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Basic computer hardware and software

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Introduction to Computer hard ware and Software, How to do the SIMnet Lessons homework

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Basic computer hardware and software

  1. 1. Basic Computer Hardware and Software. PROFESSOR AHMED AL ZAIDY
  2. 2. What is a Computer  Hardware  Software
  3. 3. Computer Process  Input  Process  Output  Storage
  4. 4. Input Devices  Input Devices: devices that input information into the computer such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, and digital camera.
  5. 5. Output Devices  Output: devices that output information from the computer such as a printer and monitor.
  6. 6. Central Processing Unit  CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called the Microprocessor or “The Brain” of the Computer.  Processor speed: The speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. This is usually measured in megahertz (MHz).  Brands of Processors include: Pentium Celeron MAC AMD Cyrix
  7. 7. Central Processing Unit  Computer chip: also called the microprocessor may contain an entire processing unit.  Computer chips contain millions of transistors. They are small pieces of semi- conducting material (silicon).  An integrated circuit is embedded in the silicon. Computers are made of many chips on a circuit board.
  8. 8. Data Storage Devices  The hard-drive is a mechanical storage device typically located internally. Fast recording and recovery of data Large storage capacity Magnetic Primary storage device for data and programs Speed is measured in R.P.M.’s
  9. 9. Capacity of Storage  Binary 0101010 each value BIT  8Bit= Byte  1024 B=KB  1024Kb= MB  1024 MB= GB  1024 Gb = TB  1024 TB= PB  8  16  32  64  128  256  512  1024
  10. 10. Data Storage Devices (cont’d)  CD-ROM (compact disk read only memory)  Approximately 600 to 700 megabyte of storage  An optical device read by a diode laser
  11. 11. Data Storage Devices (cont’d)  Floppy diskette is magnetic storage device for small amounts of data (1.44MB).  FLASH drive is a compact and portable electronic storage device.  USB (plug and play) supported
  12. 12. Computer Memory  Computer memory is binary (0 or 1) (on or off).  The byte is the standard unit of measurement.  A byte is composed of 8 bits (binary digits).  Typical units of measurement: 1 KB (kilobyte) = 1000 bytes 1 MB (megabyte) =1000 kilobytes or 1 million bytes 1 GB (gigabyte) =1000 megabytes or 1 billion bytes
  13. 13. Computer Memory  RAM (random access memory) stores data that is processing. This type of memory is erased when the computer is turned off.  ROM (read only memory) contains special instructions for the computer to operate.  Cache memory increases the speed of the processor by recording and anticipating instructions.
  14. 14. Introduction to Computer Software
  15. 15. Software & Hardware?  Computer Instructions or data, anything that can be stored electronically is Software.  Hardware is one that is tangible. The storage devices (Hard disk, CD’s etc.,), mouse, keyboard CPU and display devices (Monitor) are Hardware. For example: There is a problem in the Software implies – Problem with program or data
  16. 16. Types of Software System Software Application Software `
  17. 17. System Software: System Software includes the Operating System and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. System software is a term referring to any computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task. Example: Operating Systems, Compiler, Loader, Linker, Interpreter.
  18. 18. Application Software: Application Software includes programs that do real work for user. Example: Payroll systems, Inventory Control, Manage student database, Word Processor, Spreadsheet and Database Management System etc.,
  19. 19. System Software: Operating System:  Operating System is a software, which makes a computer to actually work.  It is the software the enables all the programs we use.  The OS organizes and controls the hardware.  OS acts as an interface between the application programs and the machine hardware.  Examples: Windows, Linux, Unix and Mac OS, etc.,
  20. 20. Application Software: Word Processors: Word processing is a tool that helps user in creating, editing, and printing documents. Word processors will normally have the following capabilities built into them: Spell checking Standard layouts for normal documents Have some characters appear in bold print, italics, or underlined Center lines, make text line up on the left side of the paper, or the right side of the paper Save the document so it can be used again print the document. Examples: WordPerfect and Microsoft Word
  21. 21. Application Software (contd…): Spreadsheets: The spreadsheet packages are designed to use numbers and formulas to do calculations with ease. Examples of spreadsheets include: Budgets Payrolls Grade Calculations Address Lists The most commonly used spreadsheet programs are Microsoft Excel and Lotus 123.
  22. 22. Application Software (contd…): Graphic Presentations: The presentation programs can make giving presentations and using overheads easier. Other uses include: Slide Shows Repeating Computer Presentations on a computer monitor Using Sound and animation in slide shows The most recognized graphic presentation programs are Microsoft PowerPoint and Harvard Graphics.
  23. 23. Application Software (contd…): Database Management System (DBMS):  A DBMS is a software tool that allows multiple users to store, access, and process data into useful information.  Database programs are designed for these types of applications: Membership lists Student lists Grade reports Instructor schedules All of these have to be maintained so you can find what you need quickly and accurately.  Example:Microsoft Access, dBASE, Oracle.

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