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  1. 1. Computer Hardware,Software & Programming Presentation by:Rishek Singh Class:- XI-H Roll No:-28
  2. 2. This is a CPU (central processing unit) which is like the brains of the computer. It is the element that carries out the functions of the computer. This component communicates to the other components about the speed of the processing. Speed of processing is the clock speed that it has which can be different on each CPU and can be increased. The CPU function is the input which is the keyboard, the process which is the computer program being executed and the output is what you can see on the monitor.
  3. 3. This RAM (Random access memory) which makes your computer run. The more memory you have the faster the computer will run. Also it will help with the amount of applications that are running. This component communicates with other components for data storage. Its function is a temporary storage for data when the program is opened it is stored in the RAM. It will be much faster from looking through the hard drive with all of those Gbs to look through.
  4. 4. This is a power supply to all components that are on the motherboard. There are a number of different pin connectors that can connect to the motherboard depending on what type of motherboard you have. This component communicates to other components by supplying power to each component so they can run.
  5. 5. This is a motherboard which holds all the components together. It allows components to receive power and communicate with each other. This is the main unit where all components are connected and can communicate with each other component.
  6. 6. This is a graphics card and this is needed so you have something to look at on your monitor. Everything is passed through the graphics card and outputted through the monitor. The graphics card passes through the visuals that are being processed. The graphics card communicates with the motherboard to see what needs to be visualised onto he motherboard. If you use on board graphics it can take some of the RAM memory away. The graphics card has a VGA port or HDMI and the VGA cable will connect from the card to the monitor.
  7. 7. This is a heat sink which sits on top of the processor to coo down the processor so the processing can run smoothly. The processor will communicate with the heat sink to tell it when it needs cooling down.
  8. 8. This is a wireless network card so you can connect to the internet for your computer. This component communicates with the wireless feed from your router to connect to the internet. The network card has an Ethernet port slot for the cable to go in and then go to the router or switch. The network is put into a PCI slot on the motherboard and powered from.
  9. 9. This is a hard drive for storage of all your documents and operating system. This component communicates with the motherboard so that information is processed and saved to the output hard drive. The hard drive has a magnetic head which reads through all the disks on the hard drive and reads the data in binary code (01010101). The hard drive is connected to the motherboard with either SATA or IDE and also power from the power supply.
  10. 10. This is an optical drive which runs all CD ROMs. This component communicates with the CD ROM and communicates to the graphics card to see the end product form the CD that is inside the optical drive. The optical drive is also connect through either SATA or IDE which is connected to the motherboard.
  11. 11. The bios is another chip that is on the motherboard which is a piece of software that has all the settings of the computer. It has all the in depth information on the CPU like the clock speed and the MB in cache it has. The bios will allow you to overclock your CPU if needed to make your computer perform faster. It allows you to change any settings that you wish to change. The bios is stored in the ROM which is the read only memory where the data in the memory can not be modified like the bios which is a program that boots the computer in the ROM which is read only.
  12. 12. Introduction to Computer Software
  13. 13. Software & Hardware? • Computer Instructions or data, anything that can be stored electronically is Software. • Hardware is one that is tangible. The storage devices (Hard disk, CD’s etc.,), mouse, keyboard CPU and display devices (Monitor) are Hardware. For example: There is a problem in the Software implies – Problem with program or data
  14. 14. Types of Software System Software Application Software Open source Software and Proprietary Software
  15. 15. System Software: System Software includes the Operating System and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. System software is a term referring to any computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task. Example: Operating Systems, Compiler, Loader, Linker, Interpreter.
  16. 16. Application Software: Application Software includes programs that do real work for user. Example: Payroll systems, Inventory Control, Manage student database, Word Processor, Spreadsheet and Database Management System etc.,
  17. 17. Open Source Software: • Open source software (OSS) is computer software whose source code is available under a license that permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. • It is often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Well-known OSS products are Linux, Netscape, Apache, etc.,
  18. 18. Proprietary Software: • Proprietary software (also called non-free software) is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. Restrictions on use, modification and copying is achieved by either legal or technical means and sometimes both. • Proponents of proprietary software are Microsoft. • Ex: CAD, Nortan Antivirus etc.,
  19. 19. System Software: Operating System: • Operating System is a software, which makes a computer to actually work. • It is the software the enables all the programs we use. • The OS organizes and controls the hardware. • OS acts as an interface between the application programs and the machine hardware. • Examples: Windows, Linux, Unix and Mac OS, etc.,
  20. 20. System Software (contd): Compiler: A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language – the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language – the target language. Source Languages Target Languages ‘C’ language ‘C’ language ‘Pascal’ language Machine language FORTRAN language C++ language ADA language
  21. 21. System Software (contd): Loader: A loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs into memory, preparing them for execution and then executing them. The loader is usually a part of the operating system's kernel and usually is loaded at system boot time and stays in memory until the system is rebooted, shut down, or powered off. In Unix, the loader is the handler for the system call execve().
  22. 22. System Software (contd): Linker: A linker or link editor is a program that takes one or more objects generated by compilers and assembles them into a single executable program. Linkers can take objects from a collection called a library. The objects are program modules containing machine code and information for the linker. The linker takes care of arranging the objects in a program's address space.
  23. 23. System Software (contd): Interpreter: An interpreter is a computer program that translates and executes instructions written in a computer programming language line-by-line, unit by unit etc., An interpreter needs to be able to analyze, or parse, instructions written in the source language. Example: Lisp systems, etc.,
  24. 24. Application Software: Word Processors: Word processing is a tool that helps user in creating, editing, and printing documents. Word processors will normally have the following capabilities built into them: » Spell checking » Standard layouts for normal documents » Have some characters appear in bold print, italics, or underlined » Center lines, make text line up on the left side of the paper, or the right side of the paper » Save the document so it can be used again » print the document. Examples: WordPerfect and Microsoft Word
  25. 25. Application Software (contd…): Spreadsheets: The spreadsheet packages are designed to use numbers and formulas to do calculations with ease. Examples of spreadsheets include: » Budgets » Payrolls » Grade Calculations » Address Lists The most commonly used spreadsheet programs are Microsoft Excel and Lotus 123.
  26. 26. Application Software (contd…): Graphic Presentations: The presentation programs can make giving presentations and using overheads easier. Other uses include: » Slide Shows » Repeating Computer Presentations on a computer monitor » Using Sound and animation in slide shows The most recognized graphic presentation programs are Microsoft PowerPoint and Harvard Graphics.
  27. 27. Application Software (contd…): Database Management System (DBMS): • A DBMS is a software tool that allows multiple users to store, access, and process data into useful information. • Database programs are designed for these types of applications: » Membership lists » Student lists » Grade reports » Instructor schedules All of these have to be maintained so you can find what you need quickly and accurately. • Example:Microsoft Access, dBASE, Oracle.
  28. 28. Programming? • Series of instructions to a computer to accomplish a task • Instructions must be written in a way the computer can understand • Programming languages are used to write programs
  29. 29. What is programming? • Once the code (language) of a program has been written, it must be executed (run, started). • You may need to type the name of the program to start it, or use a word like RUN and the name of the program (in the old days, anyway).
  30. 30. What is programming? • Some programming languages (like Java or C++) require the code to be compiled (translated to binary) before it can be started. • Others (like JavaScript) are interpreted, meaning that each command is translated separately when the program is started.
  31. 31. What is a programming language? • Set of commands that a computer has been “taught” to understand • Languages that look like “machine code” (e.g., 82A8: jsr r5,@#82AE 82AC: sob r0,8296) are used for… – Writing games – Writing application programs (like Excel) • Other languages look like English (“high level,” e.g., PRINT “HELLO”) – Logo – JavaScript – And many more
  32. 32. What does programming look like? • Here are some examples of an instruction to print the word HI – – – – – – – – Logo PR [HI] JavaScript alert(“HI”); FORTRAN PRINT “HI” BASIC PRINT “HI” COBOL DISPLAY ‘HI’. C++ printf(“HI”); Pascal WRITELN(‘HI’); AssemblyXPRNT MESSAGE1 MESSAGE1 DC ‘HI’ Language
  33. 33. How do you write a program? • Decide what steps are needed to complete the task • Write the steps in pseudocode (written in English) or as a flowchart (graphic symbols) • Translate into the programming language • Try out the program and “debug” it (fix if necessary)
  34. 34. What is pseudocode? • List of steps written in English • Like the instructions for a recipe • Must be in the right sequence – Imagine saying “bake the cake” and then “mix it up”
  35. 35. Sample Pseudocode • Task: add two numbers • Pseudocode: – Start – Get two numbers – Add them – Print the answer – End
  36. 36. What does a flowchart look like? • The pseudocode from the previous slide would look like this as a flowchart: Start Print answer Get 2 numbers End Add them
  37. 37. What are those funny symbols? • START/END • INPUT/OUTPUT • PROCESS • DECISION
  38. 38. Decisions • An IF statement always has a condition to check, often a comparison between a variable and a number. • The IF statement also must specify what to do if the condition/comparison is true. • These instructions (for “true”) may come after the word THEN, or they may simply be listed.
  39. 39. Decisions • In an IF THEN statement, when the condition is false, the program simply ignores the THEN commands and continues to the next line. • In an IF THEN ELSE statement, commands are given for both the true and false conditions.
  40. 40. Functions • In most programming languages, small subprograms are used to perform some of the tasks. • These may be called functions, subroutines, handlers, or other such terms. • Functions often have names (e.g., getName or CALCTAX).
  41. 41. Functions • A function generally gets information from the main program, performs some task, and returns information back to the program. • Functions follow the same rules of syntax, etc. as the main program. • JavaScript code is primarily made of a series of functions.