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Physiology and Sports

Lesson 8 of Physical Education for Grade XII students of CBSE Board. Covers all new subtopics.

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Physiology and Sports

  1. 1. Lesson 8 Lesson 8 Physiology and Sports
  2. 2. Physiology and Sports Lesson 8
  3. 3. 8.1 Gender Differences in Physical and Physiological Parameters 8.2 Physiological Factors Determining the Components of Physical Fitness 8.3 Effects of Exercises on Cardio-Vascular System 8.4 Effects of Exercises on Respiratory System 8.5 Effects of Exercises on Muscular System 8.6 Physiological Changes due to Ageing and Role of Physical Activity in Maintaining Functional Fitness in Aged Population Overview
  4. 4. 8.1 Gender Differences in Physical and Physiological Parameters
  5. 5. MajorPhysical DifferencesRelatedToAppearanceIn MenAndWomenBodyStructure Male Female 1 Height: Gain height up to 20-22 years . Males are taller than Females Gain height up to 18-20 years 2 Weight: Males are heavier 3 Shorter trunk, long legs so C.G. is high Shorter limbs , upper body large so C.G. is low 4 Joints are larger and skeleton is more rigid because of greater bone density. Ossification of bones starts earlier. 5 Broad and strong shoulders Narrow and weaker in strength
  6. 6. MajorPhysical DifferencesRelatedToAppearanceIn MenAndWomenBodyStructure Male Female 6 Broad chest and small thorax 7 Smaller abdominal cavity Larger abdominal cavity due to additional reproduction organs 8 Longer upper arms and lower arms 9 Narrower pelvis Pelvic region is more open and wide 10 Males carry more fat in the upper area of the body and abdominal region More fat due to accumulation of adipose tissues at various parts
  7. 7. Physiological Difference Cardiovascular System Male Female Size of heart: Larger in size. Better blood circulation. Slow pulse rate Smaller in size. Faster pulse rate Stroke volume More in Males Less in Females Blood pressure Systolic & diastolic BP is more O₂ carrying capacity More RBC count & Haemoglobin Less RBC count & Haemoglobin
  8. 8. Physiological Difference Respiratory system Male Female Tidal volume More in Males ( amount of air inhaled during normal breathing) Less in Females Vital capacity More in Males ( amount of air one can inhale after forceful exhalation) Less in Females Residual volume More in Males (volume of air still remaining in lungs after expiratory reserve volume exhaled ) Lower lung capacity
  9. 9. Physiological Difference MALE FEMALE Muscular differences More muscle power due to large muscle structure Biological changes During puberty biological changes happen like release of ovum. Reaction time Better in males Metabolic difference BMR better in males : 3000 kcal BMR is 2400 kcal
  10. 10. 8.2 Physiological Factors Determining the Components of Physical Fitness
  11. 11. Components of Physical Fitness
  12. 12. 1. Muscle size: Strength of the muscle depends on size of the muscles. Force produced by same size of muscle in males and females is approximately same. Can be improved through training 2. Body weight: Individuals who are heavier are stronger than the light weight individuals. 3. Muscle composition: Muscular system is composed of white muscle & red muscle fibre. The percentage of these muscles is genetically determined and cannot be changed through training. 4. Nerve impulse: Speed of nerves impulse determines strength. Can not be improved through training Physiological Factors Determining Strength
  13. 13. 1. Mobility of the nervous system: Contraction and relaxation of muscles is controlled by nervous system. Frequency of contraction and relaxation of muscles is determined by excitability of nerve impulse 2. Muscle composition: The percentage of white muscle & red muscle fibre is genetically determined and cannot be changed through training. 3. Explosive strength: Depends on muscle composition, muscle size, muscle coordination and metabolic process. Except muscle composition the other factors can be improved through training. Physiological Factors Determining Speed
  14. 14. 4. Flexibility: Maximum range of movement of any muscle or joint. Freedom of movement enables muscles to move at faster rate & complete utilization of explosive strength. 5. Bio chemical reserves and metabolic power: For maximum speed performance the muscles require more amount of energy at a very high rate of consumption. For this purpose ATP and CP stores should be enough. If the store is less the muscle contractions due to insufficient energy supply becomes slow after a short time. Physiological Factors Determining Speed
  15. 15. 1. Aerobic Capacity: energy required by the muscles can be supplied in the presence of oxygen. Hence supply of oxygen to working muscles is important for endurance performance. a) Oxygen Intake: can be improved through training. b) Oxygen Transport : can be improved through training c) Oxygen Uptake: can be improved through training. d) Energy reserves: can be improved through training. . Physiological Factors Determining Endurance
  16. 16. 2. Lactic Acid Tolerance: It is important for activities lasting > 40 seconds & determines anaerobic capacity. Can be improved through training. 3. Movement Economy: For apex performance, body movements should be economical. Good technique saves energy & improve endurance. 4. Muscle Composition: The percentage of white muscle & red muscle fibre is genetically determined and cannot be changed through training. . Physiological Factors Determining Endurance
  17. 17. 1.Muscle strength: Weak muscles cannot exert sufficient force to achieve full range of movement. Muscle strength is highly trainable. 2.Joint Structure: Structure of joint is a limiting factor for flexibility. Some of the joints intrinsically have a greater range of motion than others. 3.Age and Gender: Flexibility is maximum during childhood and decreases with the advancement of age. It can be enhanced with training. Females tend to be more flexible than males. Physiological Factors Determining Flexibility
  18. 18. 4. Stretchability of Muscles: Limits the range of movements. Stretchability can be improved by training. 5. Body temperature: Has a positive correlation with body flexibility. Warm up before any sports activity is highly advisable. 6. Previous Injury: Injuries to connective tissues and muscles can lead to thickening on the affected area leading to reduced flexibility. Rehabilitation exercises are must after healing of injury. Physiological Factors Determining Flexibility
  19. 19. 8.3 Effects of Exercises on Cardio-Vascular System
  20. 20. 1. Increase in heart rate: Heart rate increases in anticipation called as anticipatory response. Increases as per the intensity and duration of the exercise. 2. Increase in stroke volume: The amount of blood ejected per beat from the left ventricle ( stroke volume) increases 2-3 times during intensive exercises. 3. Increase in Cardiac output: Cardiac output = stroke volume X heart rate. At rest the cardiac out put is 5L/Min which can increase to 20 to 40 L / Min during intense exercises. Immediate Effects Of Exercises On Cardiovascular System
  21. 21. 4. Increase in blood flow: more blood is sent to tissues which have immediate demand. At rest 15 to 20 % blood to skeletal muscle . During intensive exercises 80 to 85 % to skeletal muscle. Less blood to liver, kidneys and intestine and redirected to skin to enhance heat loss. 5. Increase in Blood Pressure: During exercise the systolic BP can increase by 50 to 70 mm Hg. Diastolic BP generally remains unchanged 6. Increase in Body Temperature: waste products are released in to the blood by muscles. Blood carries these waste products to lungs, kidney etc. for elimination. The chemical reactions produce heat in the body, some of it is utilized in performing activity and the rest raises the body temperature. Immediate Effects Of Exercises On Cardiovascular System
  22. 22. 1. Increase in the size of Heart: muscles of the heart increase in size and strength. The left ventricle adapts to the greatest extent. Heart walls grow stronger and thicker. 2. Decrease in resting heart rate: Regular exercise decreases the resting heart rate. Resting heart rate 72 beat/min can go down to 30 to 40 beat/minute in highly conditioned athlete. 3. Stroke volume increases at rest: In an untrained individual stroke volume at rest is 50 to70 ml / beat which increases to 70 to 90 ml / beat as an effect of regular exercise. Long Term Effects Of Exercises On Cardiovascular System
  23. 23. 4. Increased blood flow: To supply the muscles with extra oxygen during exercise, the body increases its number of capillaries. Existing capillaries open wider. The blood redistribution more efficient & effective. 5. Decrease in Blood Pressure: Decreases BP by up to 10 mmHg at rest. 6. Increase in Blood Volume: Increases the blood volume due to increase in plasma volume. Body produces more RBC to supply extra oxygen to muscles during intensive exercise. . Long Term Effects Of Exercises On Cardiovascular System
  24. 24. 7. Increase in cardiac output Cardiac output = stroke volume X heart rate 8. Quicker Recovery Rate: Quickens the recovery rate. Rate of respiration also becomes normal quickly. 9. Reduced risk of Heart Disease: Reduces stress related hormone from circulating in the blood. This in turn lowers the risk of buildup of plaque in the blood vessel. Long Term Effects Of Exercises On Cardiovascular System
  25. 25. 8.4 Effects of Exercises on Respiratory System
  26. 26. 1. Decrease in Rate of Respiration 2. Strengthens Diaphragm and Muscles 3. Avoids Second Wind 4. Unused Alveoles become active 5. Increase in Endurance . Effects Of Exercises On Respiratory System
  27. 27. 6. Increase in Residual Air Volume 7. Increase in size of Lungs and Chest 8. Tidal Volume Increases 9. Increase in Vital Air capacity . Effects Of Exercises On Respiratory System
  28. 28. 8.5 Effects of Exercises on Muscular System
  29. 29. 1. Change in Shape and Size of Muscle 2. Formation of more Capillaries 3. Controls extra fat 4. Change in the connective tissues . Effects Of Exercises On Muscular System
  30. 30. 5. Efficiency in the movement of muscles 6. Delays fatigue 7. Non functioning fibres become active . Effects Of Exercises On Muscular System
  31. 31. 8. Body Posture remains correct 9. Improves Reflexes 10. Improves Lactic Acid tolerance . Effects Of Exercises On Muscular System
  32. 32. 8.6 Physiological Changes due to Ageing and Role of Physical Activity in Maintaining Functional Fitness in Aged Population
  33. 33. 1. Changes in muscle size and strength 2. Changes in Metabolism and body composition 3. Changes in Bone Density 4. Changes in Respiratory System . Physiological Changes Due To Ageing
  34. 34. 5. Changes in Cardio vascular System 6. Changes in Nervous System 7. Changes in the Gastro Intestinal System 8. Changes in Urinary System 9. Changes in Flexibility. Physiological Changes Due To Ageing
  35. 35. 10. Changes in senses a. Change in vision b. Change in hearing c. Change in taste d. Change in smell . Physiological Changes Due To Ageing
  36. 36. 1. Reduces the loss of muscle mass 2. Helps in maintain bone density 3. Slows down brain ageing 4. Releases the risk of age related diseases 5. Improves muscular strength . Physical Activity & Functional Fitness Of Aged Population
  37. 37. 6. Enhances the capacity of lungs 7. Improves the flexibility 8. Reduces stress and tension 9. Improves balance and coordination Physical Activity & Functional Fitness Of Aged Population

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