Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
THE UPANISHADS
“SITTING DOWN NEAR”
108 IN MUKTIKĀ
“they express the
restlessness and striving
of human mind to grasp
the t...
TIMELINES
 < 1500 BCE – Rig Veda is composed
 < 900 BCE – Yajur, Atharva and Sama Veda
 < 650 BCE – Early Upanishads Co...
HINDU PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS
 Vedas  Brāhmaṇas  Āraṇyaka  Upanishad
 Uttarā Mīmāṃsā
 Higher Enquiry – Philosophical tex...
AUTHORSHIP
 Yajnavalkya
 Uddalaka Aruni
 Shvetaketu
 Shandilya
 Aitreya
 Pippalada
 Sanatkumara
 Maitreyi
 Gargi
...
CONCEPTS
 Brahman and Atman – synonymous at times!
 Saprapancha and Nisprapancha
 Para and Apara
 Vidya and Avidya (ma...
 Fundamentally Monistic
 Śruti and not Smṛti
 Philosophy
 The Upanishadic philosophers regarded the Self as the
ultima...
DASHOPANISHAD
 Īṣa - The Inner Ruler – Shukla Yajur
 Kena - Who moves the world? - Sama
 Kaṭha - Death as Teacher – Kri...
 Doctrine: Scholars have long held the view that all
Upanishads propound the same doctrine. As to what the
exact nature o...
ĪṢA UPANISHAD
DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURE OF SUPREME BEING
18 Verses
IT MOVES; IT MOVES NOT
IT IS FAR; IT IS NEAR
IT IS WITH...
KENA UPANISHAD
 Story of Brahman, Indra, Agni and Vayu
Not that which the eye can see, but that whereby the eye can see:
...
KAṬHOPANISHAD
ATMA – CHARIOTS PASSENGER
BODY – CHARIOT ITSELF
CONSCIOUSNESS – DRIVER
MIND – REINS
OBJECTS PERCEIVED BY THE...
PRAṢNA UPANISHAD
QUESTIONS TO SAGE PIPPALADA
 The son of Katya, Kabandhi: “Root
cause of the universe”
 Bhargava of Vida...
MUṆḌAKA
64 Mantras
 Question for Angiras -
 I want to know from you if there is
something I can learn which will
explain...
MĀṆḌŪKYA
Ayam Atma Brahma
Fundamental approach to
Reality
– Shri Radhakrishnan
Sri Gaudapada
Adi Shankara
12 Verses
TAITTIRĪYA
ANNAMAYA – MADE OF FOOD
PRANAMAYA – MADE OF BREATH
MANOMAYA – MADE OF MIND
VIJNANAMAYA – MADE OF KNOWLEDGE
ANAN...
AITAREYA
 Aitareya Aranyaka of Rig Veda
 Chapter 1: Creation of Purusha, other divine
beings, creation of food
 Chapter...
CHĀNDOGYA
 Tat tvam asi
 Dialogues between father
Uddalaka and son
Svetaketu
8 Chapters, Quite long
BṚHADĀRAṆYAKA
Aham brahmāsmi
neti neti
Asatoma Sadgamaya
Close your
Eyes
The Upanishads
The Upanishads
The Upanishads
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Upanishads

5,423 views

Published on

An attempt to understand something

Published in: Spiritual

The Upanishads

  1. 1. THE UPANISHADS “SITTING DOWN NEAR” 108 IN MUKTIKĀ “they express the restlessness and striving of human mind to grasp the true nature of reality. They set forth fundamental conceptions that are sound. Their lofty ideals and poetry have the power to move the greatest minds”
  2. 2. TIMELINES  < 1500 BCE – Rig Veda is composed  < 900 BCE – Yajur, Atharva and Sama Veda  < 650 BCE – Early Upanishads Composed  483 BCE – Death of Gautama, The Buddha  468 BCE – Death of Mahavira  400 BCE – Mahabharata composed by Vyasa  ~ 300 BCE – Dharma Sutras composed  325 – 25 BCE – Alexander and Greek invasions  324 BCE – Chandragupta Maurya ascends. Chanakya  265 – 232 BCE – Ashoka reigns  200 BCE – 200 CE – Ramayana written by Valmiki  320 CE – Gupta Dynasty  788 CE – Adi Shanaka is Born
  3. 3. HINDU PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS  Vedas  Brāhmaṇas  Āraṇyaka  Upanishad  Uttarā Mīmāṃsā  Higher Enquiry – Philosophical texts related to self realization  Pūrva Mimamsa  Explanations of the fire-sacrifices, Brahmanas and Āraṇyakas (forest scriptures!)  Vedānta  The appendix of Vedic Hymns ~ Veda + Anta  Upanishads, Bhagawad Gita and Brahmasutras
  4. 4. AUTHORSHIP  Yajnavalkya  Uddalaka Aruni  Shvetaketu  Shandilya  Aitreya  Pippalada  Sanatkumara  Maitreyi  Gargi  Jabala  Bharadwaja  Pratardana  Ajatasatru  Varuna  Gargyayana  Adi Shankara  Madhvācārya  Bal Gangadhar Tilak  Maharshi Aurobindo  Swami Rama  Eknath Easwaran  Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan  Professor Hirannayya  Max Muller  Schopenhauer Originals Commentaries
  5. 5. CONCEPTS  Brahman and Atman – synonymous at times!  Saprapancha and Nisprapancha  Para and Apara  Vidya and Avidya (maya)  Sravana, Manana, Dhyana and Upasana  Nivritti and Pravritti  Jivanmukti, Videhamukti and Karmamukti  Jagrata, Swapna, Susupta and Turiya  Bheda and Abheda  Satyam Jnanam Anantam: Atman/Bramhan  Tajjalan – that which gives rise to the world - brahman  Brahma-vivarta-vada
  6. 6.  Fundamentally Monistic  Śruti and not Smṛti  Philosophy  The Upanishadic philosophers regarded the Self as the ultimate existence and subordinated the world and God to the Self. The Self to them, is more real than either the world or God  Presentation  Upanishads are primarily presented as conversations between two persons or animals rather than expository statements of philosophy or ideology  Fountain of Philosophical Thought  West: Curiosity  Hindu: Solve problems of life
  7. 7. DASHOPANISHAD  Īṣa - The Inner Ruler – Shukla Yajur  Kena - Who moves the world? - Sama  Kaṭha - Death as Teacher – Krishna Yajur  Praṣna - The Breath of Life - Atharva  Muṇḍaka - Two modes of Knowing - Atharva  Māṇḍūkya - Consciousness and its phases - Atharva  Taittirīya - From Food to Joy – Krishna Yajur  Aitareya - The Microcosm of Man - Rg  Chāndogya - Song and Sacrifice - Sama  Bṛhadāraṇyaka - Shukla Yajur Veda
  8. 8.  Doctrine: Scholars have long held the view that all Upanishads propound the same doctrine. As to what the exact nature of that doctrine is, they differ widely!! – Prof Hiriyanna  Phase change: Ashwamedha as meditative act – Brihadaranyaka  Philosophical: Onslaughts against sacrifices, rituals and ceremonies – Mundaka Upanishad  Prime Object: removal of aham-kara; the basis of all evil; cultivation of detachment or vairagya  Darshana – A mere reasoned conviction is NOT enough  Upanishadic God: explicit repudiation of objective conception of god. (Agni, Vayu subordinate to Brahman – Kena)  Upanishads have consistency of intuition rather than logic – Dr. Radhakrishnan
  9. 9. ĪṢA UPANISHAD DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURE OF SUPREME BEING 18 Verses IT MOVES; IT MOVES NOT IT IS FAR; IT IS NEAR IT IS WITHIN; IT IS WITHOUT
  10. 10. KENA UPANISHAD  Story of Brahman, Indra, Agni and Vayu Not that which the eye can see, but that whereby the eye can see: know that to be Brahman the eternal, and not what people here adore; Not that which the ear can hear, but that whereby the ear can hear: know that to be Brahman the eternal, and not what people here adore; Not that which speech can illuminate, but that by which speech can be illuminated: know that to be Brahman the eternal, and not what people here adore; Not that which the mind can think, but that whereby the mind can think: know that to be Brahman the eternal, and not what people here adore. 4 Sections, 35 Verses
  11. 11. KAṬHOPANISHAD ATMA – CHARIOTS PASSENGER BODY – CHARIOT ITSELF CONSCIOUSNESS – DRIVER MIND – REINS OBJECTS PERCEIVED BY THE SENSES ARE THE CHARIOT'S PATH 3 Sections, 109 Verses
  12. 12. PRAṢNA UPANISHAD QUESTIONS TO SAGE PIPPALADA  The son of Katya, Kabandhi: “Root cause of the universe”  Bhargava of Vidarbha: “Relation between senses and prana”  The son of Ashwala, Kausalya: “From whom prana orignates”  Souryayanee Gargya: “Which elements in a human actually sleep”  Shaibya Satyakama: What fruit does one get who regularly meditates on holy syllable OM till his/her death?  Son of Bharadwaja the Sukesha: Description of the vedic divine being 6 Sections, 67 Verses
  13. 13. MUṆḌAKA 64 Mantras  Question for Angiras -  I want to know from you if there is something I can learn which will explain everything to me – Para and Aprara  There is a sacred word -- OM -- which is the bow; your own self is the arrow and Brahman is the target. Without trembling, hit the mark, and like the arrow, lose yourself in It!  Shivo Bhutva Shivam Yajet  My son, when you know that Brahman, you become that Brahman
  14. 14. MĀṆḌŪKYA Ayam Atma Brahma Fundamental approach to Reality – Shri Radhakrishnan Sri Gaudapada Adi Shankara 12 Verses
  15. 15. TAITTIRĪYA ANNAMAYA – MADE OF FOOD PRANAMAYA – MADE OF BREATH MANOMAYA – MADE OF MIND VIJNANAMAYA – MADE OF KNOWLEDGE ANANDAMAYA – MADE OF JOY Matru devo bhavaḥ, Pitru devo bhavaḥ, Acharya devo bhavaḥ, Atithi devo bhavaḥ 3 Sections, Quite long
  16. 16. AITAREYA  Aitareya Aranyaka of Rig Veda  Chapter 1: Creation of Purusha, other divine beings, creation of food  Chapter 2: Three births of the self  Chapter 3:  Pragyanam brahma: Consciousness is Brahman 33 Verses
  17. 17. CHĀNDOGYA  Tat tvam asi  Dialogues between father Uddalaka and son Svetaketu 8 Chapters, Quite long
  18. 18. BṚHADĀRAṆYAKA Aham brahmāsmi neti neti Asatoma Sadgamaya Close your Eyes

×