Jill CastekDigital/New LiteracyYou will be able to:explain the components ofDigital/New Literacygive examples of how you can useNew Literacy strategies/activitiesto enhance your readinginstruction
Dr. Jill Castek• TITLE: Research Assistant ProfessorAREA: Applied Linguistics — Literacy, Language, &Technology Research GroupPortland State CollegeWEBPAGE: https://sites.google.com/site/jillcastek/• EDUCATIONPh.D., Educational Psychology University of ConnecticutM.S., Reading Specialist California State University, East BayB.A., Liberal Studies University of Pittsburgh• Jill’s work explores the instructional techniques and digital tools that can be used tosupport reading, writing, and content learning. Her research examines the newliteracies of online reading comprehension and explores the challenges andopportunities for reading, writing, and learning on the Internet. Jill has worked as aclassroom teacher, reading specialist, and curriculum leader where she has supportedthe literacy development of striving readers and writers for more than a decade.
• Take 5 minutes and look at theselected text. What readingstrategies/skills do students need tosuccessfully comprehend this offlinetext? Discuss with your partner andjot some notes• Take 5 minutes and searchdinosaurs on the internet. As younavigate the text, think about whatreading strategies/skills do studentsneed to successfully comprehendthis offline text? Discuss with yourpartner and jot some notes
NewLiteraciesResearchTeamDonald Leu, directs the New Literacies Research Labin the Neag School of Education, University ofConnecticutJulie Corio, PhD from University of Connecticut,Assistant Professor at University of Rhode IslandJill Castek, Ph.D., Educational PsychologyUniversity of Connecticut , Research AssistantProfessor in Applied Linguistics — Literacy,Language, &Technology Research at Portland StateCollegehttp://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/
What is DigitalLiteracy?• Wikipedia’s definitionDigital literacy is the ability to effectively andcritically navigate, evaluate and createinformation using a range of digitaltechnologies. It requires one "to recognizeand use that power, to manipulate andtransform digital media, to distributepervasively, and to easily adapt them tonew forms".
Lowercase theory-new literacies• Collaborative approach taking in multipleperspectives from collaborative groups that arediverse with multiple perspectives• Lowercase (new literacies) explore specific area ofnew literacies/technology. They explore focuseddisciplinary based/conceptual approaches, newliteracy studies
Uppercase- NewLiteracy Theory• Goal is to look at the total field (lowercase theories and studies) ofNew Literacy and look for the common findings and patternsPrinciples of Uppercase Theory of New Literacies• The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy andlearning within our global community.• The Internet and related technologies require additional newliteracies to fully access their potential• New Literacies are deictic (ever changing meaning)• New Literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted• Critical literacies are central to new literacies• New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies• New social practices are a central element of New Literacies• Teachers become more important, though their role changes, withinnew literacy classrooms.
University of Connecticuts Neag School ofEducation has received a $1.8 million 3-yearresearch grant from the U.S. Department ofEducations Institute of Education Sciences (IES) tostudy the new literacies of reading comprehensionon the Internet• The New Literacies Research Team, headed by Dr.Donald Leu, with Dr. David Reinking collaboratingfrom Clemson University– Among students in our target population, what isthe nature and frequency of reading on theInternet inside and outside school?– Among students in our target population, whatcomprehension strategies, orientations, andpatterns of use are evident as they engage inlocating, evaluating, synthesizing, andcommunicating information on the Internet?– What type of instrument can reliably and validlymeasure online reading comprehension?
Defining Online ReadingComprehension:Using Think Aloud VerbalProtocols To Refine APreliminary Model of InternetReading ComprehensionProcessesLeu, Reinking, et al., 2005•Used verbal protocols with think-alouds to gatherinformation about the reasoning that occurred asstudents gathered information online to solve problems•53 seventh-grade students selected from 1,100 students•Students’ online reading actions were recorded using ascreen capture program-Camtasia•Data from recordings, transcripts of reflections, andfollow-up interviews were coded and analyzed to searchfor patterns
Major skill sets neededfor online reading comprehension• Developing questions• Locating information• Evaluating information• Synthesizing information• Communicating information• With additional online skills• Along with offline reading strategies
Developing Questions• Students need to understandthe question to research
Locating InformationPlease type octopus into the search engine, is this efficient/effective?Effective practices• Turn questions into key word/phrases• Strategic reading not ―click and look‖• TICA (Teaching Internet Comprehension to Adolescents)identified 3 search-and-locate tactics that use a higher level ofstrategic thinking1. Description reading- action based on specific reading of searchresults2. Touring results page, action based on scrolling through resultspage prior to close reading /keywords3. URL reading- action based on specific reading of URLs.com/.edu/ .gov
Evaluating• http://www.zapatopi.net/treeoctopus/• What skills do students needwhen they read this page?Determine accuracy- evaluating the extent to which informationcontains factual and updated details that can be verified byconsulting alternative and primary sourcesDetermine bias- evaluating information in relation to the stance anauthor takesDetermining relevancy- evaluating information in relation to itsutility or relevancy to the question or problemDetermine site reliability- evaluating the trustworthiness of awebsite on the basis of its publisher and author information
SynthesizingInformation• Can be challenging tosynthesize efficiently internettext• Vast amount of information• Need to decide what isrelevant/how much is needed todraw conclusions
CommunicatingInformation• Online readers do NOT justread, they communicate withothers continuously to help themprocess what they are learning• Involves a range of online tools– Podcasts– Blogs– Instant message– E-mails– Wikis/Google docs
Developing an Onlinecommunity of readers• Online book clubs– ePals Book Club (Charron study)– Planet Book Talk•Online Pen Pals•Collaborative Online Projects
Castek, How do 4th and 5th grade studentsacquire the new literacies of online readingcomprehension? Doctoral dissertation,University of Connecticut, 2008• Found positive effects for 4th/5thgraders who were instructedusing IRT and laptops• Experimental group showedsignificantly greater gains inonline research andcomprehension• Effect size 1.58
Internet ReciprocalTeaching (IRT)• basic strategies + internet strategiesPalinscar & Brown, 1984/ NewLiteracies Research Team– Predict -Use ? to locate– Question -Evaluate– Clarify -Synthesize– Summarizing -Communicate
Internet ReciprocalTeaching (IRT)• Phase 1– Provide whole-class instruction onbasic skills/strategies of Internet use• Phase 2– Provide individual inquiry units (canhave collaboration) and sharingsessions• Phase 3– Provide group work/reciprocalexchanges of online readingstrategies
IRT conclusions• Students required differentlevels of support at differentpoints during the implementation• Developed a checklist• http://mnli12.wikispaces.com/Internet+Reciprocal+Teaching• “Navigating the Cs ofChange”– J. Gregory McVerry, Lisa Zawilinski and W. IanOByrne
Jill Castek, portfolio• Castek website for IRT• Castek handout on IRT• Video clips• Strategies for Critically Evaluating Websites
Castek’s current work• The Literacybeat CollaborativeFormed a group with Dana Grisham, Jill Castek, Bernadette Dwyer,Bridget Dalton, and Thomas DeVere Wolsey• ―Using Multimedia to Support GenerativeVocabulary Learning‖• ―Using Apps to Support DisciplinaryLiteracy and Science Learning‖• IRA’s Technology in Literacy EducationSpecial Interest Group (TILE-SIG)• ―Using peer collaboration to supportonline reading, writing, andcommunication‖
Using Multimedia toSupport GenerativeVocabulary Learning• Use digital media in vocabulary , not only receptivebut also generative (actively engages students inusing lang to express themselves/create productsthat represent their new knowledge)• Empowers students to beagents of their ownlearning, Authenticreasons, linksreading, writing, andcommunicating
Vocabulary cont• Multimedia Learning Theory(Mayer, 05) Multimodal wordlearning, combining pictures andwords,• Zhao and Lai (2008) technology can be used to facilitatevocabulary acquisition through digital multimedia(video/internet) provides meaning and authenticcommunication opportunities
Vocabulary activities• vocabulary videos (vocab vids)• Show examples of 60 sec or less vocab vids• Make video with guidance• Divide into teams of three, 5 mins to planonline thesaurus, visual dictionary(visualdictionaryonline.com) for related wordsand potential contexts, make sign of the wordat the end• As alternative, can use xtranormal.com orgoanimate.com, vocabahead.com• Can give additional time for an alternativemeaning of the same word• Post on class blog, Powerpoint word glossary
Designing MultimediaHypertext Versions of Poems,Quotes, or Short Text ExcerptsUnpack meaning of figurative language withinpoems/passages, students in creating hypertextversions of the text that include links to other media• 1st layer-original text• 2nd layer(hyperlinked)- students’ personalconnections and interpretations• Works in partner groups/ discussion• Powerpoint/ wordsift.com• Example
• Teacher- Create a three-slide Power Pointtemplate– Slide 1 explains the task and how to make ahyperlink within the slide show– Slide 2 introduces example– Slide 3 provides the actual text to beexpanded with vocabulary hyperlinks• Student– Save the template with their own file name– delete the sample slide– Add hyperlinks to represent personal thinking,additional information, definitions, etc.
Using Apps to SupportLiteracy• Apps help literacy practices:Collaboration, multimodality, and sharedproductivity• Collaboration- peers collaboratively sharingcompeting claims and evidence• Multimodality- the ability to carefully observeand identify specific multimodal, visualfeatures of a phenomenon to explain it• Shared productivity- ability to produce reportsor products to share publicly with others.
Collaboration:• Screencasting apps, ShowMe, VoiceThread, Diigo,Evernote,Multimodal:• Common Core- students develop the ability tointerpret and communicate information visuallythrough the use of images, photos, graphs, orfigures• Students use both text and images to illustrate theirideas. Fosters the transfer between visual modesand students’ collaborative verbal and /or writtensharing of ideas• iBooks Author app (create books for sharing), ePub,screenchomp, educreations interactive whiteboard
Sharing of Productions:• Students need to learn to convince their audience ofthe validity of their arguments• Move from context of interpreting to the context ofconvincing others of the validity of thoseinterpretations.• So when selecting images/videos, students need toconsider whether that image and their drawings willprovide evidence to help sell their claim to theaudience.