover Trifolium repens - Ros Gleadow

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Nutrient supply, below ground processes and elevated CO2 change the nutritional quality of cyanogenic clover Trifolium repens - Ros Gleadow

  1. 1. CCRSPI Feb 2011Plant themeNutrient supply, below groundprocesses and elevated CO2 changethe nutritional quality of cyanogenicclover Trifolium repensRos GleadowSiobhan Isherwood, Tim Cavagnaro, SamanSeneweera, Rebecca Miller,
  2. 2. 2/20Factors affecting food security Production •Yield •Area •Agronomy Change in precipitation Availability Nutrition •Distribution •Safety •Cost •Value •Wealth Change in temperature IPCC WG1
  3. 3. 3/20How will climate change affect nutritional value?1. Yield 2. Nutritional value 3. Availability 
  4. 4. 4/20 Why clover? 1. Interesting roots VAM Legume – N fixing Mycorrhizae – P uptakeAccess to nutrients may facilitate positive response to CO2
  5. 5. 5/20Why clover? 2. Cyanogenic glycosides HOCH2 O CH3 O CH3 HO CN  Linamarin (valine) Lotaustralin (isoleucine) OH Chewing releases -glucosidase glucose (detonator)  HCN Binds to cytochrome oxidase + ketone Gleadow& Woodrow 2002, J Chem Ecol, 28, 1297.
  6. 6. 6/20Why clover?3. Model for other important cyanogenic crops Forage sorghum Cassava/Manioc Photo: Peter Stuart, Pac Seeds, Qld Photo: Julie Cliff, UEM, Moz 5-10% of all plants cyanogenic Gleadow, Conn et al, 2008 Phytochem, 69: 1870 60% crop plants (some parts) Jones 1998 Phytochem 47: 155; Miller et al. 2006 Ann Bot 97: 1017.
  7. 7. 7/20IF Less protein required for photosynthesis at high CO2THEN resources may be diverted to defence 120 Is “excess” N used to Rubisco (% of control) 100 synthesise cyanide? 80 60 Rubisco 40 Other Cyanide 20 0 350 700 CO2 ppm Gleadow and Woodrow 1999, Plants in Action – Leaf protein, Rice available www.plantsci.org.au/publications/
  8. 8. 8/20More Nitrogen allocated to cyanide at high-CO2 Sugar gums Natimuk Road, Horsham 20 ~400 ppm CO2 ~ 800 ppm CO2 CN-N per N % E A 10 E A 0 Low Nitrogen High NitrogenGleadow et al. 1998, Plant Cell Environ, 12:21
  9. 9. 9/20CO2 effects on cyanogenesis in clover Siobhan Isherwood• FACE• Pot trials (ANU) CassavaFACE• Nutrient trials –N, P, microbes
  10. 10. 10/20 Clover Biomass 6 months after sowing (Dec) 400Biomass g/m2 300 200 100 380 ppm 550 ppm October 2010, 3 months
  11. 11. 11/20Cyanide in clover trending higher at 550 ppm 1000Cyanide mg/g dry wt 800 600 400 200 380 ppm 550 ppm • Is leaf protein lower? • Nodulation rates: 6% higher significant?? • Mycorrhizae colonisation: 5% higher ns?
  12. 12. 12/20ANU study: More cyanide relative protein atelevated CO2…ONLY with +P 370 ppm 12 700 ppm 10 Cyanide : protein 8 6 4 2 0 -N-P -N+P +N+PGleadow et al. 2009 J Chem. Ecol 35, 476Edwards & Evans 2005 Global Change Biol.11, 1968
  13. 13. 13/20 Nutrient cyanogenesis trials 1.2 1.0 CN-N/N% 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 HP:HN HP:LN LP:HN LP:LN Nutrient Treatment • N15/N14 isotopes – P improved N fixation High P: 0.125g/kg – Fixed N used to make HCN Low P: 0.025g/kg High N: 8mM Low N: 2mMIsherwood, 2010 HONS THESIS
  14. 14. 14/20Conclusion: nutritional value IS affected by eCO2 • Leaf composition – Less leaf protein – Increased cyanide, relative to protein – Increase tannins, phenolics • Soil environment is crucial • Microbes important in nutrient acquisition …How will elevated CO2 affect these symbioses??? VIEWPOINT: Cavagnaro, Gleadow, Miller (2011) Functional Plant Biology 38, 87–96
  15. 15. 15/20 Monash Cyanogenesis GroupCollaborators Cecilia Blomstedt Tim CavagnaroUniversity of Copenhagen Rebecca Miller Birger Møller Kirsten Jørgensen, Morten Møldrup Alan Neale John HamillRSB (ANU) Anna Burns John Evans, Stephanie McCaffrey Natalie O’Donnell Howard Bradbury, Bill Foley Cara Griffiths Sam FromholdPacific Seeds Melissa Bain Peter Stuart, Wayne Chesser Siobhan IsherwoodMozambique/South Africa Kiara O’Gorman Julie Cliff UEM Anabela Zacarias, IIAM FUNDING Simon Adams (Monash) ARC Linkage AusAIDUniversity of Melbourne Finkel Foundation Saman Sereweena (AGFACE) Ian Woodrow, Jennifer Fox Monash University CasstechDPI: AGFACE Pacific Seeds

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