Efficiency and Productivity of Water in Agriculture, Dr. Pasquale Steduto, FAO


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Dr. Pasquale Steduto, Deputy Director Land & Water Division Food & Agriculture Organization of the UN. His presentation at The Water Network's event on Efficient Use of Agricultural Water in Zurich on January 23, 2013

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Efficiency and Productivity of Water in Agriculture, Dr. Pasquale Steduto, FAO

  1. 1. Efficiency & Productivity of Water in Agriculture The conceptual framework Pasquale STEDUTO Deputy director Land & Water Division FAO, Rome
  2. 2. Drinking 2-4Domestic 40-400Food 1000-5000Strong & Inextricable Link between food and waterRoughly, 1 liter per Kcal
  3. 3. •  Population growth •  Dietary changes •  Urbanization •  Income •  ………•  Progressive water scarcity (food water)•  Increased climate variability and change
  4. 4. Supply side Expand arable land Increase intensification YieldIncrease Higher productivity (77%) Cropping Intensity Arable Land (14%) Expansion (9%)
  5. 5. Demand sideReduce losses and waste•  In post harvest (storage, transport, market)•  At home EU, avg waste of 179 kg p-1 y-1 Promote sustainable diets •  1,400 M overweight •  400 M obese
  6. 6. Bio-fuels Stocks reduction Energy costs increase Recurrent Droughts ………Conducive to more crop and waterproductivity (or water use efficiency)
  7. 7. e = out It is a-dimensional It has theoretical in (input-output same units) limits (0-1) It implies causality between input and output
  8. 8. It has specific units (e.g., Kg m-3) It has no 0-1 limitsNo causality between input and output
  9. 9. Wres_out/Wres_in   Wsoil-­‐stored/Wrain   Wfarm-­‐gate/Wres_out   Hydrology   Wcrop-­‐field/Wfarm-­‐gate   Wapplied/Wcrop-­‐field   Wroot-­‐zone/Wapplied   Wroot-­‐zone/Wsoil-­‐stored  Physiol.   Agron.   WET/Wroot-­‐zone   WT/WET   ‘e’ CO2  assimil./WT   WP Biomass/CO2  assimil.   Yield/Biomass  
  10. 10. •  Climatic environment •  GeneticsAbove-ground biomass (M ha-1) - season shift - A/T M5 - ET control - phenology - CO2 enrichment (B) - canopy M4 - roots (A) - resistances M3 M6 (D) M1 (A’) •  Management (E) - soil health (C) M2 - fertility - pest/dis/weed E2 E1 ET1 ET2 - water soil moisture Evapotranspiration (ET, mm) irrigation
  11. 11. technology New varieties management Land & Waterclimate Plant Nutrition Pest & disease From Sadras & Angus (2006)
  12. 12. Maize Productivity United States China Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa
  13. 13. Relationship between WP & Yield Water Productivity (Kg m-3) Land Productivity (Kg ha-1)
  14. 14. statistics modeling RS Socio-Econ.
  15. 15. •  World food demand in 2050 = today x 2•  Without increase in water productivity, or a significant reduction of the demand, water consumption in 2050 = today + 70-90%•  The World is exposed to a progressive and critical increase in water scarcity (+ climate change)•  To respond to the future food demand we need to act on both supply and demand side of the food equation
  16. 16. •  Without a comprehensive view of Y&WP, i.e., agronomy, technology, market, economy, etc. the risks of failures in responses are high•  Assessing Y&WP variability, and related causes, provides a strong basis for effective policies and strategies of interventions, for benchmarking and for monitoring progress•  This will provide better understanding of what is “manageable” from what is not and therefore prioritizing the policy measures and implementation strategies
  17. 17. Thank Youwww.fao.org/nr/water