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International*Marketing*
Impact*of*Advertising*on*International*Marketing*
Ayush&Parekh&
&
& &
& 2&
Index&
Sr.&No.& & & Topic& Page&No.&
1.& Introduction& 3&
2.& International&Marketing&Defined& 3&
3.& International&A...
& 3&
Impact of advertisement of
international marketing
INTRODUCTION
International business is taking different shades and...
& 4&
organizational objectives.”_ The venerable Philip Kotler defines
Marketing as “a social and managerial process by whi...
& 5&
INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING
International Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion
of goods, services, compani...
& 6&
BARRIERS OF INTERNATIONAL
ADVERTISING
- CULTURE
Culture is a problematic issue for many advertisers since it is
inher...
& 7&
greatest'. The ad backfired and offended the Muslims who
regard only the God was great.
- LANGUAGE
Translation from o...
& 8&
• Use of sensuality
• Comparative advertising referring to the competing product
from rival firms
• Use of children a...
& 9&
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNATIONAL
ADVERTISING
International marketing, also known as global marketing, is the
process of ov...
& 10&
Global Networking
Expanding into a global market gives a business the distinct
advantage of connecting with new cust...
& 11&
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
FACTORS
Although firms marketing abroad face many of the same
challenges as firms marketing ...
& 12&
rates; general education levels; language; religion; ethics; social
values; and social organization. "The ability of...
& 13&
INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING
CONCEPT
The International Communication Process
The international communication process in...
& 14&
Benetton recently encountered a problem with its “United
Colors of Benetton” campaign. The campaign appeared in 77
c...
& 15&
MEASURING ADVERTISING
EFFECTIVENESS
Just as important as creating a strong marketing plan is
following through on th...
& 16&
STANDARDISATION VIS A VIS
LOCALISATION
Adaptation as a general tendency of the
cross-national advertising literature...
& 17&
On average, the cross-national advertising literature leans
towards adaptation rather than standardization of advert...
& 18&
comprises 'what is said' and execution concerns more 'how it is
said'. Degree of adaptation increases over a continu...
& 19&
countries makes it possible today more than ever to create global
campaigns with a same message”.
Axe Chocolate-man ...
& 20&
INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AS
A SOCIAL FORCE
When we consider it from the advertiser's point of view,
according to th...
& 21&
especially from the US. This is generally regarded as negative in
societies with strong religious and moral values, ...
& 22&
communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that
differ in terms of values, communication styles, an...
& 23&
CONCLUSION
Thus we see advertising has multiple layers to it. A lot more
than what actually meets the consumer's eye...
& 24&
the sensitivities that are specific to every culture. For instance,
different cultures have different flavors of hum...
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Impact of Advertising on International Marketing

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Impact of Advertising on International Marketing

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Impact of Advertising on International Marketing

  1. 1. International*Marketing* Impact*of*Advertising*on*International*Marketing* Ayush&Parekh& & & &
  2. 2. & 2& Index& Sr.&No.& & & Topic& Page&No.& 1.& Introduction& 3& 2.& International&Marketing&Defined& 3& 3.& International&Advertising&& 5& 4.& Barriers&of&International&Advertising&& E Culture& E Language& E Education& E Government&Regulations& E Media&Limitations&& 6& 5.& Advantages&of&International&Advertising& E Market&Expansion& E Brand&reputation&& E Global&Networking& E Opening&door&for&future&opportunities& 9& 6.& Factors&affecting&International&Marketing&& 11& 7.& International&Advertising&Concept& E Communication&Process& E Art&Direction& E Cultural&Considerations&& 13& 8.& Measuring&Advertising&Effectiveness&& 15& 9.& Standardization&vis&a&vis&Localization&& &&&&&E&&&Examples& 16& 10.& International&Advertising&as&a&Social&Force& 20& 11.& Conclusion& 23&
  3. 3. & 3& Impact of advertisement of international marketing INTRODUCTION International business is taking different shades and is unavoidable today. This dynamic world is rapidly changing to the extent that it has been reduced to a “Global village”. This assertion is true in every sense because what happens in one part of the world has a rippling effect on some business transaction thousands of kilometers away. International marketing means to apply the principles of marketing in more than one country. International marketing involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decisions across national boundaries. At its most complex level, it involves the firm in establishing manufacturing facilities overseas and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING DEFINED “The performance of business activities that direct the flow of a country's goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit.” Others have defined marketing as “the creation and delivery of a standard of living” or “Producing what you can sell not selling what you can produce”. The AMA has defined marketing in two ways as “The performance of the business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user” and if we may add ‘in more than one country'. Their latest definition is even more elaborate as “the multinational process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and
  4. 4. & 4& organizational objectives.”_ The venerable Philip Kotler defines Marketing as “a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value to others” across boundaries, if we were to raise it to the international scenario. International trade is a necessity for any 21st century company to remain buoyant in a ferociously competitive world. There certain key factors one has to note before venturing into a new market and these are the controllable factors (4 Ps, Product, Price, Promotion, and Place) and the uncontrollable variables such as the Political, Legal, and the cultural environment. IM is a stepping stone towards macro marketing unraveling the meaning of global business as to how that the world has been reduced to a small place where transactions done in a remote part of the world have some effect on the business transactions at another part of the world. The trend today is that World Trade is going “Global” and as such, the successful marketer should strategically think globally. The World economy has gone through different cycles and phases. At one time, The USA Multi National Corporations (MNC) reigned supreme and unrivalled. It is on record that the 20th century saw the world go into at least two economic depressions between the World wars. After the wars and eventual recovery of some poor economies, the USA & other countries started thinking “Global” in terms of trade. In order to regulate trade for sanity, efficiency and equity, various instruments were set in place to guarantee “free and fair trade” by different countries. An association was set up to monitor and ensure fairness in trade, and thus the first General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT) was set up and later (1994) the World Trade organization (WTO).
  5. 5. & 5& INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING International Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually in more than one country performed by an identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Advertising is a cogent communication attempt to change or reinforce ones' prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior. It can be viewed as a communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that differ in terms of values, communication styles, and consumption patterns. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values, and propagates certain values worldwide. International advertising involves recognizing that people all over the world have different needs. Companies like Gillette, Coca-Cola, etc. have brands that are recognized across the globe. While many of the products that these businesses sell are targeted at a global audience using a consistent marketing mix, it is also necessary to understand the regional differences, hence it is important to understand the importance of international marketing. Organizations must accept that differences in values, customs, languages and currencies will mean that some products will only suit certain countries and that as well as there being global markets e.g. for BIC and Gillette razors, and for Coca- Cola drinks, there are important regional differences for example advertising in China and India need to focus on local languages. Just as the marketing environment has to be assessed at home, the overseas potential of markets has to be carefully scrutinized. Finding relevant information takes longer because of the unfamiliarity of some locations. The potential market size, degree and type of competition, price, promotional differences, product differences as well as barriers to trade have to be analyzed in order to advertise our product effectively in different countries
  6. 6. & 6& BARRIERS OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING - CULTURE Culture is a problematic issue for many advertisers since it is inherently nebulous and often difficult to understand. One may violate the cultural norms of another country without being informed of this, and people from different cultures may feel uncomfortable in each other's presence without knowing exactly why. Communication is more difficult because cultural factors largely determine the way various phenomena are perceived. If the perceptual framework is different, perception of the message itself differs. It is a well-known fact that the culture of a country influences the customer preferences. Customers are quite sensitive about cultural aspects depicted in advertisements. Advertising themes, incorporating social acceptance, mutual dependence, respect for elders, harmony with nature, use of seasons, innovation and novelty, distinctive use of celebrities. Some of the advertising blunders in international marketing are: • Procter and Gamble showed an animated stork delivering Pampers diapers in its ad campaigns in the US. The same ad copy was used in Japan, only the language was changed. However, this ad did not worked in Japan. The subsequent market research revealed that, unlike the western folklore, storks, according to the Japanese folklore, are not expected to deliver babies. On the contrary, Japanese people believe that it is the giant peaches that float on a river that bring babies to the deserving parents. Subsequently, Procter & Gamble changed the theme of the ad campaign to “expert mom”, a nurse who is also a mother theme. • Muhammad Ali is immensely popular in the Middle East. One of the car manufacturers used Muhammad Ali in its ad campaign for the region. The ad theme was, ‘I am the
  7. 7. & 7& greatest'. The ad backfired and offended the Muslims who regard only the God was great. - LANGUAGE Translation from one language to another language is crucial in international advertising. The literal translation may fail to convey the desired message across the countries due to cultural factors. For instance the word yes means in low context in USA and Europe and in Japan it means I am listening to what are you saying, in Thailand it means Ok. So there is a difference in the language of different countries. Some instances of the translation blunders in international advertisement are as follows: • Pepsi used the German translation of the slogan ‘come alive with Pepsi' in its ad campaign in West Germany. However, the slogan when translated in German actually meant ‘come out of the grave with Pepsi' and failed to generate any market response from the customers. • General Motors translated its slogan ‘Body by Fisher' to ‘Corps by Fisher' in Belgium that offended many Belgium customers. - EDUCATION The level of literacy plays an important role in deciding what advertisement tool and message should be used in international market. Market segments with lower level of adult literacy need to be addressed by way of more audio visual content rather than a written message. It should be ensured that the visuals convey the desired message rather than the text part of the advertisement. - GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS The regulatory framework of a country influences the advertisement strategy in international market. The government regulations in the following country relate to following issues: • Advertisement in foreign language.
  8. 8. & 8& • Use of sensuality • Comparative advertising referring to the competing product from rival firms • Use of children as models • Advertisement related to alcohol and tobacco • Advertisement related to health and pharmaceuticals Some of the various regulations in various countries are: ◦ In Malaysia the Ministry of Information advertising code states that women should not be a principal object of an advertisement and should not be used to attract sales unless the advertisement product is relevant to women. ◦ The Ministry of Information in Saudi Arabia prohibits any advertisement depicting unveiled woman. ◦ Use of foreign words and expression when French equivalents can be used are prohibited in France. ◦ Portuguese law prohibits sex discrimination or the subordination or objectification of women in advertising. ◦ Norway prohibits any advertising that portrays men or women in an offensive manner or implies any derogatory judgment of either sex. ◦ Most Arab countries prohibit explicit depiction of sensuality. - MEDIA LIMITATION Media may diminish the role of advertising in the promotional program and may force the marketers to emphasis the other elements of promotional mix. A marketer's creativity is certainly challenged when a television commercial is limited to 10 showing a year with no two exposures closer than 10 days. In some African countries advertisers run boats up and down the rivers playing popular music and broadcasting commercial into the bush as they travel.
  9. 9. & 9& ADVANTAGES OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING International marketing, also known as global marketing, is the process of overseas advertising of the products that a company sells. International marketing provides a host of benefits to a business, from helping to broaden the customer base to improving the reputation of the brand. Understanding these advantages can help businesses of all sizes to plan their international sales strategies and to focus their customer service efforts. Market Expansion The most obvious advantage of marketing internationally is the expansion of a company's market. Expanding the places where a company does business and advertises its products and services opens up a larger customer base and potentially greater profit margins. While small businesses may find that marketing internationally is cost prohibitive, technology such as social media and online newspapers and advertising services have made the process of international marketing even more attractive. Customers can now buy from virtually anywhere in the world via the Internet, making market expansion through international marketing a highly useful skill for businesses to master. Brand Reputation International marketing can have a unique advantage of helping to boost a brand's reputation. Right or wrong, customers perceive a brand that's selling in multiple markets to be of higher quality and better service than brands that just sell locally. Major technology companies, global automobile models and multinational banks are proof of this. People are keen to buy products that are widely available.
  10. 10. & 10& Global Networking Expanding into a global market gives a business the distinct advantage of connecting with new customers and new business partners. A company doing business in Eastern Europe, for instance, may find a cheaper workforce, less-stringent tax laws or even less-expensive modes of advertising in local newspapers, television stations and radio programs. In other words, the opportunities for networking internationally are limitless. The logic behind this is simple: the more "places" your business is, the more connections it can make. Opening the Door for Future Opportunities International marketing can also open the door to future business expansion opportunities. Not only does global marketing expand a company's sales base, it also helps the business to connect to new vendors, a larger workforce and new technologies and ways of doing business. American companies investing in Japan, for instance, have found programs such as Six Sigma and Theory Z to be highly useful in shaping their business strategies. Being in a new market improves the business's efficiency and helps open the management's eyes to previously undiscovered opportunities for growth.
  11. 11. & 11& INTERNATIONAL MARKETING FACTORS Although firms marketing abroad face many of the same challenges as firms marketing domestically, international environments present added uncertainties, which must be accurately interpreted. Indeed, there are a host of factors that need to be researched and evaluated when preparing an international marketing strategy. Key aspects of any potential foreign market include: demographic and physical environment; political environment; economic environment; social and cultural environment; and legal environment. Demographic and Physical Environment: Elements that needs to be assessed that fit under this category include population size, growth, and distribution; climate factors that could impact on business; shipping distances; time zones; and natural resources (or lack thereof). Economic Environment: Factors in this area include disposable income and expenditure patterns; per capita income and distribution; currency stability; inflation; level of acceptance of foreign businesses in economy; Gross National Product (GNP); industrial and technological development; available channels of distribution; and general economic growth. Obviously, the greater a nation's wealth, the more likely it will be that a new product or service can be introduced successfully. Conversely, a market in which economic circumstances provide only a tiny minority of citizens with the resources to buy televisions may not be an ideal one for a television-based marketing campaign. Social and Cultural Environment: This category encompasses a wide range of considerations, many of which can—if misunderstood or unanticipated—significantly undermine a business's marketing efforts. These include literacy
  12. 12. & 12& rates; general education levels; language; religion; ethics; social values; and social organization. "The ability of a country's people to read and write has a direct influence on the development of the economy—and on marketing strategy planning," observed McCarthy and Perreault. "The degree of literacy affects the way information is delivered—which in marketing means promotion." Attitudes based on religious beliefs or cultural norms often shape marketing choices in fundamental ways as well. As Hiam and Schewe noted, "cultures differ in their values and attitudes toward work, success, clothing, food, music, sex, social status, honesty, the rights of others, and much else." They observed that even business practices can vary tremendously from people to people. "For instance, haggling is never done by the Dutch, often by Brazilians, and always by the Chinese." The company that does not take the time to make itself aware of these differences runs the risk of putting together an international marketing venture that can fail at any number of points. Legal Environment: This includes limitations on trade through tariffs or quotas; documentation and import regulations; various investment, tax, and employment laws; patent and trademark protection; and preferential treaties. These factors range from huge treaties (North American Free Trade Agreement-NAFTA, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade- GATT) that profoundly shape the international transactions of many nations to trade barriers erected by a single country. Political Environment: Factors here include system of government in targeted market; political stability; dominant ideology; and national economic priorities. This aspect of an international market is often the single most important one, for it can be so influential in shaping other factors. For example, a government that is distrustful of foreigners or intent on maintaining domestic control of an industry or industries might erect legal barriers designed to severely curtail the business opportunities of foreign firms.
  13. 13. & 13& INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING CONCEPT The International Communication Process The international communication process involves using the entire promotional mix to communicate with the final consumer. First, the appropriate message is determined for the target audience by the advertiser. Next, the international sponsor (sender), usually represented by an advertising agency, encodes a message into words and images. The message is then translated into the language of target market and transmitted through a channel of media channels to the audience who then decodes and reacts to the message. Cultural barriers may hamper effective transmission of the message at each stage in the process and result in miscommunication. Art Direction Art direction is involved with visual presentation- the body language of print and broadcast advertising. Some types of visual presentation are universally understood. Revlon, for example, has used a French producer to develop television commercials, English and Spanish for use in the international markets. These commercials, which are filmed in Parisian settings, communicate the universal appeals and specific advantages of Revlon products. By producing its ads In France, Revlon obtains effective television commercials at a much lower price than it would have to pay for similar –length commercials produced in US. Pepsi Co has used four basic commercials to communicate its advertising themes. The basic setting of young people having fun at a party or on a beach has been adapted to reflect the general physical environment and racial characteristics of North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia,. The music in these commercials has also been adapted to suite regional tastes, ranging from rock and roll in North America to Bossa nova in Latin America to Africa.
  14. 14. & 14& Benetton recently encountered a problem with its “United Colors of Benetton” campaign. The campaign appeared in 77 countries, primarily in print and on billboards. The art direction focused on striking, provocative interracial juxtapositions- a white hand a black hand handcuffed together, for example another version of campaign, depicting a black woman nursing a white baby, won adverting awards in France and Italy. However, because the image evoked the history of slavery in America, that particular creative execution was not in the U.S market. Cultural Considerations Knowledge of cultural diversity, especially the symbolism associated with cultural traits, is essential when creating advertising. Local country managers will be able to share important information, such as when to use cautions in advertising creativity. Use of colors and man-women relationships can often be stumbling blocks. For example, white in Asia is associated with death. In Japan, intimate scenes between men and women are considered to be in bad taste; they are outlawed in Saudi Arabia. Advertising Communication System Advertising communication always involves a perception process and four of the elements shown in the model: the source, a message, a communication channel, and a receiver. In addition, the receiver will sometimes become a source of information by talking to friends or associates. This type of communication is termed word-of-mouth communication, and it involves social interactions between two or more people and the important ideas of group influence and the diffusion of information. An advertising message can have a variety of effects upon the receiver. It can Create awareness Communicate information about attributes and benefits Develop or change an image or personality Associate a brand with feelings and emotions Forms group norms Precipitate behavior
  15. 15. & 15& MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Just as important as creating a strong marketing plan is following through on the results. How will you know which ads are working if you don't analyze the results? Check the effectiveness of your advertising programs regularly by using one or more of the following tests: • Run the same ad in two different publications with a different identifying mark on each. Ask customers to clip the ad and bring it in for a discount or free sample. Or, if you're running an ad that asks customers to order by mail, put a code in your company address such as “Dept. SI.” By looking at the marks on the clipped ads or the addresses on the mail-in orders, you'll be able to tell which ad pulled well. • Offer a product at slightly different prices in different magazines. This has the added benefit of showing whether consumers will buy your product at a higher price. • Advertise an item in one ad only. Don't have any signs or otherwise promote the item in your store or business. Then count the calls, sales or special requests for that item. If you get calls, you'll know the ad is working. • Stop running an ad that you regularly run. See if dropping the ad affects sales. • Check sales results whenever you place an ad for the first time. • Checks like these will give you some idea how your advertising and marketing program is working. Be aware, however, that you can't expect immediate results from an ad Especially with small ads—the type most entrepreneurs are likely to be running—you need to give the reader a “getting to know you” period during which he gets to feel comfortable with your business.
  16. 16. & 16& STANDARDISATION VIS A VIS LOCALISATION Adaptation as a general tendency of the cross-national advertising literature The feasibility of ad standardization depends on variables related to the economic, technological, legal, social, and cultural environment. These factors together are known as the PEST factors which are very important for every firm. These are those external factors or conditions that the firm needs to adapt it with. These factors cannot be controlled by the firm and thus influence the firm extensively. Within a homogeneous environment advertising standardization is recommendable. If, on the contrary, environmental variables across markets are heterogeneous, customized advertising should be favored. It's always preferred that the environment be homogeneous. Reviews of cross-national advertising studies, either regional or global generally conclude in favor of adaptation. Standardized advertising is hindered if the use of certain media or execution elements is restricted, for instance in countries such as Malaysia which prohibits the use of foreign models in advertising. In a similar way, a heterogeneous economic environment across countries makes advertising standardization more difficult. Advertising execution has to take into account the education, literacy, and income levels of target groups. The competitive environments as well as the actual life cycle stage of a product are further factors in favor of adaptation. The cultural environment is seen as the highest barrier against standardized advertising. Differing needs, traditions, consumption habits, religion etc. make the use of an identical advertising approach across markets difficult. It's still a matter of debate whether standardization or adaptation is better, as it is a very subjective term. The fact that adaptation allows for more creative freedom and standardization a more restrictive environment, generally means can allow the advertisers to go for more focused approaches.
  17. 17. & 17& On average, the cross-national advertising literature leans towards adaptation rather than standardization of advertising worldwide. Change over time Many studies point to the persistent need of ad adaptation. For instance, an analysis of U.S. companies operating in Europe showed that, between 1963 and 1983, advertising was more resistant to standardization than product or brand policies. However, there are many arguments in favor of a trend towards advertising standardization, especially due to strong globalization over the last 20 years. A number of developing countries have been accessing the status of advertising intensive countries. China and India are a case in point for a dramatic change in the place of advertising in the overall business and consumer scene. Authors coming from the corporate world, either advertisers or agencies, have consistently argued in favor of ad standardization and the possibility of putting up a global message with localized communication. Furthermore, rapidly changing communication technologies (Internet ads, satellite TV) influence global advertising: media overlaps push companies to more standardized advertising approach. Advertising standardization is increasing over time due the globalization trend. Adaptation to local contexts still needed Religion act as filters of advertising messages, transforming factual information into culturally interpreted meaning. Culture and local customs are positively related to adaptation recommendation Advertising strategy versus advertising execution The contents of advertising can be categorizes in to two categories as strategy and execution. Though there is some overlap between both the categories, advertising strategy
  18. 18. & 18& comprises 'what is said' and execution concerns more 'how it is said'. Degree of adaptation increases over a continuum of four levels as: mission (long term, identity and vision of the communicator), proposition (campaign themes), creative concepts (how themes are translated in the language and cultures of the target groups) and execution. While mission and proposition can rather easily be globalized, execution will need much local tailoring. Influence of product category on the degree of standardization of international advertising The type of the product has an influence on advertising standardization. Products that satisfy the universal needs have messages, which mostly carry rather than context free information. Ads for certain product categories may be easier to standardize because they correspond to global (airlines, tobacco, banks,) rather than multidomestic industries (food, motor insurance,). I'M LOVIN' IT”: An International Motto We can take the example of McDonald’s, which have launched a new, and for the first time global marketing strategy in Germany at the beginning. The campaign launched by the McDonald revolves around the motto, “I'm loving' it” and it is part of a new and broader marketing approach that McDonald's calls Rolling Energy. The company says this approach will restore the strength of the brand in the entire world, unify its messages and integrate all its marketing moves. “McDonald's realized that it could save money. To create a campaign of this sort, which is not individualized for each country and each market and which is going to use the same slogan, presumes a terrific cost savings that could have an impact on [McDonald's] accounting results.” Despite the benefits that this campaign offers, “it contains the risk of not being able to adjust to the peculiarities of each individual market”. “The value shared by the youths in different
  19. 19. & 19& countries makes it possible today more than ever to create global campaigns with a same message”. Axe Chocolate-man Ad Banned Axe ad is a classic example of standardization vs. localization debate. Keeping in line suggestive advertisements being televised. The Indian government has taken strong objection to the AXE chocolate deodorant ad. Ministry of information and broadcasting has regarded the ad as indecent, vulgar and repulsive. It clearly reflects the importance of understanding cultural sensitivity in advertising.
  20. 20. & 20& INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AS A SOCIAL FORCE When we consider it from the advertiser's point of view, according to them the primary objective of advertisement is that the product or services, which they are offering, should be sold in the market. And in achieving the main objective of selling the product or services there are other profound consequences. Advertising puts an influence, which is both persuasive and pervasive in nature. Through the selective reinforcement of certain language and values, and social goal, it acts as important force attitudes that underlie behavior not only in the market place, but also in all aspects of life. In an international marketing concern, Advertising has an important social influence in a number of ways: many of the international advertising are designed to promote and introduce new products from one market to another. Often this results in sudden change in life-styles, behavior patterns of a society, stimulating for example the adoption of fast food, casual attire or hygiene and beauty products. International advertising encourages desire for products from other countries; it creates expectations about "the good life", and establishes new areas of consumption. Advertising is thus a potent force for change, while selectively reinforcing life-styles, certain values and role models. We can see the examples of brands like Levi's, adidas, Reebok, Nike, Marlboro and McDonalds, which are familiar in almost every corner of the world. These brands have become an object of desire by the teen and young adults throughout the world. Even the scenes and images, which have been shown in the international advertising, are either in western in origin or reflect western consumption behavior and values. Even where it had been adapted to local scenarios and role models these shown often come from sectors of society, such as the upwardly mobile urban middle class, which embrace or are receptive to Western values and mores. As a consequence, a criticism frequently leveled at international advertising is that it promulgates Western values and morals;
  21. 21. & 21& especially from the US. This is generally regarded as negative in societies with strong religious and moral values, which is run as a counter to those of the west. For example the Islamic societies in the Middle East. When Western advertising shows sexually explicit situations or shows women in situations, which is considered as inappropriate or immoral, it is likely to be considered a subversive force undermining established cultural mores and values. Similarly in some countries such as France, there is a strong opposition to the imposition of US culture, values and use of English in advertising. Promotion of tobacco products by US and UK companies in countries where there is no legislation regulating or banning cigarette advertising has also been criticized. At the same time, international advertising also acts as an integrating force across national boundaries. It makes the message known using universal symbols and slogans, and establishes a common mode of communication among target audiences in different parts of the world. At the same time, multicultural values, which are reinforced by advertisers, who adopt images incorporating peoples of different nations and diverse cultural backgrounds as, for example, the Colors of Benetton, campaign or the British Airways "Peoples of the World" campaign. Consequently, while, on the one hand, international advertising can be viewed as a colonizing force propagating Western values and moral throughout the world, it is also an important force that integrates societies and establishes common bonds, universal symbols and models of communication among peoples in different parts of the world. International advertising It entails dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. Target audiences differ from country to country in terms of how they perceive or interpret symbols or stimuli; respond to humor or emotional appeals, as well as in levels of literacy and languages spoken. How the advertising function is organized also varies. International advertising can, therefore, be viewed as a
  22. 22. & 22& communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that differ in terms of values, communication styles, and consumption patterns. International advertising is also a business activity involving advertisers and the advertising agencies that create ads and buy media in different countries. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values, and propagates certain values worldwide. International Advertising as a Business Practice International advertising can also be viewed as a business activity through which a firm attempts to inform target audiences in multiple countries about itself and its product or service offerings. In some cases the advertising message relates to the firm and its activities, i.e. its corporate image. In other cases, the message relates to a specific product or service marketed by the firm. In either case, the firm will use the services of an advertising agency to determine the appropriate message, advertising copy and make the media placement.
  23. 23. & 23& CONCLUSION Thus we see advertising has multiple layers to it. A lot more than what actually meets the consumer's eye goes into creating a successful advertisement or an advertisement campaign. In today's era of consumerism the need for advertisements to break the clutter and stand out becomes absolutely imperative. Advertising has multiple media at its disposal with each having its respective strengths and limitations. For instance radio still has a reach to rural India like no other medium can. Also it overcomes the barrier of illiteracy in a developing country like India. On the other hand mailers pop ups are an excellent way to remain visible to the urban techno- savvy Internet using consumers. Depending on the target audience the medium best suited should be exploited to the hilt. Digital media advertising (internet, mobile and digital signage) is expected to emerge as the medium of choice for advertisers. Of the available media, it was the fastest growing segment in 2008. Its better return on investment and the comparative ease with which its efficacy can be measured will ensure that the trend continues, say analysts. Rising interest in social networking in 2008 has made brands think seriously about online advertising. According to a Ficci-PwC report, it is expected to touch Rs 1,100 crore in 2011 from the current Rs 300 crore. In terms of marketing it is a very potent tool to create awareness and lure the consumer to buy the product. But one must not underestimate the discerning capacity of the buyers. Advertisements must achieve the difficult task of creating the world of possibility at the same time living up to what they promise to the consumer. Else, it may backfire. The common traps in marketing are promising something and then not delivering it. Therefore, along with your marketing strategy, it's also important to service other not so obvious touch- points so as to provide a consistent 360-degree brand experience to your consumers. International advertising is a creative and cultural challenge. Before conveying any message one must have a fair idea about
  24. 24. & 24& the sensitivities that are specific to every culture. For instance, different cultures have different flavors of humor. An Indian advertisement cannot humor the elders, as it would offend the cultural beliefs that the country represents. A good positive example of this would be “ ” which captures the spirit how money has different cultural connotations to it in India. Clients increasingly working in global matrix structures expect their service providers to mirror those structures. With the market maturing, international expertise has become imperative at the local level. Globalization, too, has opened up opportunities for Indian professionals. The campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace and marketing mix. The Vodafone campaign is yet another classic example of the same. Getting celebrities who have attained iconic status is a popular way to endorse a brand. But what makes it break the clutter is the fact how one creatively leverages the presence of a celebrity. This is exactly where Amir Khan with his Coca Cola campaign achieved wonders. His each character catered to different cultural ethnicities that India comprises of. Celebrities are seen to covertly endorse brands as well. For example, one observes product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. It is seen that after United States, China is the next largest market in terms of advertisement. But India too is not far behind as some its advertisements have got noticed in the international community. Advertisement is therefore, has elements of both an art as well as science. The art comes in the creativity and visualization. While the other bit is taken care of in terms of consumer behavior comprehension in marketing. Reference: www.ukessays.com

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