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Grading and reporting

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Grading and reporting

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Grading and reporting

  1. 1. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  2. 2. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  3. 3. Copyright © Wondershare Software Objectives At the end of the discussion, the participants will be able to: • Describe the various types of grading and reporting systems • Utilize the grading and reporting systems effectively using the guidelines
  4. 4. Aim of Grading and Reporting System To provide results in brief, understandable form for various users Copyright © Wondershare Software
  5. 5. Copyright © Wondershare Software • What should I count – just achievement or effort too? • How do I interpret a student’s score? • Do I compare it to: – other students’ scores (norm referenced) – a standard of what they can do (criterion-referenced) – some estimate of what they are able to do (learning potential, or self-referenced)? • What should my distribution of grades be and how do I determine it? • How do I display student progress or strengths and weaknesses, to students and their parents?
  6. 6. Educational Evaluation • Measurement and assessment of learning – Copyright © Wondershare Software first two steps • Grading and reporting – two terminal stages in the process
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS OF GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEMS Copyright © Wondershare Software
  8. 8. Enhancing Students Learning • Clarifying instructional objectives for them • Showing students’ strengths & weaknesses • Providing information on personal-social Copyright © Wondershare Software development • Enhancing students’ motivation (e.g., short term goals) • Indicating where teaching might be modified This can be achieved through day-to-day tests, feedback, integrated periodic tests
  9. 9. Reports to Parents/Guardians • Inform parents/guardians on the progress of Copyright © Wondershare Software their child • Communicate objectives to parents so they can help promote learning • Communicate how well objectives are met so parents can plan better
  10. 10. Administrative and Guidance Uses • Helps to decide promotion, graduation, honors, Copyright © Wondershare Software athletic eligibility • Report achievement to other schools or to employers • Provide input for realistic, educational, vocational, personal counselling
  11. 11. Grades and Report Cards • Should promote and enhance learning rather than frustrate and discourage students • Given to students and parents are asked to Copyright © Wondershare Software sign this • Call for parent-teacher conferences such that report cards will effectively function as motivation for further learning
  12. 12. TYPES OF GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEMS Copyright © Wondershare Software
  13. 13. Traditional Letter- Grade system • Students’ performance are summarized by Copyright © Wondershare Software means of letters • Easy to understand but is of limited value when used as the sole report • They end up being a combination of achievement, effort, work habits, behavior • Difficult to interpret • Do not indicate patterns of strengths & weaknesses
  14. 14. A •Excellent B •Good C •Average D •Needs Improvement F •Failure Copyright © Wondershare Software
  15. 15. Pass-Fail System • Utilizes a dichotomous grade system Copyright © Wondershare Software Pass Fail
  16. 16. Pass-Fail System • Popular in some courses in college; not very much practiced in basic education • Does not provide much information • Students tend to work to the minimum (just Copyright © Wondershare Software to pass) • In mastery learning courses, no grades are reflected until “mastery” threshold is reached
  17. 17. Checklist of Objectives • Objectives of the courses are enumerated • After each objective, the students’ level of Copyright © Wondershare Software achievement is indicated • Very detailed reporting system • More informative for parents and students • Time-consuming to prepare • POTENTIAL PROBLEM: keeping list manageable and understandable
  18. 18. Copyright © Wondershare Software Objective 1 • Fair Objective 2 • Outstanding Objective 3 • Very Good Objective 4 • Poor Objective 5 • Good
  19. 19. Letters to Parents/Guardians • Useful supplement to grades • Limited value as sole report: – Time-consuming to prepare – Accounts of weaknesses are often misinterpreted by parents and guardians – Not systematic nor cumulative Copyright © Wondershare Software
  20. 20. Copyright © Wondershare Software September 6, 2014 Dear Parents, A huge wave of zombies is approaching. Respectfully, Teacher Dave
  21. 21. Portfolios • A set of purposefully selected work, with commentary by student and teacher Copyright © Wondershare Software • Useful for: – Showing students’ strengths & weaknesses – Illustrating range of students’ work – Showing progress over time or stages of a project – Teaching students about objectives/standards they are to meet
  22. 22. Parent-Teacher Conferences • Mainly used in elementary school • Requires parents of pupils to come for a conference with the teacher to discuss the pupils’ progress • Useful for a two-way flow of information and getting more information from parents • Limited value as a report because most parents do not come for such conferences Copyright © Wondershare Software
  23. 23. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  24. 24. DEVELOPMENT OF A GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEM Copyright © Wondershare Software
  25. 25. Grading and Reporting • Based on clear statement of learning Copyright © Wondershare Software objectives • Consistent with school standards • Based on adequate assessment • Based on the right level of detail • Providing for parent-teacher conferences as needed
  26. 26. ASSIGNING LETTER GRADES AND COMPUTING GRADES Copyright © Wondershare Software
  27. 27. Grades • Must include only achievement • Avoid the temptation to include effort for less able students – It is difficult to assess effort/potential – It is difficult to distinguish ability from Copyright © Wondershare Software achievement • If achievement and effort are combined in some way, grades would mean different things for different individuals
  28. 28. Grades • Grades reflected on report cards are number or numerical quantities arrived at after several data on the students performance are combined Copyright © Wondershare Software
  29. 29. Guidelines • Properly weight each component to create a Copyright © Wondershare Software composite • Normally agreed upon by school officials 30% 25% 30% 15% Quiz Project/Assignment Class Participation Periodic Test
  30. 30. Guidelines • Principal Components Analysis – more scientific approach; hardly practiced in schools because of difficulty • Put all components on same scale to weight properly: – Equate range of scores – Convert all to T-scores or other standard Copyright © Wondershare Software scores
  31. 31. NORM OR CRITERION-REFERENCED GRADING Copyright © Wondershare Software
  32. 32. Norm-Referenced Grading System • Grades may reflect relative performance – Score compared to other students (rank) • Grade depends on what group you are in, not just your own performance • Typical grade may be shifted up or down, depending on group’s ability • Widely used; most classroom testing is norm-referenced Copyright © Wondershare Software
  33. 33. Criterion-Referenced Grading System • Grades may reflect absolute performance – Score compared to specified performance standards (what you can do) • Grade does not depend on what group you are in, but only on your own performance compared to a set of performance standards • Grading is a complex task Copyright © Wondershare Software
  34. 34. Criterion-Referenced Grading System Copyright © Wondershare Software • Grades must: – Clearly define the domain – Clearly define and justify the performance standards – Be based on criterion-referenced assessment • Conditions are hard to meet except in complete mastery learning settings
  35. 35. Score Compared to Learning Potential • Grades are inconsistent with a standards-based performance – Each child has his/her own standard • Reliably estimating learning ability is very Copyright © Wondershare Software difficult • One cannot reliably measure change with classroom measures • Should only be used as supplement
  36. 36. DISTRIBUTION OF GRADES AND GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE GRADING Copyright © Wondershare Software
  37. 37. Norm-Referenced or Relative Performance • Normal curve is defensible only when • When “grading on the curve” • When “grading on the curve”, any pass-fail decision should be based on an absolute standard (failed the minimum essentials) • Standards and ranges should be understood and followed by all teachers Copyright © Wondershare Software
  38. 38. Criterion-Referenced or Absolute Grading System • Seldom uses letter-grade alone • Often includes checklists of what has been Copyright © Wondershare Software mastered • The distribution of grades is not predetermined
  39. 39. Guidelines for Effective Grading • Describe grading procedures to students at the beginning of instruction. • Clarify that course grade will be based on Copyright © Wondershare Software achievement only. • Explain how other factors (effort, work habits, etc.) will be reported.
  40. 40. • Relate grading procedures to intended Copyright © Wondershare Software learning outcomes. • Obtain valid evidence (tests) for assigning grades • Try to prevent cheating. • Return and review all test results as soon as possible.
  41. 41. • Properly weight the various types of achievements included in the grade. • Do not lower an achievement grade for tardiness, weak effort, misbehavior. • Be fair. • Avoid bias. • When in doubt, review the evidence. • If still in doubt, give the higher grade. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  42. 42. CONDUCTING PARENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES Copyright © Wondershare Software
  43. 43. Parent-Teacher Conference Copyright © Wondershare Software • Productive: – When carefully planned – When the teacher is skilled in handling such conferences • The teacher’s skill can be developed
  44. 44. Guidelines for a Good Conference Copyright © Wondershare Software • Make plans » Review your goals. » Organize the information to present. » Make a list of points to cover and questions to ask » If using portfolios, select and review carefully
  45. 45. Guidelines for a Good Conference • Start positive and maintain a positive focus » Present student’s strong points first » Be helpful to have example of works to Copyright © Wondershare Software show needs » Compare early vs. late work to show learning progress
  46. 46. Guidelines for a Good Conference • Encourage parents to participate and share their ideas » Be willing to listen » Be willing to answer questions Copyright © Wondershare Software
  47. 47. Guidelines for a Good Conference • Plan actions cooperatively » What steps you can each take? » Summarize at the end Copyright © Wondershare Software
  48. 48. Guidelines for a Good Conference • End with a positive comment » Should not be a vague generality » Should be true Copyright © Wondershare Software
  49. 49. Guidelines for a Good Conference • Use good human relation skills. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  50. 50. Logo ? Any questions around this topic?
  51. 51. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  52. 52. Copyright © Wondershare Software

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