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Here's a powerpoint I created some time ago on Sustainability of Water and Wastewater provisions ~ presented to a Company in UK.

It may be of use or interest to someone and is a downloadable document ~ references are all cited and photo's I think are all creative commons or referenced :-)

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  • Sustainable Development: A view of the community that takes into account the links between the economy, the environment and the society.
  • and Weather Patterns.
    Climate change will result in less available water in summer. Population shifts will lead to localised supply problems.
  • urban pollution and its causes
    Materials we build our houses with – the lead, plastic, copper and galvanised iron that release harmful substances to sewers and drains. Materials we use in our homes in every aspect of everyday life – the furniture fillings, detergents, cleaners, personal care products and even medicines. Chemicals we either put down the drain directly or through washing clothes. Materials that businesses make and use – businesses from fast food to heavy industry. And the run-off from the amenities of modern life we completely take for granted – offices, shops, roads, car parks, cars themselves and the shampoos we use on them. Then there are the pathways into the water environment. Again, like the sources, the pathways are many, various, unnoticed and unnoticeable. They’re the direct discharges from licensed traders into foul water sewers. And direct discharges from unlicensed traders and businesses into foul sewers. They’re the diffuse run-off from all urban areas into surface water sewers – roofs, roads, pavements, parks, railway tracks, monuments. And they’re the diffuse run-off straight into ditches, streams and rivers…. and the washout of air pollution on to land and water; for example mercury from crematoria.
  • Anglers Conservation Association…a unique organisation which fights pollution and other damage to water environments throughout the UK. Water pollution kills hundreds of thousands of fish each year…They make polluters pay hundreds of thousands of pounds in compensation every year and secure injunctions to stop further damage.

    1. 1. Key Challenges to the Sustainability of Water and Wastewater Service Provision in the UK.
    2. 2. Sustain: to continue without lessening, to nourish, to allow to flourish.
    3. 3. Sustainable Development.
    4. 4. Each Day within UK: 16 billion litres water is collected, treated and supplied. 10 billion litres wastewater is collected and treated, returning it safely to the environment.
    5. 5. Key Challenges…
    6. 6. Selected Key Challenge 1
    7. 7. Climate Change!
    8. 8. “Over the last three years we have had some of the hottest, wettest and driest seasons on record instead of our usual kind and gentle climate.”
    9. 9. Extreme weather events, droughts, storms and floods will become more common and more intense.
    10. 10. “Climate change will impact every aspect of water services, from infrastructure to operations to demand to finances.”
    11. 11. Policies… • Climate Change Bill. • Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC)
    12. 12. The Water Industry’s contribution to Climate Change…
    13. 13. • The water industry is directly responsible for around 4 million tons of CO2 every year. ~ ½ % of UK total emissions. • Rising gradually year on year.
    14. 14. The hot water we use at home in baths, showers, washing machines and dishwashers (not including central heating) emits about 30 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. That’s over 5% of the UK’s total annual greenhouse gas emissions.
    15. 15. “We’re getting more efficient at abstracting, treating and supplying water and wastewater services. However, population and consumption growth along with increased standards are driving energy use up.”
    16. 16. Reservoirs will be impacted in terms not just of quantity, but operation, quality and structure.
    17. 17. Assets on the coast and in flood plains will be at more risk from floods, storm damage, coastal erosion and rises in sea level.
    18. 18. Existing sewerage systems were not designed to cope with climate change. Rainfall will be more intense and likely to overwhelm parts of the network and cause local flooding.
    19. 19. The Environment Agency estimates the costs of storm water management for England and Wales could be up to £20billion in the next 25 years.
    20. 20. In the South and South East drought is the most important issue facing many water companies. Ashtead, England, August 12, 2006.
    21. 21. Selected Key Challenge 2
    22. 22. Agricultural Pollution.
    23. 23. Farming uses ~ 75% of UK land. Agriculture contributes about 7% of total UK CO2 emissions.
    24. 24. Agricultural Pollution. • Diffuse - Artificial fertilizer residues, insecticides, herbicides, pesticides and farmyard waste. • Point Source - Milk spillage, silage liquor, cattle and pig slurry. • High nitrate concentrations are found in groundwater and may reach the EU Directive limit of 50mg/litre.
    25. 25. “Eutrophication" reduces oxygen in the water, de-creases plant and animal species and worsens water quality. The effects of possibly agricultural runoff in the Danube can be seen in this SeaWiFS image as the river empties into the Black Sea at the bottom of this image. (NASA).
    26. 26. DEFRA’s Catchment Sensitive Farming Initiative stresses the need for reduction of Pollution from Agriculture – Nitrates and Pesticides.
    27. 27. EU countries are obliged by law to meet the WFD (Water Framework Directive) objectives including achieving "good environmental status in all water bodies" by 2015.
    28. 28. The European Environment Agency says that nitrate drinking water limit values are exceeded in around one-third of all the groundwater bodies for which they have information. In many areas, levels are particularly high, with drinking water sources having to be abandoned or subject to expensive treatment. The same is true with pesticides.
    29. 29. “Currently the Water Framework Directive gives little incentive to reduce pollution from pesticides.”
    30. 30. • MEFRA - The Ministry of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs produced a "Code of Good Agricultural Practice” for farmers giving detailed advice on the treating, storing and applying of animal livestock waste, disposal of dirty water, fertilizers, fuel oil, sheep dip, pesticides, nitrates and disposal of animal carcasses. • Local farmers all have to produce a Farm Waste Management Plan to comply with pollution control regulations.
    31. 31. Selected Key Challenge 3
    32. 32. Non Agricultural Diffuse Water Pollution (NADWuP).
    33. 33. What is NADWuP? • Leaching from building materials e.g. Lead, plastic, copper and galvanised iron. • Chemicals we put down the drain or through washing clothes e.g. Detergents, cleaners, personal care products and even medicines. • Materials that businesses make and use – from fast food to heavy industry. • Run-off from offices, shops, roads, car parks, cars. • Washout of air pollution on to land and water e.g. mercury from crematoria.
    34. 34. Smoke, Pollution and Saharan Dust off Northern Europe (NASA).
    35. 35. “Currently no legislation controlling either household chemicals that pollute the environment or many products and processes used by business.” “Chemicals find their way into sewers and in some cases treatment works are not designed to cope.”
    36. 36. BUILDING Building sites cause about 625 water pollution incidences a day.
    37. 37. “Diffuse pollution can be more serious than point source pollution, because it is harder to prevent and it is more difficult to identify the source.” “People causing diffuse pollution may be unaware that they are causing a problem.”
    38. 38. The Environment Agency says Companies must take preventative measures against pollution.
    39. 39. • “It’s costly and harms the environment, therefore a challenge to a sustainable water supply.” • “It’s a challenge to our efforts to reduce our carbon footprint as an industry and as a society.” • “It’s a challenge to one living planet – because it’s damaging a finite resource.” Comments made by Water UK Chief Executive Pamela Taylor DIFFUSE WATER POLLUTION…
    40. 40. “The worse the pollution, the higher the cost of removing it to produce clean drinking water. What is most worrying is that the pollution and the potential costs are continuing to rise.”
    41. 41. The water industry contributes 3% of CO2 equivalent because of high energy needed for end-of-pipe treatment.
    42. 42. Some Solutions: • Tackle “Point Source Pollution”. • Enforce “Polluters Pay” strategy e.g. Water Act 2003 & within society e.g. Anglers Conservation Association. • Educate the Public.
    43. 43. Key Challenges…
    44. 44. Agricultural Pollution.
    45. 45. Non Agricultural Diffuse Water Pollution (NADWUP).
    46. 46. Other Challenges: • Security of Supply. • Keeping Up Standards of Water Quality. • Maintenance and Repair. • Influences of Population Growth. • Minimising Energy and Water Use. • Increasing Public Awareness of Water Issues. • Keeping Affordability. • Raising Awareness of Health Benefits of Water. • Strengthening Financial Investment.
    47. 47. Key Challenges as recognised by Water UK. • To achieve management of water resources that serves society and benefits the environment at reasonable cost. • To realise the potential public health benefit of low cost, high quality drinking water by improving access, awareness and perception. • To design future water regulation that is better at promoting customer service, environmental protection and economic development.
    48. 48. “The carrying capacity of the natural environment really does have its limits...!”
    49. 49. Thankyou for listening.
    50. 50. References: www.veoliawater.com/.../diagrams/519.htm http://www.ciria.org.uk/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/younessi/1090644100/ http://www.mccallie.org/science/mlancast/env_science/Field_and_Lab_Work/Student_Projects/zmjett/bioaccum.htm http://www.wyeuskfoundation.org/problems/diffuse-pollution.php http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/uk/1060769.stm http://www.burnham-on-sea.com/news/2006/elver-fisherman-banned-06-09-06.shtml http://www.flickr.com/photos/68948682@N00/213353342/ http://www.greenpeace.org/international/photosvideos/photos/pollutioncoalplantthailand www.undp-drp.org/drp/en/news_newsroom_story4_... dieoff.org/page13.htm www.bized.co.uk www.flickr.com veimages.gsfc.nasa.gov news.bbc.co.uk