Challengesand opportunities for nitrogen emission reduction strategies - Mark Sutton
Challenges and opportunitiesfor nitrogen emissionreduction strategiesMark Sutton and Oene Oenema(co-chairs TFRN)Air Science Policy Forum 15 April 2013, Dublinwww.clrtap-tfrn.org
Nitrogen oxides(NOx)Nitrous Oxide(N2O)Ammonia(NH3)Leached Nitrate(NO3-)Further emissionof NOx & N2Ocarrying onthe cascadeNatural ecosystemsAmmonium nitratein rain (NH4NO3)Nitrate in streams,groundwater &coastal seasHigh temperaturecombustion& industryNrLivestock farmingfor foodNr inmanureEventualdenitrificationto N2Simplified view of the Nitrogen CascadeUnintendedN flowsN form inthe cascadeTerrestrialEutrophicationFreshwater EutrophicationGreenhousegas balanceParticulateMatterTroposphericozoneformationStratosphericozone lossSoil acidificationUrban airqualityMarine EutrophicationEnvironmentalconcern from NrSutton et al. (2011 ENA)FertilizermanufactureCrops for food &animal feedCrop biologicalnitrogen fixationIntendedN flow
Challenges & OpportunitiesChallenges• Nitrogen flows are interlinked: Need to avoid pollutionswapping• Much of the problem is related to agriculture, especiallylivestock (80% harvested N to animals)Opportunities• Nitrogen flows are interlinked: Opportunity for synergy inreducing multiple impacts• Opportunity to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency• Many mitigation opportunities in agriculture still available!
Nitrogen biodiversity and carbon sequestrationMoninea Bog, Natura 2000 Site, Northern Ireland
Threats to ecosystem servicesand recovery prospects• Timescales of recovery vary substantially• Fast recovery possible (order 10 years)– Epiphytic biodiversity– Heathland (with active restoration)• Slow recovery (several decades)– Forest ground flora (dynamic models…)– Peatland carbon sequestration…
Summary of N flows in EuropeHumannutrit.agricultsoilsLivestockfarmingAtmospheric N2 poolCropproductionAtmdepos184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.03.1Net import offood & feed2CropN2fixFertilizers11.23.8NH3,NOx& N2OemissionDenitrifi-cationN2 fixindust& traffic3.4Europe (EU27), around 2000. N fluxes in TgN/yrExport byrivers tothe seaNet atmosph.export18.104.22.168.84622.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1Semi-nat.soilsNatN2fixWoodexp.Atmospheric NH3,NOx, N2OwwtLeaching& runoff0.32.41.40.188.8.131.52.76432157ENA, 2011
Agriculture1. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop production2. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in animal production3. Increasing the fertilizer N equivalence value of animal manureTransport and Industry4. Low-emission combustion and energy-efficient systemsWaste water treatment5. Recycling nitrogen (and phosphorus) from waste water systemsSocietal consumption patterns6. Energy and transport saving7. Lowering the human consumption of animal proteinSeven key actions for betternitrogen managementENA, 2011 and Nature 14 April 2011The Way Forward:More efficient N use saves farmers moneyreducing nitrogen air pollution,while being needed to meet Parties’commitments for climate and water pollution
Short-term needs- Updating of the Ammonia Guidance Document- Options for the revision of Annex IX on AmmoniaLong-term needs- Development of integrated perspective on nitrogen- European Nitrogen Assessment- New Guidance Document on Nitrogen Budgets- Nitrogen and the Green EconomyTask Force on Reactive Nitrogencontributions to UNECE CLRTAP
Targets Emissions reduction targets (% decrease from reference) Thresholds Farm size (EU: 72% cattle on 13% farms), Tanker size for manure spreading (IE: 60% with >10 m3)Annex IX measures:ambition levels and thresholds
Overview of costs of ammoniaabatement measuresMeasures Cost, €/kg NH3-N savedNitrogen management -1.0 to 1.0Feeding strategies -0.5 to 1.0Animal housing 0.0 to 10.0Covering slurry storages 0.1 to 4.0Slurry application -0.5 to 3.0Urea application -0.1 to 4.0
5 top prioritiesfor ammonia mitigation1. Low-emission land application of manure & fertilizer:a) Application of cattle, pig & poultry slurry & solid manureb) Low emission use of urea fertilizer (ban is not proposed)2. Animal feeding strategies to reduce N excretion, fromcattle, pig & poultry.3. Low-emission techniques for all new manure stores forcattle and pig slurries and poultry manure.4. Strategies to improve N use efficiencies and reduce Nsurpluses, with N balances on demonstration farms,5. Low-emission techniques in new and largely rebuilt pig& poultry housing.
Slurry spreading:a wide range of low-emissiontechniques are availableThe car and the exhaust pipe…Splash Plate Spreader- 1950s technologyTrailing Shoe Slot InjectorTrailing Hose
EU benefit-cost ratios forNH3 and NOx mitigationVan Grinsven et al. (2013, ES&T in press)NH3NOx
Concluding remarks Low-cost nitrogen mitigation must increasinglyfocus on ammonia. The options have been described in detail inthe draft Annex IX and the UNECE GuidanceDocument. Ammonia abatement is part of improvingNitrogen Use Efficiency, helping meet climate& water pollution targets, with significanteconomic benefits.