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Outcome based education

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Outcome based education

  1. 1. Unit 4: Outcome-Based Education To be presented by: Group 6 Atazan, Jay Aldrich Madriaga, Benlee Nuñeza, Freya Eira Saluan, Amina
  2. 2. Module overview • Outcome-based edeucation (OBE) became the fundamental philosophy of higher education in the philippines lately. All curricula including that of teacher education will be anchored on the concept of OBE in terms of course designing, instructional planning, teaching and assessing students learning. This module will give you the opportunity to understand what OBE is all about and relate the same to teacher education curriculum as future teachers.
  3. 3. Topic/s Presentor Strategies •Outcome- Based Education: What? Why? How? •Principles of OBE Saluan, Amina Concept Web, Structure Overview, Placemat •Teaching Learning in OBE •Assessment of learning outcomes •Learners responsibility for learning Atazan, Jay Aldrich Bubble Quote, Placemat •Teacher education curriculum anchored on OBE Nuneza, Freya Eira T chart, Concept Web •Content and Pedagogy to achieve the outcomes Madriaga, Benlee Flow Chart
  4. 4. Dummies and Expected Outcomes
  5. 5. Topic: Outcome Based Education Strategy: Concept Web, Structure Overview, Placemat Reporter: Amina Saluan
  6. 6. What How
  7. 7. What How What is OBE? According to CHED According to HEI’s An educational theory Benefits of OBE involvement comparisonflexibility clarity Program outcomes Framework for OBE Course outcomes Learning outcomes According to W. Spady
  8. 8. Fast technological development Building learners competencies Robust system of CQI Competitive advantage of Phil. HEI’s Why is OBE?
  9. 9. Principles of OBE Clarity of Focus Designing Backwards High Expectations Expanded Opportunities
  10. 10. Topic: Teaching Learning in OBE, Assessment of learning outcomes, Learners responsibility for learning • Strategy: Mind map, Bubble Quote • Presentor: Aldrich Jay Atazan
  11. 11. Teaching- Learning in OBE Teachers must prepare students adequatel y Teacher must help students to bring each learning to a personal closure Teachers must create a positive learning environmen t Teachers must provide students with enough opportuniti es Teachers must help their students to understan d Teachers must use a variety of teaching methods
  12. 12. Assessment procedure should be valid Assessment procedure should be fair Assessment procedure should be reliable Assessment should tell both the teachers and students are progressing Assessment should support every student’s opportunity Assessment should allow individuality and uniqueness Assessment should reflect the knowledge and skills Assessment should be comprehensiv e
  13. 13. Topic: Teacher Education Curriculum anchored on OBE • Strategy: T chart, Concept Web • Facilitator: Freya Eira F.Nuñeza
  14. 14. Teacher Standards Outcomes Domains Addressed in NCBTS •Uses specialized knowledge and skill in a variety of school context and in diverse students background. •Diversity of Learners •Learning Environment •Curriculum •Applies inquiry with the use of research approaches and utilize evidence-based knowledge to improve teaching. •Diversity of Learners •Planning, Assessing and Reporting •Personal Growth and Professional Development •Social Regard For Learning •Self Directs continuous learning related to own expertise for enhancement of students outcomes and strengthening of professional identity. •Personal Growth and Professional Development •Social Regard For Learning •Maximize the involvement of education communities to work in collaboration for relevant educational reforms •Community Linkages
  15. 15. Competencies for all Future Teachers in the Teacher Education Curriculum Demonstrate basis and higher levels of literacy for teaching and learning Demonstrate deep and principled understanding of the teaching and learning process Master and apply subject matter content and pedagogical principles appropriate for teaching and learning Apply a wide range of teaching related skills in curriculum development , instructional material production, learning assessment and teaching delivery Articulate and apply clear understanding of how educational processes relate to political, historical, social and cultural context Facilitate learning in various classroom setting diverse learners coming from different cultural backgrounds Experience direct field and clinical activities in the teaching milieu as an observer, teaching approaches to improve student learning Create and innovate alternative teaching approaches nto improve student learning Practice professional and ethical standards for teacher anchored for both local and global perspectives Pursue continuously lifelong learning for personal and professional growth as teachers
  16. 16. Topic: Content and Pedagogy to achieve the Outcomes • Strategy: Flow chart • Presentor: Benlee Madriaga
  17. 17. Content and Pedagogy to achieve the Outcomes Courses or Degree Contents Methods of Teaching Delivery Modes Assessment of Learning
  18. 18. Closure
  19. 19. OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION • WHAT IS OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION? • *OBE is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience each student should have achieved the goal. There is no specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. • *OBE concerns that the education system cannot adequately prepare students for life and work in the 21st Century have prompted across the country to explore new ways of designing education. In several states, educators and policy makers are attempting to change the way we measure the effectiveness of education from an emphasis on traditional inputs, such as course credits earned and hours spent in class, to result or outcomes.
  20. 20. • CHED APPROVAL: • OBE Modeling program on Teacher Education (CHED Resolution, dated July 24, 2013) • The curriculum meets the minimum requirement of CHED • The curriculum meets the requirement of PRC so students can take LET • The students can still complete the program in four years despite the increase in the number of subjects • The 3NS submits annual status report on modeling • Preparation of a manual on doing OBE in Teacher Education
  21. 21. According to CHED • *CHED defines Outcomes-based Education as an approach that focuses and organizes the educational system around what is essential for all learners to know, value, and be able to do to achieve a desired level of competence. OBE “is open to incorporating discipline-based learning areas that currently structure HEI curricula.”
  22. 22. According to HEI’s • *HEIs define OBE as a means of describing the attributes of their ideal graduates based on their visions and missions as part of their institutional goals or outcomes, and using these as bases for developing specific program outcomes.
  23. 23. According to W. Spady • OBE is clearly focusing and organizing everything in the educational system around the esssential for all the students to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences. It starts with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum, instruction and assessment to make sure thet the learning happens. This defenition clearly points to the desired results of education whichj is the learning outcomes. This made up bof knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes that students should acquire to make them reach their full potential and lead fulfilling lives as individuals in the community and at work. • Spady premised that in outcome based education;  All students can learn and succeed but not at the same time or in the same way.  Successful learning promotes even more successful learning.  Schools and teachers control the conditions that will determine if the students are successful in school learning.
  24. 24. An Educational Theory • BENEFITS OF OBE: • Clarity • The focus on outcomes creates a clear expectation of what needs to be accomplished by the end of the course. Students will understand what is expected to them and teachers will know what they need to teach during the course. Clarity is important over years of schooling and when team teaching is involved. Each team member, or year in school, will have a clear understanding of what needs to be accomplished in each class, or at each level, allowing student to progress. Those designing and planning the curriculum are expected to work backwards once an outcome has been decided upon, they must determine what knowledge or skills will be required to reach the outcome.
  25. 25. • Flexibility • With a clear sense of what needs to be accomplished, instructors will be able to structure their lessons around the student’s needs. OBE does not specify a specific method of instruction, leaving instructors free to teach their students using any method. Instructors will also be able to recognize diversity among students by using various teaching and assessment techniques during their class. OBE is meant to be a student-center learning model. Teachers are meant to guide and help the students understand the material in any way necessarystudy guides and group work are some of the methods instructor can use to facilitate students learning.
  26. 26. • Comparison • OBE provides an opportunity for comparison across institution. On an individual level, institution can look at what outcomes a student has achieved to decide what level the student would be at within a new institution. On an institutional level, institutions can compare themselves, by checking to see what outcomes they have in common, and find places where they may need improvement, based on the achievement of outcomes at other institutions. The ability to compare easily across institutions allows students to move between institutions with relative ease. The institutions can compare outcomes to determine what credits to award the student. The clearly articulated outcomes should allow institutions to assess the student’s achievements rapidly, leading to increased movement of students. These outcomes also work for school to work transitions. A potential employer can look at records of potential employee to determine what outcomes they have achieved. They can then determine if the potential employee has the skills necessary for the job.
  27. 27. • Involvement • Student involvement in the classroom is a key party of OBE, students are expected to do their own learning, so that they gain a full understanding of the material. Increased student involvement allows student to feel responsible for their own learning, and they should learn more through this individual learning. Another aspect of involvement is parental, and community involvement, while developing curriculum, or making changes to it. OBE outcomes are meant to be decided upon within a school system, or at local level. Parents and community members are asked to give input in order to uphold the standards of education within a community, and to ensure that students will be prepared for life after school.
  28. 28. • WHY OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION? • Fast technological developments leads to frequent changes in the nature and requirements of job • Thus emphasis on building learner competencies—including learning how to learn • It can be coupled with a robust system of continuous quality improvement (CQI) system • The competitive advantage of Philippine HEIs is premised on their ability to offer quality degree programs that meet world class standards and produce graduates with lifelong learning competencies. These standards are in terms of the level of students at the time of graduation.
  29. 29. • HOW? • ‘CHED is committed to developing competency-based learning standards that comply with existing international standards when applicable (e.g. outcomes-based education for fields like engineering and maritime education) to achieve quality and enable a more effective integration of the intellectual discipline, ethos and values are associated with liberal education.”
  30. 30. Course outline Course design Institution’s Vision,Mission& Goals Institutional outcomes Program outcomes Assessment and evaluation Learning environment: content and methodologies Teaching learning system
  31. 31. • 1. PROGRAM OUTCOMESare the sets of competencies (related knowledge, skills, and attitudes) that all learners are expected to demonstrate. Institutional or program outcomes may also emphasize lifelong learning. For instance, HEIs could describe the attributes of their ideal graduates which they expect to see five years after graduation. These desired outcomes have to be translated to what the students learn in specific courses. The HEIs should ensure that at the level of the courses, the desired course and learning outcomes are attained with the proper content, methodologies, and student performance assessment • 2. COURSE OUTCOMES refers to the knowledge, values, and skills all learners are expected to demonstrate at the end of the course. • 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES may result from the specific lesson, although it is sometimes used interchangeably with course outcomes. Thus, in the hierarchy, learning outcomes are seen as building blocks toward course outcomes, which in turn, support the program outcomes.
  32. 32. • It is also important to note that assessment plays a very important role in OBE. Assessment drives OBE, and conventional methods are usually not sufficient to assess the achievement of desired outcomes. • In the initial report of the Task Force on Quality Assurance (TFQA) in October 2011, the core mission of teaching HEIs is to build the learning competencies of students and their ability to continuously learn as well as to mobilize resources and methods, including traditional pedagogies (e.g., lectures), that would enhance learning. • If the spirit of this mission is imbilbed, HEIs and CHED will find easier to discern, in the specific contexts they are operating in, which element of the instruction paradigm they have to change and which they can work with and bend to produce positivelearning outcomes.
  33. 33. Teaching-Learning in OBE • Teaching is teaching if learners learn. Learning is measured by its outcome. • Whatever approach to teaching is used, the intent should focus on learning rather than on teaching. Subjects do not exist in isolation, but links between them should be made. • It is important that students learn how to learn, hence a teacher should be innovative. How then should teaching-learning be done in OBE?
  34. 34. • Here are some tips:  Teachers must prepare students adequately. This can be done if the teachers know what they want the students to learn and what learning outcomes to achieve.  Teachers must create a positive learning environment. Students should feel, that regardless of individual uniqueness, the teacher is always there to help.  Teachers must help their students to understand, what they have to learn, why they should learn it and how will they know that they have learned it.  Teachers must use a variety of teaching methods. The most appropriate strategy should be used taking into account the learning outcome teachers want the students to achieve. Also to consider are the contents, the characteristics of the students, the resources available and the teaching skill of the teacher.  Teachers must provide students enough opportunities to use the new knowledge and skills that they gain. When students do this, they can explore with new learning, correct errors and adjust their thinking.  Teacher must help students to bring each learning to a personal closure that will make them aware of what they learned.
  35. 35. • Here are additional key points in teaching-learning in OBE which show the shifts from a traditional to an OBE view. From Traditional View To OBE View Instruction Learning Inputs and Resources Learning Outcomes Knowledge is transferred by the teacher Knowledge already exists in the mind of the learners Teacher dispenses knowledge Teachers are designers of methods Teachers and students are independent and in isolation Teacher and students work in terms.
  36. 36. Assessment of Learning Outcomes in OBE • Assessment in OBE should also be guided by the four principles of OBE which are clarity of focus, designing backwards, high expectations and expanded opportunity. It should contribute to the objective of improving students’ learning. • Since in OBE, there is a need first to establish a clear vision of what the students are expected to learn, then assessment becomes an embedded part of the system.
  37. 37. • To be useful in OBE system, assessment should be guided by the following principles: 1. Assessment procedure should be valid. Procedure and tools should actually assess what one intends to test. 2. Assessment procedure should be reliable. The results should be consistent. 3. Assessment procedure should be fair. Cultural background and other factors should not influence assessment procedure. 4. Assessment should reflect the knowledge and skills that are important to the students. 5. Assessment should tell both the teachers and students are progressing. 6. Assessment should support every student’s opportunity to learn things that are important. 7. Assessment should allow individuality or uniqueness to be demonstrated. 8. Assessment should be comprehensive to cover a wide range of learning outcomes.
  38. 38. Learner’s Responsibility for Learning • In OBE, students are responsible for their own learning and progress. Nobody can learn for the learner. It is only the learner himself/herself who can drive to learn. Thus learning is a personal matter, teachers can only facilitate that learning, define the learning outcomes to be achieved, and assist the students to achieve those outcomes. Students have the bigger responsibility to achieve those outcomes. In this way, they will be able to know whether they will be able to know whether they are learning or not.
  39. 39. • One of the great benefits of outcomes-based education is that it makes students aware of what they should be learning, why they are learning it, what they are actually learning, and what they should do when they are learning. All of these will conclude with the achieved learning outcomes. • In terms of students perspectives there are common questions that will guide the students in OBE learning, they should ask themselves the following questions As a student, • 1. What do I have to learn? • 2. Why do I have to learn? • 3. What will I be doing while I am learning? • 4. How will I know that I am learning. What I should be learning? • 5. Will I have any say in what I learn? • 6. How will I be assessed?
  40. 40. Enhanced teacher education curriculum anchored on OBE • Teacher education curriculum anchored on OBE • 1. desired outcomes of the teacher education programs (Ideal graduate of teacher education program competencies) • What kind of teacher do we desire to graduate in the future? What kind of teacher will you be? What qualities will you possess?
  41. 41. • To address these questions, it is necessary that the desired competencies and outcomes of the teacher education curriculum be clearly stated. These competencies will guide teacher education programs on what product do they desire at the end of the college education. • Recognizing the demand of K to 12, the framework of the NCBTS and global requirements of ASEAN 2015, a need to harmonize the teacher competencies is very critical. • With the current imperatives of the 21st century, the teacher education curriculum must emphasize teacher’s values, skills and knowledge that are fundamental to good teaching. Teacher may not remain in the classrooms but may take on tasks as course designers, program evaluators, training specialists, and other which are also related to teaching.
  42. 42. • Competencies for all future teachers in the teacher education curriculum • It is desired, that all graduates of any teacher education program should have the following competencies to be ready to teach in the classroom. Here are the suggestions based on CMO30 S. 2004 and the NCBTS. • 1. demonstrate basic and higher and higher levels of literacy for teaching and learning • 2. demonstrate deep and principleed understanding of the teaching and learning process • 3. master and aplly subject matter content and pedagogical principles appropriate for teaching and learning • 4. apply a wide range of teaching related skills in curriculum development, instructional material production, learning assessment and teaching delivery • 5. articulate and apply clear understanding of how educational processes relate to political, historical, social, cultural context
  43. 43. • 6. facilitate learning in various classroom setting diverse learners coming from different cultural backgrounds • 7. experience direct field and clinical activities in the teaching milicu as an observer, teaching assisstantor practice teacher • 8. create and innovate alternative teaching approaches to improve student learning • 9. practice professional and ethical standards for teachers anchored for both local and global perspectives • 10. pursue continously lifelong learning for personal and professional growth as teachers
  44. 44. Teacher Standards Outcomes Domains Addressed in NCBTS •Uses specialized knowledge and skill in a variety of school context and in diverse students background. •Diversity of Learners •Learning Environment •Curriculum •Applies inquiry with the use of research approaches and utilize evidence-based knowledge to improve teaching. •Diversity of Learners •Planning, Assessing and Reporting •Personal Growth and Professional Development •Social Regard For Learning •Self Directs continuous learning related to own expertise for enhancement of students outcomes and strengthening of professional identity. •Personal Growth and Professional Development •Social Regard For Learning •Maximize the involvement of education communities to work in collaboration for relevant educational reforms •Community Linkages
  45. 45. • From the identified competncies, standards and outcomes the IDEAL GRADUATE of the teacher education program as a new breed of TEACHERS are: • Multiliterate • Reflective • Master subject content • Highly skilled • Sensitive to issue • Multicultural • Innovative • Highly professional • Lifelong learner
  46. 46. • Teacher education curriculum: an example • Teacher education program outcomes • Demonstrated basic and higher levels of literacy for teaching and learning. • Demonstrated deep and principled understanding of the teaching and learning process • Mastered and applied the subject matter content and pedagogical principles appropriate for teaching and learning • Applied a wide range of teaching related skills in curriculum development, instructional material production, learning assessment and teaching delivery • Facilitated learning in various classroom setting diverse learners coming from different cultural backgrounds • Created and innovated alternative teaching approaches to improve student learning • Practiced professional and ethical standards for teachers anchored for both local and global perspectives • Pursued continuosly lifelong learning for personal and professional groeth as teachers
  47. 47. • Content and pedagogy to achieve the outcomes • Course or degree contents- to become a teacher, a college degree is required. A degree is made up of courses or subjects which are clustered as general education courses, professional education courses, and major or specialized subject courses. • Examples: • Elementary level teaching for K to grade 6- general education, professional teacher education courses, areas of specilization or additional subjects in a specialized field. • Secondary level teaching for grade 7-10 (junior high)- general education courses, professional education courses, major discipline(english, math, science, others) • Secondary level teaching for grade 11-12(senior high)- general education course, professional teacher education courses, major discipline(higher level of contents)
  48. 48. • Example of probable subjects in the professional teacher education • A. foundation courses ▫ Child and adolescent learners and learning principles ▫ The Teacher and society ▫ The teaching profession ▫ School culture and organization leadership ▫ School-community linkages ▫ Foundations of special and inclusive education B. Pedagogical content knowledge courses ▫ Facilitating learner –centered teaching and learning ▫ Assessment of learning ▫ Technology for teaching and learning ▫ The teacher and the school curriculum ▫ Building and enhancing literacy skills across the curriculum ▫ Content and pedagogy of the mother tongue (elementary level only) ▫ Teaching the majorfield subjects(secondary level only)
  49. 49. • C. Major courses for the secondary and selected subject area content for the elementary • D. Experiential learning courses o Field study courses (field observation) o Practice teaching(classroom observation, teaching assisstance, full immersion)
  50. 50. • 2. Methods of teaching and teaching delivery modes The methods of teaching should be varied to address the different kinds of learners. Time tested methods as well as current and emerging strategies shall be utilized. These should be student- centered, interactive, integrative, and transformative. Courses should enhance the concept of “learning how to learn” for future teachers. The methods of teaching should replicate what should be used in the work place or schools. The use of technology for teaching and learning in all subject areas is encouraged so that every future teacher will develop the skills to be ready to guide future learners, most of whom are digitally skilled. Whatever methods of teaching or delivery modes to be used by the teachers are clearly written in a course design or syllabus prepared by the faculty and shared to students.
  51. 51. • Assessment of learning • College learning shall be assessed in similar manner as all other means of assessment. It has to be remembered that in the Philippine Qualification Framework(PQF) there are three levels of competencies that all undergraduate students should possess as evidence of their learning outcomes.
  52. 52. • For example, in a subject curriculum development. The desired course outcomes are: • At the end of the semester, the students must have: • 1. Identified curriculum concepts that include the nature and purposes of curriculum. • 2. discussed the different models of curriculum and approaches to curriculum design. • 3. explained curriculum development in terms of planning, implementing and evaluating. • 4 described the different involvement of stakeholders in curriculum implementation. • 5. utilized different evaluation procedures and tools in assessment of learning outcomes. • 6. explained examples of curricular reforms such as K to 12 and OBE. • 7. reflected on the value of understanding curriculum development as a teacher.

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