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  1. 1. Living the Dream: “The Library Connects it all and Makes it Happen” Dr Ross J Todd Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL) School of Communication & Information Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey [email_address] www.cissl.rutgers.edu www.twitter.com/RossJTodd www.facebook.com/RossJTodd
  2. 2. J. F. Kennedy’s Dream <ul><li>“ The problems of the world cannot possibly be solved by skeptics or cynics whose horizons are limited by the obvious realities. We need men (and women!) who can dream of things that never were”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Making of Dreams: What’s Trending? <ul><li>Educational preparedness of young people for living and working? </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation of information provision & access: digital devices / mobile technology </li></ul><ul><li>Changing arena of content publishing / delivery: apps-driven content delivery; questions centering on content production, purchase, distribution & usage rights; </li></ul><ul><li>Changing culture of reading / literacy development </li></ul><ul><li>New technology frontiers for learning: virtual learning worlds, online schooling, virtual gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Creative pedagogies centering on information-based inquiry & development of intellectual engagement and intellectual rigor in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Common Core Standards </li></ul><ul><li>The ongoing closure of school libraries: questions of future, function, format, facilities, funding </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fundamental Questions … Digital Youth. Information Worlds. Creative Technologies. Inquiry Learning. School Futures
  5. 5. Gen Next: An Information and Learning Future That is Better Than Today
  6. 7. Mary Gaver: 50 Years of Research “ With the school library literally the heart of the educational program, the students of the school have their best chance to become capable and enthusiastic readers, informed about the world around them, and alive to the limitless possibilities of tomorrow.” Mary Gaver, 1958 Gaver, M. Every child needs a school library. Chicago, ALA, 1958 Gaver, M. Effectiveness of Centralized Library Service in Elementary Schools. Rutgers University, 1963
  7. 8. One Common Goal: Student Learning New Jersey Research Study
  8. 10. One Common Goal: Student Learning New Jersey Research Study <ul><li>The overall research agenda (Phases 1 and 2) seeks: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) to construct a picture of the status of New Jersey’s school libraries in the educational landscape of New Jersey; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) to understand the contribution of quality school libraries to education in New Jersey; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) to understand the contextual and professional dynamics that enable school libraries to contribute significantly to education in New Jersey, and </li></ul><ul><li>(d) to make recommendations to NJ stakeholders to develop a sustained and long term program of capacity building and evidence-based continuous improvement of school libraries in New Jersey. </li></ul>
  9. 11. NJ Research: Phase 1: Benchmarking <ul><li>Extent and levels of staffing, both professional and paraprofessional </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and extent of information resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and extent of technology infrastructure, its use and levels of technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and literacy initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional and curriculum activities : information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement in instructional collaborations, co-ordinations and co-operations </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum engagement, professional development within and outside of the school </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions the impact of the school library on student learning outcomes and achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges, barriers and enables to professional school library work </li></ul>
  10. 12. Conceptual Framework
  11. 13. Sample <ul><li>Number of Responses: 782, including 13 duplicates, 1 declining to participate, 3 invalid ones </li></ul><ul><li>Responses used for analysis: 765 </li></ul><ul><li>30% of public school libraries of NJ (based on NJ DOE school directory) </li></ul><ul><li>Public 739 (97%); Private 26 (3%); Charter 0 (0%) </li></ul><ul><li>728 (95%) were professional librarians ; others were Reading teacher; Teacher; Technology coordinator; Literacy lab coordinator; Library support staff </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary online survey, 103 questions </li></ul>
  12. 14. Key Characteristics <ul><li>84.5% state certified school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>52.5% have some level of support staff, more likely in high schools </li></ul><ul><li>70.9% responsibility for technical hardware support, not just in school library </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of cooperations, coordinations and instructional collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>- 19,320 cooperations (av 27) </li></ul><ul><li>- 11,179 coordinations (av 15) </li></ul><ul><li>- 3,916 instructional collaborations (av 5) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Main Curriculum areas where instructional collaborations take place <ul><li>Language arts: literature, languages (English and foreign languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Social studies: US government, history, immigration, holidays, </li></ul><ul><li>Science: solar system, ecology, psychology, </li></ul><ul><li>Information research: internet searching, computer, web evaluation, </li></ul><ul><li>Health: bullying prevention, HIV/AIDS projects, character education, drug & alcohol prevention, </li></ul><ul><li>Math; Special Education; Music and Art </li></ul><ul><li>ESL; PE: Athletics </li></ul>
  14. 16. Top 10 Information Literacy activities
  15. 17. Lowest Ranked Information Literacy Instruction
  16. 18. Information Technology for Students
  17. 19. Sharing Expertise: Teaching Teachers <ul><li>Collaboration with classroom teachers seen as a key mechanism for professional development: transfer and independence </li></ul><ul><li>Information learning specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling inquiry through information </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist / constructionist learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting edge – educational landscape scanners: strategic and programmatic: reading theory, learning theory, information technology research </li></ul><ul><li>Present in forums where new developments / tools / learning approaches are made available </li></ul><ul><li>Highly cost-effective in tight economic times </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-modal: one-on-one, small groups, on-going support </li></ul>
  18. 20. SL Impact on Student Learning <ul><li>Open ended question on student learning impacts </li></ul><ul><li>721 respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Six key outcomes, as core capabilities, were identified: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Curriculum Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-based competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Research processes; Inquiry processes; Independent learning; Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking-based competencies & knowledge-based outcomes: Intellectual engagement with information; construction and presentation of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Affective, Personal and Interpersonal Competencies: Developing awareness of ethical issues in information and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to Learn and to Enjoy </li></ul>
  19. 21. Core capabilities to be developed <ul><li>Resource-based competencies: </li></ul><ul><li>- Library as place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mastery of information skills / information literacy development in general </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Successfully navigating the library, changing attitudes of students about library and program” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge of organization of the library and retrieving books and information from a variety of sources” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ability to do searches for bogus websites and evaluation of them” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mastery of website evaluation strategies” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowing how to broaden or narrow a search to find the information available out there” </li></ul>
  20. 22. Core capabilities to be developed <ul><li>Research processes; Inquiry processes; Independent learning; Project management: </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of research skills including keyword selection and search strategies” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Know a sequence of strategies for doing good research” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Able to follow a general research plan from start to finish of he research task” </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully completed a research based guided-inquiry project on the presidents of the US </li></ul><ul><li>“ Able to focus on their research tasks” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Work independently or collaboratively with peers to conduct research or give written responses” </li></ul><ul><li>“ They become confident, independent users of information” </li></ul>
  21. 23. Core capabilities to be developed <ul><li>Thinking-based competencies & knowledge-based outcomes: Intellectual engagement with information; construction and presentation of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Think through all the information & work out what is needed” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students show intellectual curiosity” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Evaluate information for validity using critical thinking skills” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Blending different types of resources for a project” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Demonstrate research organization, integration of new knowledge, properly crediting sources, etc” </li></ul><ul><li>“ See increasing students' attention to detail, increasing ability to organize information and ideas” </li></ul><ul><li>“ mastering the fusion of others' and own ideas” </li></ul>
  22. 24. Core capabilities to be developed <ul><li>Affective, Personal and Interpersonal Competencies: Developing awareness of ethical issues in information and communication </li></ul><ul><li>“ Positive changes in interest and motivation, not just for using the library but school work in general” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students in some cases have achieved a calmer and more efficient attitude to their specific skills. They have found new interests to increase motivation in other areas” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The students' attitudes towards research and literacy have improved this year. What they viewed as frustrating and insurmountable is now viewed as a &quot;do-able&quot; project” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Through the school library students respect different ideas and differences with people and themselves more” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Group research projects have taught some students how to work better together and in teams” </li></ul>
  23. 25. Insights <ul><li>Very few could articulate specific learning outcomes in relation to the students’ development of deep knowledge and deep understanding of content areas </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on inputs rather than outcomes: what I do and the mystery of implicit outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of strong data to suggest that systematic approaches to gathering evidence of outcomes were used - predominance of unstructured, informal observation </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am too busy running the library without assistants and so it is not possible to determine the specific outcomes” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I formally teach grades K-4 and have had the opportunity to collaborate on curriculum projects with the classroom teachers in those grades” </li></ul>
  24. 26. Where to now? <ul><li>Sell contribution to development of intellectual quality, contribution to pedagogy of a school; library as rich learning environment in the school </li></ul><ul><li>Measures to document learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning school library as pedagogical center </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Reading to Learn and to Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Familiarity with award winning authors/illustrators; knowledge of various genres” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students are more interested in taking out books for pleasure reading” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Large increases in borrowing of fiction after our reading promotion” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students develop both an understanding and an appreciation for different types of fiction and non-fiction This is motivational in that it broadens attitudes and interests” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Increased motivation for informational and pleasure reading” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students are eager to select books for instructional and recreational needs” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Advancing reading and comprehension levels” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Enhancing reading enjoyment, comprehension, and fluency” </li></ul>Core capabilities to be developed
  26. 28. Top 10 reading/writing activities
  27. 29. What do the top 10 activities have in common? <ul><li>Literature displays (ranks #1 in all school types) </li></ul><ul><li>Book talks to promote literature for recreational reading </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging free voluntary reading outside of school </li></ul><ul><li>Book talks to promote curriculum related reading </li></ul><ul><li>Use of databases and/or websites to encourage reading </li></ul>
  28. 31. What do the lowest ranked activities have in common? <ul><li>Electronic gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating reading for understanding strategies in units of inquiry (Common Core Standards focus on informational texts) </li></ul><ul><li>Literature-related programs for students with special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of print and digital images; reading and writing in digital, image rich contexts </li></ul>
  29. 32. Kennedy’s Dream “ The problems of the world cannot possibly be solved by skeptics or cynics whose horizons are limited by the obvious realities. We need men (and women!) who can dream of things that never were”.
  30. 33. NJ Research Study: Phase 2 <ul><li>Examined 12 schools whose librarians reported high levels of collaboration with teachers in Phase 1 survey of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups in the schools were comprised of the school principal, the school librarian, and classroom teachers, including specialists such as special needs and literacy teachers. The focus groups addressed the following themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Theme 1: In what ways does the school support learning through the school library? </li></ul><ul><li>Theme 2: In what ways, if any, does the school library contribute to learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Theme 3: What do students learn through their interaction and engagement with the school library? </li></ul><ul><li>Theme 4: How do you envision the future of school libraries </li></ul>
  31. 34. Common Educational Beliefs <ul><li>A powerful and pervasive belief that school libraries are “part of the way we do things here” </li></ul><ul><li>Whole school values learning and working collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on quality teachers and effective teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Value complex information capabilities and expert use of media and technology to build content knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Value competencies that enable critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration, and creativity and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Vision and leadership of school principals who see the unique learning opportunities provided though the school library, despite the cost, and have the courage to make a financial commitment to the school library </li></ul><ul><li>Principals acknowledged that their school librarians had an impact on teaching and learning through role as co-teacher </li></ul>
  32. 35. School Library as a Learning center <ul><li>For students, the primary focus of SL is on building capacity for critical engagement with information and producing knowledge (not finding “stuff”) </li></ul><ul><li>For faculty, SL is a center of learning innovation, experimenting with technology and information; enhancing teaching skills using information and technology </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the school librarian as co-teacher is the most powerful dynamic in the sustainability of school libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers recognize the instructional expertise of school librarians and actively seek out this expertise, and consistently highlighted the sustained, active use of the school library by them and their students </li></ul>
  33. 36. School Libraries, School Culture and Learning <ul><li>A school that values its libraries, values education (Teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>Here in the library, I look at it as an atmosphere … of learning, and most of all, for teachers. We really promote lifelong learning around here and learning is not only the focus for students, but learning is a focus for everyone in the school, including me. (Principal) </li></ul><ul><li>I think calling it a library is not accurate – to me it’s become a learning center that has resources. When I see students in here, they’re doing research, maybe teacher-directed, but you know, I see a lot of them come in just to find out general information, to learn something – maybe not related to school, so to me it goes far beyond what we think a library was and the place is always hopping. (Principal) </li></ul>
  34. 37. School Libraries, School Culture and Learning <ul><li>The library serves as a learning tool to support every avenue of education rather than … a microscope just supporting biology or a chalkboard just supporting note taking. So the library becomes more all-encompassing as a tool that supports learning. (Language Arts Supervisor) </li></ul><ul><li>It really is the heart of the school because every department, and every teacher, every administrator, at some time, uses it for something. It’s one of the few areas of the school that everyone actually utilizes…that’s why it’s so invaluable. (Social Studies Teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>I actually see (the school library) as a transformative place. When kids come into this library they understand that it is a place where you respect learning. (Social Studies Teacher) </li></ul>
  35. 38. The Pedagogy of the School Library <ul><li>Inquiry-based instruction implemented through instructional teams </li></ul><ul><li>Mutuality of working towards one common goal – enabling core curriculum content standards </li></ul><ul><li>Gives emphasis to intellectual agency for developing deep knowledge and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Builds excitement, interest and motivation for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Engages students as content providers who work on- and off-line to produce creative products </li></ul><ul><li>Staged process of inquiry-based learning; students are not left to their own devices to undertake substantial research projects </li></ul><ul><li>School library portrayed as a common ground across the school for meeting individual and special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Literacies include visual literacy, print literacy, media literacy, digital literacy, and technological literacies –best described as transliteracies </li></ul>
  36. 39. Inquiry-Based Pedagogy Prof. Carol Kuhlthau
  37. 40. School Librarians as Co-teachers <ul><li>Principals are willing to support the acquisition of resources for the school library with an adequate budget because they perceive the school librarian as a good teacher who actively engages in curriculum planning and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers expressed deep emotion about how school librarians helped them to be better teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Principals recognize the need to provide professional development for school librarians that enables them to be good teachers and good teachers of teachers </li></ul>
  38. 41. School Librarians as Co-Teachers <ul><li>We’re still in a time where [the public] doesn’t believe our information centers are as powerful as our educators believe. Our librarian is a powerful educator. Our information center is as good as the teaching that goes on there. (Principal) </li></ul><ul><li>I really think that because the librarians are co-teachers, for the most part, the kids get to see us working together… They get to learn how to collaborate, how to be curious and how to work through problems together. (English Teacher) </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>The librarian is a partner in helping us get kids to understand what they are learning … That’s one of the reasons I believe you see so many teachers using the library and so many kids using the library. They recognize that this is a place for learning. (Seventh Grade Social Studies Teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>… in terms of contributing to the learning process, the library does it, but on two different levels: … content support but also skills support. Sometimes those skills are … more imperative than the content because they are lifelong skills that teachers are supporting through their content as well. (Language Arts Supervisor) </li></ul>
  40. 43. School Librarian as Teacher of Teachers <ul><li>Considerable in-school training of teachers, delivering effective professional development with ongoing support </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily takes place in instructional collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a dynamic role in building collaborative and collegial relationships among staff members through sharing of information-learning expertise, ideas, problems and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>School libraries as part of a “culture of help” </li></ul>
  41. 44. Teacher of Teachers <ul><li>We have fantastic media specialists who continue to keep up, to keep abreast with all of the new innovations in technology which is not always easy because things are happening so quickly …. But our media specialists will come in and will teach the teachers how to go about creating wikis; they will teach students how to access it. (Teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>[The school librarians] spent a lot of time with us understanding the components of discovery – a metaphor for good research. … They made sure we knew process and the tools and how to use them in the context of any class where a teacher would want to use research. We can model effective research for the students. (Supervisor of Instruction) </li></ul>
  42. 45. Do They Learn anything? <ul><li>Resource-based capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-based capabilities Reading-to-learn capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking-based capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Personal and interpersonal capabilities </li></ul>
  44. 47. Digital Citizenship <ul><li>The instructional role of SL is significant mechanism for the development of students as digital citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing quality information in multiple modes and across multiple platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing quality information across diverse formats and platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in digital communication in collaborative, ethical ways to share ideas, work together & produce knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Using sophisticated information technology tools to search, access, create and demonstrate new knowledge Learning appropriate ethical approaches & behaviors in relation to use of digital technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the dangers inherent in the use of complex information technologies , learning strategies to protect identity, personal information, & safety </li></ul>
  45. 48. Digital Citizenship through Inquiry Learning <ul><li>When crafting your search you know whether it’s Google or another mechanism or portal to get to that information, and obviously I think there’s some broad assumption that because we’re in the 21 st century, people understand they may understand this. …The assumption that kids know because they’re digital natives is one you can’t make. (Supervisor of Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Students are also learning how to be responsible online [in the school library] - teaching students they’re responsible for what appears on that screen and I think that can carry over into the classroom because [school librarians] are teaching them to make that distinction. (Language Arts Supervisor) </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, digital literacy is not an add-on here. It’s infused [in instruction] through the school library where students can access] each content area of the school curriculum … [Digital literacy] is not a standalone; It’s cohesive and fluent, and pretty well received by students and faculty. (Principal) </li></ul>
  46. 49. Literacy support <ul><li>Reading motivation; reading engagement; reading fluency; reading comprehension; sustained reading; strategic reading; reading for pleasure; and reading remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Writing process, and support of for conventions of citation and writing formal papers </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in spoken and digital contexts </li></ul>
  47. 50. Beyond Test Scores <ul><li>School libraries make lasting contributions rather than temporal ones </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a range of capabilities and dispositions that can last a life time and have salience beyond schooling and not merely school-based achievement </li></ul><ul><li>- navigating the information landscape </li></ul><ul><li>career skills </li></ul><ul><li>digital citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>ethical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>lifelong learning capabilities </li></ul>
  48. 51. Social and Affective Learning <ul><li>Developing communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in cooperative team work - students learn how to learn from each other; </li></ul><ul><li>Building self-esteem and self-efficacy; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing good behavior and social skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing empathy for diverse viewpoints; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing personal management skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing online social processes and communication skills. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Qualities of Effective School Librarians <ul><li>Having high visibility as teachers and works to sustain this as a priority </li></ul><ul><li>Actively building a profile of the school library as an active learning center </li></ul><ul><li>Being non-judgmental with students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Building an atmosphere of open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Being willing to go the extra mile to be supportive of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Being sociable and accessible, inclusive and welcoming </li></ul>
  50. 53. Qualities of Effective School Librarians <ul><li>Having a strong “help” orientation, i.e. this is about learning, not the library! </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing not so much on their libraries, but on their commitment to enabling multiple learning needs to be met </li></ul><ul><li>Being solution-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the ethos of the library that is an invitation to learning., a place to be, do and become </li></ul><ul><li>Having high expectations for colleagues and for students </li></ul><ul><li>Liking and caring about young people and having flexibility in creating a learning environment that appeals to them; </li></ul><ul><li>Being leaders and instructional innovators who are not afraid to take risks, be creative, and do what best serves learners of all ages </li></ul>
  51. 55. School Library as Connector <ul><li>The school librarian is an information broker who connects people with resources </li></ul><ul><li>Students connect curriculum learning and their personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers connect disciplines to provide a richer interdisciplinary approach to learning </li></ul><ul><li>The school library is multi-disciplinary: It is where the disciplines meet in a real world setting; </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers connect to each other to provide the best learning experiences for students </li></ul><ul><li>Students and teachers connect to the wider world of information </li></ul><ul><li>The connections are perceived to be “easy” because of a philosophy and practice of “help” provided by the school librarians. </li></ul><ul><li>The school library connects the school and home through technology </li></ul>
  52. 56. School library as surrogate home and safe place <ul><li>School library provides equitable access to resources, technology, and information / instructional services that are not available in homes: an information environment for all </li></ul><ul><li>Place where students can explore diverse topics, even controversial topics, in privacy and without interruption </li></ul><ul><li>Place where students know information they access is trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Place where students can retreat and work without interruption and intervention by other students without any kind of threat </li></ul><ul><li>Place where they can obtain individual mentoring as needed without any kind of judgment </li></ul>
  53. 57. How do Educators Envision their Future School Libraries
  54. 58. How do Educators Envision their Future School Libraries <ul><li>More space: to develop instructional opportunities; to differentiate to meet diverse student needs </li></ul><ul><li>More technology: to support specific content needs such as: Writing labs to facilitate the writing process; Language labs with immediate connections to resources; More computer space to enhance transliteracy experiences </li></ul><ul><li>More instructional collaborations: to meet content standards and to provide significant life learning experiences for students; to build even more widespread curriculum integration and strengthen the interdisciplinary learning and teaching taking place </li></ul>
  55. 59. <ul><li>… by getting [students] involved in the changes to prepare them for this century and the digital world … So that they have the skill set that they need. It’s about process not product. [School librarians] jumped right on that, so they were willing to give up their [traditional role] and look at, ‘What does our role need to be as we move forward to prepare our kids?’ So because they have been in that discussion for at least the last two years, I think we’ve benefited greatly. Greatly. (Principal) </li></ul>
  56. 60. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) “ Look for me in the Whirlwind” Garvey, Marcus; Jacques-Garvey, Amy (ed.) (1986).  The philosophy and opinions of Marcus Garvey or Africa for the Africans . Dover (Mass.): Majority Press. p. 163.
  57. 61. Whirlwinds <ul><li>Arise out of instabilities and turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful and unstoppable </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for enormous destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for enormous reform </li></ul><ul><li> School Libraries  </li></ul><ul><li>Unless we are part of the whirlwind, we will not be among the stars </li></ul>
  58. 62. Live Your Dreams <ul><li>You cannot dream yourself into a character: you must hammer and forge yourself into one. </li></ul><ul><li>Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul>