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  1. 1. Philosophy of Education the love of wisdom “ Philosophy begins with wonder” Socrates EDUU510 Notes from Those Who Can, Teach, Ryan and Cooper Cengage Learning -
  2. 2. Questioning and Reasoning The philosopher’s product is thought. The method or process of the philosopher is questioning and reasoning.
  3. 3. Metaphysics <ul><li>Explain the real world and the nature of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Does life have meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a purpose to life? </li></ul><ul><li>Are human beings free or totally determined? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a set of enduring principles that guide the universe? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Epistemology <ul><li>Deals with knowledge and ways of knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>What is truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Skeptics question our capacity to ever really know the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Agnostics are convinced that true knowledge of ultimate realities is </li></ul><ul><li>an empty hope. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Focuses on the nature of values. </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonists seek pleasure in living for the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Stoics have austere way of looking at life, unaffected by pleasure or pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics examine morality and rules of conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics deal with questions of beauty and art. </li></ul>Axiology
  6. 6. Logic <ul><li>Deals with reasoning and modes of arguing that bring us to valid conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reasoning through syllogisms - from general proposition to the particulars or deduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive Reasoning through discovery - General proposition is derived from the particulars or induced. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Perennialism - Nature and truth are constant and changeless. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressivism - Nature is ever changing and knowledge must be continually redefined and rediscovered. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentialism - Essential knowledge is needed to live well in the physical world. </li></ul><ul><li>Existentialism - We define our own human potential. </li></ul>Schools of Educational Philosophy
  8. 8. Perennialism <ul><li>Nature and human nature in particular remains the same throughout history. </li></ul><ul><li>Education develops a person’s rationality. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture of the intellect is essential role of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are task masters, presenting knowledge and setting the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical thought is emphasized through the study of history, language, literature, humanities, science, & arts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Perennialism <ul><li>Eurocentric view of knowledge and culture criticized because contributions are “dead, white, male writers and thinkers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Paideia Proposal - All men should seek a state of human excellence, enlightenment, goodness. </li></ul><ul><li>All children should have classical education that is rigorous, demanding, & disciplined. </li></ul><ul><li>Value traditional education that conserves the wisdom of the past. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Perennialist Teacher <ul><li>Passes on the next generation the accumulated wisdom of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivates rational powers through contact with the culture’s best. </li></ul><ul><li>Values and imitates cultures of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Student is there to learn what is taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is based on materials reflecting universal and recurring themes that cultivate rationality and deductive thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies the classics of Western culture. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>John Dewey - Father of Progressivism </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy and Education are identical, both involving the practical, experimental attempt to improve the human condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Major impact on the concept of the democratic American education ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Views the mind as a problem solver. </li></ul><ul><li>People are naturally exploring, inquiring entities and learn through direct experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Student must master the scientific method. </li></ul>Progressivism
  12. 12. <ul><li>Value of knowledge resides in the ability to solve human problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter provides information and methodologies for finding solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is an intellectual guide or facilitator in the problem solving process. </li></ul><ul><li>School is a democratic society in itself, preparing students for community life. </li></ul><ul><li>Group activities and group problem solving to prepare for solving world problems. </li></ul>Progressivism
  13. 13. <ul><li>Develops problem solving abilities and inductive thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>School is a small democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps children do what they want to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates students to plan and carry out activities and research projects using group processes and democratic procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Is facilitator and resource for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn by doing and discovering. </li></ul><ul><li>Center on students’ interests in real problems. </li></ul>The Progressive Teacher
  14. 14. <ul><li>Idealism - Learn the essential ideas and knowledge needed to live well. </li></ul><ul><li>Realism - Mind learns through contact with the physical world. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential skills and practical knowledge needs to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Value the past but not captured by it as in perennialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should focus on the basics or established disciplines - the 3Rs. </li></ul>Essentialism
  15. 15. <ul><li>The role of the student is that of the listener and the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual child’s interest, motivations, and psychological states are not important. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects should stress usefulness and work should be task oriented and disciplined. </li></ul><ul><li>School is a place where children come to learn what they need to know and develop the skills needed to succeed in life. </li></ul>Essentialism
  16. 16. <ul><li>Teaches essential knowledge and is task oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids methodological frills and soft pedagogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrates on sound, proven instructional methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is the expert and students are there to listen and learn what they need to know. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on basic skills and scholastic achievement. </li></ul>The Essentialist Teacher
  17. 17. Existentialism <ul><li>Existence comes before essence. </li></ul><ul><li>It is up to us to define ourselves in some sort of relationship to our existence and take responsibility for deciding who we are. </li></ul><ul><li>We should not accept any predetermined creed or philosophical system. </li></ul><ul><li>We exist as independent agents, determining who we are and what we should do. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Existentialism <ul><li>The quest for personal meaning and determining personal values is emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of human potential should be developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Students define life for themselves as individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Against both authority and group emphasis in education. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on personal, authentic thinking and involvement. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Existentialist Teacher <ul><li>Helps the child confront his or her freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses freedom and the responsibility to make individual choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to create a learning environment for students’ self-definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows student to make their own meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal education is a foundation for gaining personal freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes humanities and the arts while de-emphasizing science. </li></ul>