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Philosophies of education


Philosophy of education

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Philosophy of education

  1. 1. Guess the philosophy!
  2. 2. Can You See The Hidden Tiger?
  3. 3. Educational Philosophy • A set of values and beliefs about education that guide the professional behavior of educators It asks - What is the purpose of education?
  4. 4. What makes a teaching philosophy?
  5. 5. 3 Major Elements
  6. 6. What are your beliefs about teaching?
  7. 7. What are your beliefs about teaching?
  8. 8. What are your beliefs about teaching?
  9. 9. What are your beliefs about teaching?
  10. 10. 5 branches of philosophy Metaphysics - Curriculum, truth Epistemology - knowing, methods Axiology / Aesthetics - Art / literature / self Axiology / Ethics - character, values Logic - How curriculum is organized
  11. 11. Terminology Terminitus
  12. 12. Philosophies of Teaching
  13. 13. Guess the philosophy! Click and play each scene. Note down the educational philosophy you think it is. Then check and discuss.
  14. 14. Philosophies of Education AT THE MOVIES Perennialism Progressivism Social Reconstructivism Existentialism Essentialism
  15. 15. Perennialism • Develop the minds of rationale beings to control our emotions • Basic subject matter and “great works” are at the center – not the student • Human nature consistent so we should all have / experience the same core education • The teacher knows, the student shows (what they know) Further Reading
  16. 16. Perennialism A curriculum focused upon fundamental subject areas, but stressing that the overall aim should be exposure to history's finest thinkers as models for discovery. The student should be taught such basic subjects as English, languages, history, mathematics, natural science, philosophy, and fine arts. Character / Liberal education / Tradition
  17. 17. Alfred Adler • “There are thousands of degrees and variations, but it is always clearly the attitude of a person who finds his superiority in solving the complications of others.” Idealism / Character / Plato / Liberalism
  18. 18. Plato • 'And once we have given our community a good start,' I pointed out, ' the process will be cumulative. By maintaining a sound system of education you produce citizens of good character, and citizens of sound character, with the advantage of a good education, produce in turn children better than themselves and better able to produce still better children in their turn, as can be seen with animals.'
  19. 19. Essentialism • The school’s task is to teach mastery over a set core of “basic knowledge”. • Learning is hard work. Must drill, memorize, “know” the content. • The teacher is all knowing and the disciplinarian controlling the curriculum and students. Further Reading
  20. 20. Essentialism • “Everything that ever has been always will be, and everything that ever will be always has been.” - Kurt Vonnegut Realism / Canon / Truth /
  21. 21. Essentialism • A conservative stance to education that strives to teach students the knowledge of our society and civilization through a core curriculum. • to promote reasoning, train the mind, and ensure a common culture for all citizens
  22. 22. Albert Einstein • There are only a few enlightened people with a lucid mind and style and with good taste within a century. What has been preserved of their work belongs among the most precious possessions of mankind. We owe it to a few writers of antiquity (Plato, Aristotle, etc.) that the people in the Middle Ages could slowly extricate themselves from the superstitions and ignorance that had darkened life for more than half a millennium. Nothing is more needed to overcome the modernist's snobbishness than to read the original great minds.
  23. 23. Progressivism
  24. 24. Progressivism • The student’s world is the focus and starting point of education. • Learning is an active, democratic and social process. Knowledge is constructed by the student as they experiment and solve problems. • The teacher is a facilitator and guide. School is a reflection of the wider world. Further Reading
  25. 25. Progressivism • The student’s world is the focus and starting point of education. • Whole Child focus • Active rather than passive learning. Experimentation, discovery Constructivism / Experimentalism / Pragmatism / Bruner
  26. 26. Maria Montessori • “We cannot know the consequences of suppressing a child's spontaneity when he is just beginning to be active. We may even suffocate life itself. That humanity which is revealed in all its intellectual splendor during the sweet and tender age of childhood should be respected with a kind of religious veneration. It is like the sun which appears at dawn or a flower just beginning to bloom. Education cannot be effective unless it helps a child to open up himself to life.”
  27. 27. Social Reconstructivism • Schools should be “change agents” and educate students about their place in the world and how to change the world. • Community based learning, addressing real problems • Social action, critical thinking, praxis Further Reading
  28. 28. Social Reconstructivism Praxis / Activism / Critical Pedagogy / Freire / Giroux
  29. 29. Social Reconstructivism • Individual meaning is the focus • Ask questions, discover meaning • Where does the student stand regarding ideas?
  30. 30. Social Reconstructivism • Communal and cultural focus. • We are social beings. • Challenge the conventional world and discover one’s own place and freedom. • Active participation in the change of the world.
  31. 31. Paolo Freire • “Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.”
  32. 32. Existentialism My life makes no difference YET I can choose to make a difference to myself
  33. 33. Existentialism • Focus on the experiences of each individual, personal growth • A search for meaning • Raise the personal awareness of students towards their existence as “free agents” Humanism / Psychology / Logotherapy
  34. 34. Existentialism • emphasizes the ability of an individual to determine the course and nature of his or her life and the importance of personal decision making. • Help students “self-actualize” and become free agents who decide the course of their own lives Humanism / Psychology / Logotherapy Further Reading
  35. 35. Rollo May • "Human freedom involves our capacity to pause between the stimulus and response and, in that pause, to choose the one response toward which we wish to throw our weight. The capacity to create ourselves, based upon this freedom, is inseparable from consciousness or self- awareness."
  36. 36. Philosophies of Education AT THE MOVIES Perennialism Progressivism Social Reconstructivism Existentialism Essentialism
  37. 37. He who knows the Buddha, does not know the Buddha.
  38. 38.
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