Physical exercise is any bodily activity thatenhances or maintains physical fitness and overallhealth and wellness. It is performed for variousreasons. These include strengthening muscles andthe cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills,weight loss or maintenance and for enjoyment.
Types of exercise Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve the range of motion of muscles and joints. Aerobic exercises, such as cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hiking or playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance. Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training, functional training, eccentric training or sprinting, increase short-term muscle strength.
Categories of physical exercise Strength training Agility training Eccentric TrainingSometimes the terms dynamic and static are used. Dynamic exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise).
Categories of general physical skills Physical exercise is used to improve physical skills. Physical skills fall into the following general categories, per CrossFit: Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance Stamina Strength Flexibility Power Speed Coordination Agility Balance Accuracy
BenefitsPhysical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well- being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system.Exercise also reduces levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that builds fat in the abdominal region, making weight loss difficult. Cortisol causes many health problems, both physical and mental.
Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life- threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression.There is a direct relation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease.Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness. Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system while extreme exercise impairs it
physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases.There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain:increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brainincreasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and promote synaptic plasticityincreasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin
exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia. The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime.
Common misconceptions That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activity or has an undiagnosed rare condition like hypertrophic card That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One confirmed danger is that heavy weight training in adolescents (ages 11–16) can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones and can stunt joints. It is still commonly suggested that adolescents refrain from any kind of "strenuous" weight-lifting. cardiomyopathy.
One misconception is that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising. This is not literally true—fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different—but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibers for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat.
Excessive exerciseExercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body—contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the bodys reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regular exercise: increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density, and connective tissue toughness.
Too much exercise can be harmful. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases, and muscle tissue may develop slowly. Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities.
Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running and cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern, whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern.
In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits.[ Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the bodys capacity to recover between bouts.Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each bodys inherent limitations.