Communication Feedback Models Source/Encoder Ø Is the person or organisation that has information to share with another person or group. Encoding Ø Leads to development of a message that contains the information of meaning the source hopes to convey.
Communication Feedback ModelsChannel/Message Ø Is the method which communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver Ø Personal channels – direct interpersonal Ø Non-personal channels – mass communicationsDecoding Ø Process of transforming the sender’s message back into thought Ø Influenced greatly by the receivers frame of reference (perceptions, attitudes and values)
Communication Feedback Models Receiver Ø Is the person(s) with whom the sender shares thoughts of information. Noise Ø External factors that create unplanned distortion Feedback Ø Receivers respond by hearing, seeing or reading Ø Feedback is sent back to the sender
Analysing the receiverWho is our target market Levels of Audience Aggregation • Must know how your market will respond to various sources of information and message types
Implications 1. Delineate the series of steps potenial purchasers must be taken through 2. Potenial buyers may be in different stages of the hierarchy creating problems. 3. Useful for promotional planners
The FCB Planning ModelAim: to improve the way your brand is positioned in the consumer’s mind thereby giving you a better return on your advertising dollar by:1 Decide on the degree of involvement2 Decide on the degree of thinking/feeling experienced by the consumer prior to purchasing3 Place your brand on the Grid4 Plot your competitors (cluster or not?)5 Is current strategy right or need improving?6 Player with the best position wins!!
The Cognitive Response Approach • Cognitive responses are the thoughts that occur to audience when they read, view and / or hear communication • Looks at the type of responses evoked advertising messages • Three types of cognitive responses
The Elaboration Likelihood Model(ELM) • Addresses the differences in the way consumers process and respond to persuasive messages. • High and Low elaboration when it comes to information processing
Summarising the response process • Individual responses to advertising are mediated or filtered by factors such as Ø motivation Ø ability to process information • Advertising should be evaluated using three dimensions Ø Product category Ø Stage of life-cycle Ø Target audience Ø Competition Ø Impact of marketing mix components
Value of Objectives • Communication – Objectives facilitate coordination of various groups working on the campaign • Planning and Decision Making – Specific promotional objectives also guide the development of IMC plan. • Measurement and Evaluation of Results – Objectives act as a benchmark for success or failure of the campaign and can be measured
Comparison of Marketing AndCommunication ObjectivesMarketing Communication• Sales volume • Market segments the• Market share company wants to target• ROI • The products FAB• Profit • The companies and competitors brands. • Ideas on how the brand should be positioned
Sales versus Communication Objectives • To many companies the goal is SALES • Companies have increased pressure to make agencies more accountable for their performance. • Some have developed ROI information • Sales decline is not attributed to less advertising spend • May be due to other marketing mix variables
DAGMAR: Defining Advertising Goals for MeasuredAdvertising Results 1. Awareness – making the consumer aware of the existence of the brand 2. Comprehension – developing and understanding of what the product is and what it will doe for the consumer 3. Conviction – developing a mental disposition in the consumer to buy the product. 4. Action – getting the consumer to purchase product
Fosters Positioning Campaign 1. Strengthen the brands image 2. Mamimise brand presence 3. Broaden the marketAustralian for Board Meeting Australian For Beer base 4. Increase sales