Back ground: Wrestling is one of the toughest and the oldest
forms of sports known to mankind. it is probably by “Father
of all sports” beings over come each other when seeking to
conquer or dominate with out weapons of any sort. It
develops the soldiering qualities of strength, agility, courage,
tenacity and will power. Once a man steps on to the mat to
face an opponent he must take his own decision and
execute them himself. Ever wrestler knows that when he
has pinned his antagonist he has done I himself. He has out
manoeuuerd out thought and out thought and out lasted a
man of equal ability many more in a contest of strength the
wrester needs many other qualities such as alertness agility,
stamina, skill, constant, mental and physical exertion
carrying out strategy in the face of ever changing situations,
lightening speed in the right direction and timely and correct
use holds land counter-holds etc. There is no denying the
fact that it has survived the test of time by virtur of the
physical and moral qualities it develops. It is essentially a
real mans pastime; and strenuous from a physical activity
developing. The great characteristics of the fighting sprit As
well as the “Love of fair and true Sportsmanship”.
Wrestling contest has been common in India Greece and
Italy since time immemorial war regarded such a potent
factor as would alone decide even the destinies of the
nations and countries without resorting to other measures
likewar. History bears an eloquent testimony to the above
statement and quite a few reference can be quoted in
support i.e. the memorable fight between Bhima and
Jarasindha narrated in Mahabharata as well the dural
between Rustom and Souhrab mentioned in Shahnama.
Hercules was a famous wrestler of Greece and even today
his name is treated as the symbol of strength. In those days
wrestling was treated as the pride of the common man a
necessity for the soldier and a life-breath of the nation. Even
now its popularity is immense in the international sports as it
forms part of the world Olympic Games. Indeed this sport is
very popular in the countries like USA, Germany, Hungary,
USSR, Belgium, Turkey and Italy.
The science of wrestling is interesting though complex. It
give scope to intelligence of high order. As a form of
exercise it ensures strength stamina and health constant
and regular practice in wrestling. Improves the tone of
muscles and keeps the body supple and active. The body
becomes strong there by; by no other exercise can the body
develop so systematically beautifully and muscularly as in
wrestling. This fact is unanimously admitted by eminent
physical culturists everywhere in the world. The secret of
wrestling is that a good wrestler can over power his through
superior in strength and weight. The strong body keep the sound
mind. It cultivates capacity for the offensive move and create
self-confidence. A good wrestler can defend himself even from
an annual opponent by this skill in serpentine movements.
Wrestling has a lot of carry over value for several reasons. It
takes only two men to complete a wrestling mat or an area
(Akhara). It takes little time for a vigorous work out. A wrestler
can get a good work out until the gold player is waiting for the
preceding four some to get put or range more over it is quite in
expensive and this economical. In short it may be stated that
wrestling is both an ideal body builder and recreactive sport it
1. Perfect: Physical fitness
2. Quick Reactions: the ability to think and act quickly.
3. Endurance: The withstanding of pain and sustenance of effort.
4. Self control: the power of thinking coldly in most distriburded
5. Will power and pluck: The facing of ads and the courage to sight
to the last whatever the consequence it may be.
6. Imagination initiativein attacking or in anticipating an opponent's
Wrestling is a very demanding and power endurance oriented sport. To
be a good wrestler you need so many things but to perform your daily
work during training and the competition one need a good warm-up. In
every sport. We need warm-up but in sports like wrestling warming up is
of most importance. It is well establishment that warm-up enhance our
performance. Particularly during competition the importance of warm-up
is as important as our main training.
SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT
a. This project will help in understanding the concept of proper
b. It will provide information about different aspect of general
and specific warm-up.
c. It will be an information piece for diploma course students.
d. It will help in understanding the importance of warm-up in
sport of wrestling.
e. It will provide scientific bases of effective warm-up.
It will help in highlighting the importance of stretching
Warm-up ; warm-up is the optimum adjustment of your
physical, Physiological and Neural system as per the
demand of your man activity.
We do it from slow to fast.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
a) To reduce the risk of injuries
b) To rise the body temperature for better circulation of blood.
c) To increase the metabolic activity of the body.
d) Overall preparation of the body to undergo the forth coming
e) To extend the physical activity up to a level where lactic is not fumed
and the body derives the energy from aerobic system.
f) Thereby minimizing the use of anaerobic energy system.
g) To improve the Cardio-vascular and neuro-muscular co-ordination of
2. GUIDELINES OF PRINCIPLES OF WARM-UP
Perhaps the most important of these is that the bout intensity and
duration of the warm-up to be closely monitored. If the warm-up is
not long enough, it will be of little benefit on the other hand if the
intensity is too high fatigue will result.
Warm-up periods of 5 to 15 minutes are suggested to allow tissue
temperature to reach optmal levels. It has been suggested that
the intensity of the warm-up activity should be increased
gradually until it is close to that of the proposed workout.
The athlete must also avoid becoming fatigued prior to practice or
competition. This can be accomplished through frequent rest
periods because tissue temperature decreases more slowly than
Before warming up a through stretching schedule has to be
performed which means that stretching is must before starting the
process of warming up.
The exact intensity and duration of the warm-up should be
adjusted based on the temperature and amount of clothing worn.
Increase in muscle temperature following a warm-up has been
shown to last at least 45 minutes. The need for re-warming the
muscle prior to these time limits its could be argued on the other
hand it has been suggested that after 45 minutes at activity the
beneficial effect of the warm-up ceases because the muscle
tissue temperature has returned the pre warm-up level.
Lower intensity less complex activity such as jogging or jumping
rope, general warm-up methods are sufficient in bringing about
the desired. However for higher intensity or more complex activity
use general warm-up activities and then proceed to specific
warm-up methods. This procedure would allow for adequate
increase in tissue temperature and also provides him neurological
rehearsal of the activity about to take place.
3. EFFECTIVE WARMING-UP
Warming up depends on the experience of any athlete senior athlete
through their warming up experience know how much time is
required for them to warm-up. To warm-up more gradually and
systematically one should feel mentally and physically alert. The
under warm-up and improper warm-up are no use.
Warming-up depends upon climate to climate. In winter it is very
obvious to do more warm up because of low temperature. In summer
due to hot environmental short duration warm-up be sufficient.
At high altitude one may to require very slow and long warming up in
Up to some extent it depends on individual's temperament. There
are different types of athlete to their temperament. It is said that cool
and calm type of temperament require lengthy warm-up.
During of warm-up also depends on even type of event like throwers
and sprinters require more long duration warm-up but long sprinters
require more long duration warm-up but long distance runners
require lesser duration and it is performed slow and smoothly.
4. PHYSILOGICAL RESPONSES OF WARM-UP
During exercise there is an increase in tissue temperature is the
result muscle tissue. This increase in tissue temperature is the result
of three physiological processes. The first is the friction that occurs
within the sliding filaments during muscular contraction. In addition
the metabolism of fuels and the dilation of intramuscular blood
vessels contribute to increased tissue temperatures.
As tissue temperature increase a variety of response are initiated
within body. for example because metabolic processes are
temperature dependant warming-up allows the bodily systems
involved with exercise to adopt gradually to the increase level of
activity. Additionally a warm-up will allow for increase circulation to
working muscle resulting in an enhanced oxygen supply during work.
A warm up will also increase the rate at which oxyhemoglobin and
myoglobin are broken down, increasing the capacity of working
muscle to extract and use the delivery oxygen.
5. SCIENTIFIC APPLICATION:
Warm-up as a preparation prior to physical work, attempts more of
the following readiness factors. Muscle temperature, circulation and
joint mobility Actual performance or certain physiological changes
such as oxygen uptake (Vo2) and heart rate, have been utilized to
assess the efforts of warm-up, but physiological phenomena are not
generally reported as measures or the intensity of the warm-up.
Metabolic energy sources are derived from the aerobic and
anaerobic processes during the actual work period. Hermansen
(scientist) has reported that in hardwork tasks Vo2 increase during
the first minutes of until it reaches maximum oxygen uptakes (max
Vo2). The lake of oxygen in the initial period is referred to as oxygen
deficient can anaerobic process. It an individual can raise his Vo2
quickly accumulating a small oxygen difficulty he may pay for the
initial stage of the work aerobically and thus will conserve his internal
aerobic of the work aerobically and thus will conserve his internal
aerobic processes for utilization during a different time period in the
work task. Specifically in tracks field, it by warming-up an athletic can
raise his Vo2 near maximum he can perform aerobically for a major
protein of the race. Thus he will incur a smaller oxygen deficital the
beginning of the raise, conserving his altaic energy reserves for final
sprint to finish.
Warm up (% max VO2)
By warming-up to 30% max. Vo2 the subject utilized more oxygen
aerobically. By utilizing more aerobically the subject incurred
smaller anaerobic debt during the raise since the aerobic oridative
mechanism is delayed and takes at least on minutes to reach full,
Capacity during the run with no warm-up the subject must be in a
state of relative anorica.
6. TYPES OF WARM-UP
There are three of warm-up passive general and specific;
irregardless of the warm-up method the general purpose of warming
up prior to physical activity is to increase tissue temperature.
Passive warm-up involves such method as hot showers heating
pads or massage. Passive warm-up method does not result in the
desired increase in tissue temperature. In addition elevating the
surface temperature. In addition elevating the surface temperature.
In addition elevating the surface temperature and dilating the blood
vessel in the skin which normally occurs as a result of passive warmup could divert a large of blood to the skin rather than to working
As it is clear from the word passive, it means the subject is not
involved in any kind of physical activity by himself but has to depend
on external stimulant or device or help to get the required effect of
warming up. To get the maximum, the level of all round fitness is
Examples are sauna bath, massage, sauna bath, steam bath, hot
shower bath etc.
General warm up involves basic activities that requires
movement of muscle groups such as jogging cycling jumping rope
because of the large muscle mass require in these types of activities.
General warm-up is more effective of increasing tissue temperature
than passive warm-up. Thus general warm-up seems more
appropriate than passive in preparing the body for demanding
ORDER OF EXERCISE FOR GENERAL WARM-UP
a) Running, hopping, skipping
b) Jumping in place
c) Arm pulling, stretching, kicking exercises
d) Leg swinging exercise
e) Trunk bending exercises
f) Combined exercise of trunk leg and arms.
g) Knee exercise
h) Combined of leg circling swinging exercises sideway exercise.
i) Support exercise
j) Abdominal exercise
k) Exercises with special attention to all back muscles
l) Arm leg exercise.
Specific warm-up includes movement that are an actual part of
the sports activity such as a base ball player taking batting practice
or a quarter back throwing passes pre-game warm-up specific warmup has advantage of not only increasing tissue temperature but also
allows rehearsal of the event about to take place.
Allowing complex skills to become better integrated. Thus the
neural aspects of specific exercise. Specific warmup then has the
added advantage of both increasing tissue temperature and
improving the neural responses required in the activity.
a) Forward roll
b) Backward roll
c) Dive and forward roll
d) Backward roll with on extension
e) Backward roll in a straddle position
g) One arm round off
h) Giant wheel
i) Shoulder roll
j) Front bridge on fore head
k) Back bridge on fore head
l) High bridge as high on forehead as possible
m) Low bridge shoulder just of the mat neck straight
n) “A” Assumes high bridge position and grasps “B” rankles
o) Bridge flip
p) Knee Step
q) Side Step
r) Front Step
s) Arm throw action
t) Back arch
u) Giant walk
v) Bridge slips
w) Bridge & dips
ADVANTAGE OF WARMING UP
a) Improve the mobility and flexibility of joint and muscles.
b) Reduces the risk of injuries by 70%
c) Increase the oxygen consumption in the body
d) Increase the muscle power output.
e) Utilizes the aerobic system of the energy of the body by minimizing
the use an aerobic system of the energy.
f) Increases the level of confidence of the individual which helps to get
the best out of him physically, mentally and skillfully.
g) Reduce the viscosity of the muscle, which helps in the faster conduct
of muscular impulse.
h) It decrease the affinity of the hemoglobin combines with oxygen it
forms in the presence of iron and when the jars reaches to the
muscles breaks in the oxygen and hemoglobin again.
i) It increase the blood temperative, which helps the blood to travel
faster and easily through arteries and veins.
j) Due to the rising heart beat more amount of blood is pumped in to
the blood which is carrier of oxygen energy. It also helps in carrying
the removal of toxic materials, which are being produced as a byproduct.
During the competition warm-up improves coordination and
sharpen the timing.
Kinesthetic awareness improved coordination sense of body
surrounding in air that what type of movement in air)
Re-establishment of the proper neuromuscular coordination
Benefit of warming up is that abnormal elecardiogram
due to an inadequate blood supply to the heart
have been found to decrease when strenuous exercise is
temperature also result in nerve impulses traveling more rapidly
improving the range of muscle contraction and reaction time.
Myosin At pase activity is also increased with elevated.
Temperature, which is associated with increases in speed
of muscle contraction. Myosin Atpase activity is increased as a
Despite the lack of scientific evidence many authors believe
that a properly warming up should help reduce the chance of
injury during physical activity, increased activity raises muscle
temperature, which increases the viscosity of the muscle
reducing muscle and joint stiffness. This at increases the range
of motion, which provides protection to the body against
sudden unexpected movements.
Warming up will reduce the occurrence of injury. It has
been shown that the antagonistic muscle is the most frequently
torn muscle, activity that has been preceded by warm-up. this
occur when antagonistic muscles that have not been fully
warmed up relax slowly and incompletely when the against
contract and thus retard free movement
and accurate co-
COOLING DOWN (WARM DOWN, WIND DOWN,
Cooling down is process while individual is trying to recover
to his normal condition (before starting the activity) after
undergoing a strenuous physical activity. During the physical
activity many physiological changes take place in body due to
some chemical reactions and biomechanical movements,
which the body undergoes.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF COOLING DOWN
To bring back the body to its normal stage or condition
without leaving any side effects on the body due to the
strenuous activity undergone by the subject.
10. COMPONENTS OF COOLING DOWN
The two components are slow rhythmic, continuous,
jogging or running and stretching.
SLOW, RHYTHMIC, CONTINUOUS JOGGING OR RUNNING
After finishing strenuous physical activity one should not sit
idle or quite with a hope that he will auto magically cool down or
recover while he is at rest. The studies have proved the lactic gets
metabolized faster while the body is engaged in slow and continuous
jogging for at least 10-15 minutes of duration. Since the lactic acid is
formed as a by product of the physical activity. It has to be removed
from the system as quickly as effectively as a possible.
Due to Prolonged Physical activity the blood circulation becomes
faster. the oxygenated blood is being carried or supplied to the body
through arteries and the de-oxygenated blood come back to the
blood via lungs through veins and this blood is called venues blood.
When we abruptly stop the physical activity, this Venus blood does
not recede back of the heart immediately and this remains for the
longer period of time in various parts of the body or organ particularly
skeletal muscles. This phenomenon effects or impairs cardiac ability.
The best way to overcome this effect is stretching. While we
stretch the working muscles to a stage of tightness which in turn puts
more pressure on the veins there by compelling the veins blood to
move out faster from the working muscles.
PRINCIPLE OF STRETCHING
No pounding and jumping exercise should be chosen for
stretching reflex, a condition where the Muscle fibers undergo
excessive contraction, which may damage the muscle fiber. That
is the stretching exercise should be static in nature and not
No swing of the body on the limbs should be performed while
stretching because the swing is performed mainly through the
momentum and this momentum wilnot help in any kind of
stretching effect on the muscle. The swing only may help in
stretching the ligaments.
specific stretching should be done for working muscles, which are
going which are going to bears maximum lad during the activity.
Stretching should be done after performing a through warming
Stretching be done should minimum 15 minutes before and after
Stretching should not be painful.
Stretching should be slow rhythmic, systematic and without any
Stretching should be held for 10/30 sec. for deriving the
maximum benefit out of it.
Stretching should not lead to stress on joints and ligaments.
Stretching session should be done minimum twice in day.
Stretching can be performed at any time.
Wrestling is known to be the most toughest sport. It put lot of
physiological and physiological stress on wrestlers. It is true that
more rigorous activity require better warm-up because warm-up is
considered the rehearsal of your main activity. Therefore, to meet
the higher and greater demand of our sport wrestling, we need an
optimum warm-up to exploit our potential fully. Warm-up makes our
systems of the body ready to carry out the forth coming work such as
wrestling. It is also true that the importance of warm-up is not only in
competition but also during training but one should know that we
need different type of warm-up during competition. We are also
convinced that climate, sex and age of wrestler effect the total
duration of warm-up. The optimum duration of warm-up is a key of
effective warm-up. Therefore, one should not get tired while doing
long warm-up, is also, harmful. The structure of warm-up should
include simple cyclic movements to raise temp. and followed by
stretching of major muscle groups and rehearsal of wrestling
movements. In the end it may be concluded that warm-up, of course,
enhance our performance if it is done systematically. Further it may
be stated that this project will certainly give information about the
proper warm-up and its additional benefits.
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Astrand, P. and K. Rodahi. (1986) strenuous exercise. Med. Sci.
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Davis N. camaiore, Keneth G. Tillman, (1980) Teaching and
Keith (1968) complete guide to championship wrestling: Illustrated
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Harfool, Dr. “Modern Wrestling in Wrestling”
James G. Hay; (1985) Third edition, the biomechanics of sports
John P. Dratz Manly Johnson and Terry MC Cann. (1966) winning
wrestling, new jersey prentice – Hall, INC.
Keith Art, (1968) “complete Guide
to championship Wrestling:
Illustrated Coaching methods and Techniques”
Petrov Rajko Prof. “Free style and Greeco Roman Wrestling”
Safaran, M.R., Garett; W.E., Seaber, A.V., Glisson, R.R. and B.M.
Singh Hardayal Dr., Ph. D, (1991) “Science of Sports Training”
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