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Environmental Impact mining Jiu Romania

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Environmental Impact mining Jiu Romania

  1. 1. Environmental impacts of mining and energy production in the Jiu river basin ISSWaP project, Jiu - Romania Remco van Ek – remco.vanek@deltares.nl Constantin Carlan – conacriro@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Characteristics of the Jiu river basin </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact of human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of mining and energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Characteristics of the Jiu river basin Location Craiova Targu Jiu Filiasi Drobeta-Turnu Severin Petrosani 2009 good poor Chemical status groundwaterbodies
  4. 4. 1. Characteristics of the Jiu river basin <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>16734 km 2 surface area </li></ul><ul><li>1,64 million inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>2300-24 m asl </li></ul><ul><li>1200 – 400 mm.yr -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Jiu annual discharge: 87.7 m 3 s -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Jiu river length 339 km </li></ul><ul><li>417 river courses (286 permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><li>60% of total lignite production in Romania </li></ul><ul><li>20% of total energy production </li></ul>General overview Petrosani Valea Jiului Rovinari Husnicioara Power plants
  5. 5. 1. Characteristics of the Jiu river basin Temperature [ ºC] Precipitation [mm/jr] Discharge [mm/jr] < 31 158-220 95-158 63-95 32-63 220-315 315-830 830-950 950-1260 Climate and hydrology -2 0 2 4 6 8 9 10 11 1000-1200 800-1000 700-800 600-700 400-600
  6. 6. 1. Characteristics of the Jiu river basin Hydrogeology Soils Underground and land use Carpathians: limestone and granite Valley: Sandy soils (coarse, fine) and confining layers (lignite, coal, clays) 300-500 m thick. Nutrient poor, acid sandy soils (podzols) Phreatic level ~ 5-8 m below surface level Close to river wet conditions Mountains: pine Hills: broadleaved forests Lower parts mostly extensive agriculture Land use Podzolic soils Alluvial clays Alluvial preluvo soils Chernozems Urban Industrial Agriculture Cultivated Forest
  7. 7. 2. Environmental impact of human activity Conceptual model
  8. 8. 2. Environmental impact of human activity <ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Mining & Power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>4. Climate change (drought) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Environmental impact of human activity <ul><li>1960–1989: economic development, deterioration water quality </li></ul><ul><li>1989: end of communist ruling, economic recession </li></ul><ul><li>1989-present: improvement water quality due to decreased environmental pressure and improved environmental policy (polluter pays). </li></ul><ul><li>However, historic pollution still present (NO 3 , NH 4 ) </li></ul>Agriculture Point sources Locally very high concentrations of NO3 or NH4 <ul><li>NH 4 of NO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>80-400 mg l -1 </li></ul><ul><li>in drinkwater wells </li></ul><ul><li>… even </li></ul><ul><li>> 600 mg l -1 !! </li></ul><ul><li>How deep in groundwatersystem? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Spreading? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences for land use and ecology? </li></ul>Diffuse sources Remnants of fertiliser factory
  10. 10. 2. Environmental impact of human activity Agriculture Underground active biological cleaning zone (permeable) , to protect downstream wells and ecosystems Former fertilizer company SNP-Doljchim Groundwater pollution plume Craiova Fly ash deposit Fly ash deposit Fly ash deposit 2500 ppm N-compounds (NH 4 of NO 3 )? Remnants of fertiliser factory
  11. 11. 2. Environmental impact of human activity BEN (Balkan Endemic Nephropathy) Erghevitza <ul><li>Causes? </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic compounds in groundwater due to leachate of lignite ? </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat contaminated with Aristolochia clematitis? </li></ul>Jiu <ul><li>Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, </li></ul><ul><li>parts of Bosnia and Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>Several thousands severely affected </li></ul><ul><li>kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Increased mortality after 40 jr </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Environmental impact of human activity Climate change: droughts Impacts are estimated for 2071-2100 relative to 1961-1990 ( IPCC SRES scenario A2 ). Jiu river basin dT > +4 o C; dP < 7%
  13. 13. 2. Environmental impact of human activity Climate change: droughts
  14. 14. 3. Impact of mining and energy production <ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><li>groundwater abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>deterioration of landscape and rural comm. </li></ul><ul><li>sediment load on Jiu river (hydropower) </li></ul><ul><li>instable dumps, underground </li></ul><ul><li>deterioration watersystem </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Rosia
  16. 16. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Rosia Pump capacity = 12.000 m 3 per hour Sediment load 25-70 mg per litre
  17. 17. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Rosia Sterile dump fixed with vegetation cover Dust problems Transformation from wet to dry slurry systems Ecological rehabilitation
  18. 18. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Lignite production/combustion (2008) Combustion and emission Harmfull gas emission from power plants <ul><li>Major emission from power plants on NO x , SO x , CO 2 , and PM 10, , but also NH3, VOC and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, ..) </li></ul><ul><li>Data on NO 2 and SO 2 shows increase between 1999 and 2003, and stabilization between 2003-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Overall reduction since 1989 (recession and environmental measures). </li></ul>NO 2 [tons/yr] SO 2 [tons/yr] <ul><li>Mortu: 6.6 million ton </li></ul><ul><li>Rovinari 6.3 million ton </li></ul><ul><li>Rosia-Pesteana 7.2 million ton </li></ul><ul><li>Husnicioara 3.1 million ton </li></ul>23,2 million ton per year ( ± ~4)
  19. 19. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Ash and slag deposits
  20. 20. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Ash and slag deposits Fly ash > 147 Mm 3 , ~1200 ha
  21. 21. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Area and Volumes Sterile dumps Slag & ash deposits Ecological rehabilitation of steril dumps Finished 700 – 1100 ha Planned 3224 ha 3123 6647 Total 202 394 Huniscioara 689 1284 Motru 785 1764 EMC Rosia 1097 2530 Rovinari 350 675 Turceni-Jilt Volume [million m3] Surface area [ha] Mining area > 147 1202 Total NA 120 CET II - Craiova NA 360 CET I – Isalnita 106 445 Rovinari 41 252 Turceni NA 25 ROMAG-Termo Volume [million m3] Surface area [ha] Power plant
  22. 22. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Fly ash composition <ul><li>Composition is variable (source!) </li></ul><ul><li>Pozzolanic (cementitious) properties </li></ul><ul><li>Non-hazardous waste , unless… (EWC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic trace elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved gypsum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depends on composition and speciation! </li></ul>Chemical composition [% of dry volume] Fly ash (dust) and bottom ash or coal ash (bottom furnish) Alkaline (pH 7-8), oxides (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , ..) and toxic compounds C = from lignite F = from coal Heavy metals (ppm) As (-) Pb (18-41) Cd (0.7-1.5) Sn ( <10) Co (16-80) Cu (24-65) Cr (170) Zn (24-210) Ni (140) Hg (-) Mn (48-422) Va (150-200) 4,0 2,5 4,0 1,3 2,2 3 0,5 MgO 1,5 1,9 1,5 - 0,3 0,5 - SO3 - 1,4 - ,9 Na2O - 1,0 - 0,8 K2O 21,7 23,4 21,7 26,4 29,6 21,8 25,2 Al2O3 8,0 8,8 8,0 10,7 6,9 9.6 15,3 Fe2O3 5,6 8,7 5,6 5,0 7,5 7,6 3,0 CaO 53,5 SC CE CRAIOVA II 48,6 SE CE ISALNITA 53,5 52,7 RAAN ROMAG TERMO 49,6 SC CE ROVINARI SA 51,6 56,1 SC CET TURCENI SA SiO2 Power plants
  23. 23. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Radioactivity Concentration [Bq/kg] Source: CEPROCIM S.A. I = radioactivity index C = concentration <ul><li>Index values for radioactivity exceed 0.5 limit </li></ul><ul><li>Rovinari fly ash has the highest index value </li></ul><ul><li>However, material can be raw material for secondary use </li></ul>Radio-active compounds are concentrated in the ash deposits No monitoring data on the spreading to the environment! Health risks not known… … may not be negligible - 140.9 258.7 316.2 - Ra 226 - 53.3 77.9 89.4 - Th 232 - 613.5 491.4 472.6 - K 40 - - SC CE CRAIOVA II 0.94 - SE CE ISALNITA 1,42 - RAAN ROMAG TERMO 1.66 - SC CE ROVINARI SA - - SC CET TURCENI SA I U 238 Power plants
  24. 24. 3. Impact of mining and energy production
  25. 25. 3. Impact of mining and energy production Source: USAID, 2005
  26. 26. 4. Conclusions <ul><li>Mining and associated power production is important for the energy production in the region but is also degrading the environment (air, soil, surface water, groundwater) </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement has been achieved (flue gas desulphering, electro filters, dry slurry systems) but this does not eliminate the pollution and waste caused in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>Below deposits groundwater pollution exists (mostly Mg/CaSO 4 ) but situation (lack of monitoring data) not exactly known (heavy metals?) </li></ul><ul><li>Topsoil surrounding power plants is likely to be affected by air pollution (radio-active material, heavy metals). However, no measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater is polluted with NO 3 and NH 4 through extensive use of fertilizers (point and diffuse sources). Measures are possible for point sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Degrading the environment is not without costs. Protection of soil and water is important to adapt to climate change and to shift to other economic possibilities for the region. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questions, discussion?

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