Wrestling 123

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Wrestling 123

  1. 1. I INTRODUCTION Back ground: Wrestling is one of the toughest and the oldest forms of sports known to mankind. it is probably by “Father of all sports” beings over come each other when seeking to conquer or dominate with out weapons of any sort. It develops the soldiering qualities of strength, agility, courage, tenacity and will power. Once a man steps on to the mat to face an opponent he must take his own decision and execute them himself. Ever wrestler knows that when he has pinned his antagonist he has done I himself. He has out manoeuuerd out thought and out thought and out lasted a man of equal ability many more in a contest of strength the wrester needs many other qualities such as alertness agility, stamina, skill, constant, mental and physical exertion carrying out strategy in the face of ever changing situations, lightening speed in the right direction and timely and correct use holds land counter-holds etc. There is no denying the fact that it has survived the test of time by virtur of the physical and moral qualities it develops. It is essentially a real mans pastime; and strenuous from a physical activity 1
  2. 2. developing. The great characteristics of the fighting sprit As well as the “Love of fair and true Sportsmanship”. Wrestling contest has been common in India Greece and Italy since time immemorial war regarded such a potent factor as would alone decide even the destinies of the nations and countries without resorting to other measures likewar. History bears an eloquent testimony to the above statement and quite a few reference can be quoted in support i.e. the memorable fight between Bhima and Jarasindha narrated in Mahabharata as well the dural between Rustom and Souhrab mentioned in Shahnama. Hercules was a famous wrestler of Greece and even today his name is treated as the symbol of strength. In those days wrestling was treated as the pride of the common man a necessity for the soldier and a life-breath of the nation. Even now its popularity is immense in the international sports as it forms part of the world Olympic Games. Indeed this sport is very popular in the countries like USA, Germany, Hungary, USSR, Belgium, Turkey and Italy. The science of wrestling is interesting though complex. It give scope to intelligence of high order. As a form of 2
  3. 3. exercise it ensures strength stamina and health constant and regular practice in wrestling. Improves the tone of muscles and keeps the body supple and active. The body becomes strong there by; by no other exercise can the body develop so systematically beautifully and muscularly as in wrestling. This fact is unanimously admitted by eminent physical culturists everywhere in the world. The secret of wrestling is that a good wrestler can over power his through superior in strength and weight. The strong body keep the sound mind. It cultivates capacity for the offensive move and create self-confidence. A good wrestler can defend himself even from an annual opponent by this skill in serpentine movements. Wrestling has a lot of carry over value for several reasons. It takes only two men to complete a wrestling mat or an area (Akhara). It takes little time for a vigorous work out. A wrestler can get a good work out until the gold player is waiting for the preceding four some to get put or range more over it is quite in expensive and this economical. In short it may be stated that wrestling is both an ideal body builder and recreactive sport it develops. 1. Perfect: Physical fitness 2. Quick Reactions: the ability to think and act quickly. 3
  4. 4. 3. Endurance: The withstanding of pain and sustenance of effort. 4. Self control: the power of thinking coldly in most distriburded conditions. 5. Will power and pluck: The facing of ads and the courage to sight to the last whatever the consequence it may be. 6. Imagination initiativein attacking or in anticipating an opponent's attack. Wrestling is a very demanding and power endurance oriented sport. To be a good wrestler you need so many things but to perform your daily work during training and the competition one need a good warm-up. In every sport. We need warm-up but in sports like wrestling warming up is of most importance. It is well establishment that warm-up enhance our performance. Particularly during competition the importance of warm-up is as important as our main training. 4
  5. 5. SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT a. This project will help in understanding the concept of proper warm-up. b. It will provide information about different aspect of general and specific warm-up. c. It will be an information piece for diploma course students. d. It will help in understanding the importance of warm-up in sport of wrestling. e. It will provide scientific bases of effective warm-up. f. It will help in highlighting the importance of stretching exercise. 5
  6. 6. II MAIN PART Warm-up ; warm-up is the optimum adjustment of your physical, Physiological and Neural system as per the demand of your man activity. We do it from slow to fast. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE a) To reduce the risk of injuries b) To rise the body temperature for better circulation of blood. c) To increase the metabolic activity of the body. d) Overall preparation of the body to undergo the forth coming activities. e) To extend the physical activity up to a level where lactic is not fumed and the body derives the energy from aerobic system. f) Thereby minimizing the use of anaerobic energy system. g) To improve the Cardio-vascular and neuro-muscular co-ordination of the body. 6
  7. 7. 2. GUIDELINES OF PRINCIPLES OF WARM-UP a) Perhaps the most important of these is that the bout intensity and duration of the warm-up to be closely monitored. If the warm-up is not long enough, it will be of little benefit on the other hand if the intensity is too high fatigue will result. b) Warm-up periods of 5 to 15 minutes are suggested to allow tissue temperature to reach optmal levels. It has been suggested that the intensity of the warm-up activity should be increased gradually until it is close to that of the proposed workout. c) The athlete must also avoid becoming fatigued prior to practice or competition. This can be accomplished through frequent rest periods because tissue temperature decreases more slowly than if increases. d) Before warming up a through stretching schedule has to be performed which means that stretching is must before starting the process of warming up. e) The exact intensity and duration of the warm-up should be adjusted based on the temperature and amount of clothing worn. f) Increase in muscle temperature following a warm-up has been shown to last at least 45 minutes. The need for re-warming the muscle prior to these time limits its could be argued on the other hand it has been suggested that after 45 minutes at activity the 7
  8. 8. beneficial effect of the warm-up ceases because the muscle tissue temperature has returned the pre warm-up level. g) Lower intensity less complex activity such as jogging or jumping rope, general warm-up methods are sufficient in bringing about the desired. However for higher intensity or more complex activity use general warm-up activities and then proceed to specific warm-up methods. This procedure would allow for adequate increase in tissue temperature and also provides him neurological rehearsal of the activity about to take place. 3. EFFECTIVE WARMING-UP 1. EXPERIENCE Warming up depends on the experience of any athlete senior athlete through their warming up experience know how much time is required for them to warm-up. To warm-up more gradually and systematically one should feel mentally and physically alert. The under warm-up and improper warm-up are no use. 2. CLIMATE Warming-up depends upon climate to climate. In winter it is very obvious to do more warm up because of low temperature. In summer due to hot environmental short duration warm-up be sufficient. 8
  9. 9. 3. ATTITUDE At high altitude one may to require very slow and long warming up in co-operation altitude. 4. TEMPERATURE Up to some extent it depends on individual's temperament. There are different types of athlete to their temperament. It is said that cool and calm type of temperament require lengthy warm-up. 5. EVENTS During of warm-up also depends on even type of event like throwers and sprinters require more long duration warm-up but long sprinters require more long duration warm-up but long distance runners require lesser duration and it is performed slow and smoothly. 4. PHYSILOGICAL RESPONSES OF WARM-UP During exercise there is an increase in tissue temperature is the result muscle tissue. This increase in tissue temperature is the result of three physiological processes. The first is the friction that occurs within the sliding filaments during muscular contraction. In addition the metabolism of fuels and the dilation of intramuscular blood vessels contribute to increased tissue temperatures. 9
  10. 10. As tissue temperature increase a variety of response are initiated within body. for example because metabolic processes are temperature dependant warming-up allows the bodily systems involved with exercise to adopt gradually to the increase level of activity. Additionally a warm-up will allow for increase circulation to working muscle resulting in an enhanced oxygen supply during work. A warm up will also increase the rate at which oxyhemoglobin and myoglobin are broken down, increasing the capacity of working muscle to extract and use the delivery oxygen. 5. SCIENTIFIC APPLICATION: Warm-up as a preparation prior to physical work, attempts more of the following readiness factors. Muscle temperature, circulation and joint mobility Actual performance or certain physiological changes such as oxygen uptake (Vo2) and heart rate, have been utilized to assess the efforts of warm-up, but physiological phenomena are not generally reported as measures or the intensity of the warm-up. Metabolic energy sources are derived from the aerobic and anaerobic processes during the actual work period. Hermansen (scientist) has reported that in hardwork tasks Vo2 increase during the first minutes of until it reaches maximum oxygen uptakes (max Vo2). The lake of oxygen in the initial period is referred to as oxygen 10
  11. 11. deficient can anaerobic process. It an individual can raise his Vo2 quickly accumulating a small oxygen difficulty he may pay for the initial stage of the work aerobically and thus will conserve his internal aerobic of the work aerobically and thus will conserve his internal aerobic processes for utilization during a different time period in the work task. Specifically in tracks field, it by warming-up an athletic can raise his Vo2 near maximum he can perform aerobically for a major protein of the race. Thus he will incur a smaller oxygen deficital the beginning of the raise, conserving his altaic energy reserves for final sprint to finish. Warm up (% max VO2) By warming-up to 30% max. Vo2 the subject utilized more oxygen aerobically. By utilizing more aerobically the subject incurred a smaller anaerobic debt during the raise since the aerobic oridative mechanism is delayed and takes at least on minutes to reach full, Capacity during the run with no warm-up the subject must be in a state of relative anorica. 11
  12. 12. 6. TYPES OF WARM-UP There are three of warm-up passive general and specific; irregardless of the warm-up method the general purpose of warming up prior to physical activity is to increase tissue temperature. PASSIVE WARM-UP Passive warm-up involves such method as hot showers heating pads or massage. Passive warm-up method does not result in the desired increase in tissue temperature. In addition elevating the surface temperature. In addition elevating the surface temperature. In addition elevating the surface temperature and dilating the blood vessel in the skin which normally occurs as a result of passive warmup could divert a large of blood to the skin rather than to working muscles. As it is clear from the word passive, it means the subject is not involved in any kind of physical activity by himself but has to depend on external stimulant or device or help to get the required effect of warming up. To get the maximum, the level of all round fitness is required. Examples are sauna bath, massage, sauna bath, steam bath, hot shower bath etc. 12
  13. 13. GENERAL WARM-UP General warm up involves basic activities that requires movement of muscle groups such as jogging cycling jumping rope because of the large muscle mass require in these types of activities. General warm-up is more effective of increasing tissue temperature than passive warm-up. Thus general warm-up seems more appropriate than passive in preparing the body for demanding physical activity. ORDER OF EXERCISE FOR GENERAL WARM-UP a) Running, hopping, skipping b) Jumping in place c) Arm pulling, stretching, kicking exercises d) Leg swinging exercise e) Trunk bending exercises f) Combined exercise of trunk leg and arms. g) Knee exercise h) Combined of leg circling swinging exercises sideway exercise. i) Support exercise j) Abdominal exercise k) Exercises with special attention to all back muscles l) Arm leg exercise. 13
  14. 14. SPECIFIC WARM-UP Specific warm-up includes movement that are an actual part of the sports activity such as a base ball player taking batting practice or a quarter back throwing passes pre-game warm-up specific warmup has advantage of not only increasing tissue temperature but also allows rehearsal of the event about to take place. Allowing complex skills to become better integrated. Thus the neural aspects of specific exercise. Specific warmup then has the added advantage of both increasing tissue temperature and improving the neural responses required in the activity. a) Forward roll b) Backward roll c) Dive and forward roll d) Backward roll with on extension e) Backward roll in a straddle position f) Cartwheel g) One arm round off h) Giant wheel i) Shoulder roll j) Front bridge on fore head k) Back bridge on fore head l) High bridge as high on forehead as possible 14
  15. 15. m) Low bridge shoulder just of the mat neck straight n) “A” Assumes high bridge position and grasps “B” rankles o) Bridge flip p) Knee Step q) Side Step r) Front Step s) Arm throw action t) Back arch u) Giant walk v) Bridge slips w) Bridge & dips 7. ADVANTAGE OF WARMING UP a) Improve the mobility and flexibility of joint and muscles. b) Reduces the risk of injuries by 70% c) Increase the oxygen consumption in the body d) Increase the muscle power output. e) Utilizes the aerobic system of the energy of the body by minimizing the use an aerobic system of the energy. f) Increases the level of confidence of the individual which helps to get the best out of him physically, mentally and skillfully. g) Reduce the viscosity of the muscle, which helps in the faster conduct of muscular impulse. 15
  16. 16. h) It decrease the affinity of the hemoglobin combines with oxygen it forms in the presence of iron and when the jars reaches to the muscles breaks in the oxygen and hemoglobin again. i) It increase the blood temperative, which helps the blood to travel faster and easily through arteries and veins. j) Due to the rising heart beat more amount of blood is pumped in to the blood which is carrier of oxygen energy. It also helps in carrying the removal of toxic materials, which are being produced as a byproduct. k) Co-ordination i. During the competition warm-up improves coordination and sharpen the timing. ii. Kinesthetic awareness improved coordination sense of body surrounding in air that what type of movement in air) iii. Re-establishment of the proper neuromuscular coordination pattern. Benefit of warming up is that abnormal elecardiogram responses due to an inadequate blood supply to the heart have been found to decrease when strenuous exercise is preceded by a two minute warm-up elevating tissue temperature also result in nerve impulses traveling more rapidly 16
  17. 17. improving the range of muscle contraction and reaction time. Myosin At pase activity is also increased with elevated. Temperature, which is associated with increases in speed of muscle contraction. Myosin Atpase activity is increased as a result of enhanced blood slow and elevated muscle temperatures. Despite the lack of scientific evidence many authors believe that a properly warming up should help reduce the chance of injury during physical activity, increased activity raises muscle temperature, which increases the viscosity of the muscle reducing muscle and joint stiffness. This at increases the range of motion, which provides protection to the body against sudden unexpected movements. Warming up will reduce the occurrence of injury. It has been shown that the antagonistic muscle is the most frequently torn muscle, activity that has been preceded by warm-up. this occur when antagonistic muscles that have not been fully warmed up relax slowly and incompletely when the against contract and thus retard free movement ordination. 17 and accurate co-
  18. 18. 8. COOLING DOWN (WARM DOWN, WIND DOWN, RECOVERY) Cooling down is process while individual is trying to recover to his normal condition (before starting the activity) after undergoing a strenuous physical activity. During the physical activity many physiological changes take place in body due to some chemical reactions and biomechanical movements, which the body undergoes. 9. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF COOLING DOWN To bring back the body to its normal stage or condition without leaving any side effects on the body due to the strenuous activity undergone by the subject. 10. COMPONENTS OF COOLING DOWN The two components are slow rhythmic, continuous, jogging or running and stretching. A. SLOW, RHYTHMIC, CONTINUOUS JOGGING OR RUNNING After finishing strenuous physical activity one should not sit idle or quite with a hope that he will auto magically cool down or recover while he is at rest. The studies have proved the lactic gets metabolized faster while the body is engaged in slow and continuous jogging for at least 10-15 minutes of duration. Since the lactic acid is 18
  19. 19. formed as a by product of the physical activity. It has to be removed from the system as quickly as effectively as a possible. B. STRETCHING Due to Prolonged Physical activity the blood circulation becomes faster. the oxygenated blood is being carried or supplied to the body through arteries and the de-oxygenated blood come back to the blood via lungs through veins and this blood is called venues blood. When we abruptly stop the physical activity, this Venus blood does not recede back of the heart immediately and this remains for the longer period of time in various parts of the body or organ particularly skeletal muscles. This phenomenon effects or impairs cardiac ability. The best way to overcome this effect is stretching. While we stretch the working muscles to a stage of tightness which in turn puts more pressure on the veins there by compelling the veins blood to move out faster from the working muscles. 11. PRINCIPLE OF STRETCHING 1. No pounding and jumping exercise should be chosen for stretching reflex, a condition where the Muscle fibers undergo excessive contraction, which may damage the muscle fiber. That is the stretching exercise should be static in nature and not dynamic. 19
  20. 20. 2. No swing of the body on the limbs should be performed while stretching because the swing is performed mainly through the momentum and this momentum wilnot help in any kind of stretching effect on the muscle. The swing only may help in stretching the ligaments. 3. specific stretching should be done for working muscles, which are going which are going to bears maximum lad during the activity. 4. Stretching should be done after performing a through warming up. 5. Stretching be done should minimum 15 minutes before and after the activity. 6. Stretching should not be painful. 7. Stretching should be slow rhythmic, systematic and without any jerk. 8. Stretching should be held for 10/30 sec. for deriving the maximum benefit out of it. 9. Stretching should not lead to stress on joints and ligaments. 10. Stretching session should be done minimum twice in day. 11. Stretching can be performed at any time. 20
  21. 21. III SUMMARY Wrestling is known to be the most toughest sport. It put lot of physiological and physiological stress on wrestlers. It is true that more rigorous activity require better warm-up because warm-up is considered the rehearsal of your main activity. Therefore, to meet the higher and greater demand of our sport wrestling, we need an optimum warm-up to exploit our potential fully. Warm-up makes our systems of the body ready to carry out the forth coming work such as wrestling. It is also true that the importance of warm-up is not only in competition but also during training but one should know that we need different type of warm-up during competition. We are also convinced that climate, sex and age of wrestler effect the total duration of warm-up. The optimum duration of warm-up is a key of effective warm-up. Therefore, one should not get tired while doing long warm-up, is also, harmful. The structure of warm-up should include simple cyclic movements to raise temp. and followed by stretching of major muscle groups and rehearsal of wrestling movements. In the end it may be concluded that warm-up, of course, enhance our performance if it is done systematically. Further it may be stated that this project will certainly give information about the proper warm-up and its additional benefits. 21
  22. 22. REFERENCES Asmussen, E.and O. Boje. (1945) Body temperature and capcity for work. Acta Physiol. Scand. 10: 1-22 Astrand, P. and K. Rodahi. (1986) strenuous exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise 7: 146-149 Davis N. camaiore, Keneth G. Tillman, (1980) Teaching and coaching wrestling. Keith (1968) complete guide to championship wrestling: Illustrated coaching method and technique. Harfool, Dr. “Modern Wrestling in Wrestling” James G. Hay; (1985) Third edition, the biomechanics of sports technique. John P. Dratz Manly Johnson and Terry MC Cann. (1966) winning wrestling, new jersey prentice – Hall, INC. Keith Art, (1968) “complete Guide to championship Wrestling: Illustrated Coaching methods and Techniques” Petrov Rajko Prof. “Free style and Greeco Roman Wrestling” Safaran, M.R., Garett; W.E., Seaber, A.V., Glisson, R.R. and B.M. Ribbeck. Singh Hardayal Dr., Ph. D, (1991) “Science of Sports Training” The role of warm up in muscular injury prevention: 1988 123-127. 22

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