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International Marketing, Market
    Selection, Modes of Entry in
           International Markets
       International Business Management



         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
What is Marketing?
   “Marketing is a social and managerial process by
    which individuals and groups obtain what they need
    and want through creating, offering, and
    exchanging products of value with others.” (Kotler)




            Process, Exchange, Value



                        Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Marketing process
                                                                                  Capture
                        Create value for customers and                           value from
                         build customer relationships                            customers
                                                                                  in return



 Understand          Design a      Construct a           Build profitable           Capture
     the            customer-       marketing             relationships           value from
 marketplace          driven       program that            and create            customers to
and customer        marketing        delivers               customer             create profits
 needs and           strategy        superior              satisfaction              and
   wants                              value                                        customer
                                                                                    quality




       Marketing                    Global                             Ethics and
       technology                  markets                         social responsibility
                                 Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
What is international marketing?
  - “International marketing is the process of planning and
  conducting transactions across national borders to create
  exchanges that satisfy the objectives of individuals and
  organizations” (Czinkota and Ronkainen)

  - “International marketing focuses its resources on global market
  opportunities and threats” (Keegan and Green)

  - “International marketing is the motor of the internationalization
  process of the firm” (Usunier)

  - It is a tool used to obtain improvement of the firm’s position in
  the global market

  - Strategy and action, global and local


                            Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
International Marketing Decisions

         Deciding whether to go abroad


         Deciding which markets to enter


        Deciding how to enter the market


       Deciding on the marketing program


      Deciding on the marketing organization

                  Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
What are the similarities and differences between
international marketing and domestic marketing?



      Similarities: basic concepts, practices and tools
       are almost identical, key success factors are the
       same…

      Differences: more strategic, more variables, more
       complex, cultural differences, legal constraints,
       information sources, managing distances, entry
       mode choice…



                          Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Driving Forces of International Marketing
   Technology
   Culture
   Market Needs
   Costs
   Free Markets
   Economic Integration
   Peace
   Strategic Intent
   Management Vision, Strategy and Action



                       Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Restraining Forces of International
Marketing
   Culture
   Market Differences
   Costs
   National Controls
   Nationalism
   Peace vs. War/ Stability
   Management Myopia
   Organization History
   Domestic Focus



                         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
International Marketing Challenges
   Unstable governments
   Political restrictions
   Incompatibility of technical standards
   Foreign-exchange problems
   Government bureaucracy/Corruption
   Tariffs and other trade barriers
   Technological pirating
   High cost of product and communication adaptations




                       Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Standardization vs. adaptation

   Factors encouraging standardization
       Economies of scale in production
       Economies in R&D
       Economies in marketing
       Global competition
       “Shrinking” of world market                                 Degree of
                                                                 standardization,
       “Converging, homogeneous cultures”
                                                                    Degree of
                                                                   adaptation,
   Factors encouraging adaptation                                 global/local
       Differing use conditions                                     paradox
       Government and regulatory influences
       Local competition
       Differing consumer behavior patterns
       “True” to marketing concept
                               Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Need for adaptation
   High




Degree of
 cultural
grounding




   Low

            Industrial/Technology intensive                            Consumer

                                    Nature of product
                                Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
                                                                  Source: Czinkota and Ronkainen
Market Selection
   Firm related factors
   Market related factors
   Other factors




                         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Market Selection: Firm related factors
   Ethnocentric: everything is centered on the domestic
    market.

   Polycentric: several important foreign markets exist.

   Regiocentric: the market is composed of several large
    economic regions.

   Geocentric: the world is one large global market.




                          Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Market Selection: Firm related factors
             Ethnocentric           Polycentric            Geocentric
Approach    International        Each country is         The world is one
            operations are       relatively              common market
            secondary            independent
Vision      Centered on the Each market is               Global vision of
            domestic market unique                       the world
Priority    Searching for        Taking into             Unifying
            identical            consideration           differences in
            segments in          differences in          the world
            foreign markets      foreign markets         market
Planning    National             Subsidiary in           World
center      headquarters         each country            headquarters
Structure   International        Division for            Matrix structure
            division             each zone

                       Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Market Selection: Firm related factors
                Ethnocentric           Polycentric         Geocentric
Staff          Citizens from        Citizens from        Most qualified
               the domestic         each market
               market
Marketing      Extension            Adaptation           Extension,
strategy                                                 Adaptation,
                                                         Creation
Management     Centralized          Decentralized        Integrated and
style                                                    interactive
Production     Domestic             Local                Low-cost
                                                         sources of
                                                         supply
Partnerships   Agent, licensing     Joint-ventures       Strategic
                                                         alliances
Performance    Domestic         Local market             World market
measures       market share Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
                         Mrs.   share                    share
Market Selection: Market related factors
   A)General factors
       economic factors
       business regulations
       political factors
   B) Specific factors
       trends in domestic market
       trends in export and import
       nature of competition
       supply conditions of raw materials




                               Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Market Selection: Other Factors
   Political restrictions
   Special requirements
   Product specification
   Distant location
   Market accessibility
   Business community




                         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Market Selection Process
                              International
                                marketing
                               objectives

           Commercial                             Parameters for
           production                               selection




                                                            Preliminary
      Test marketing
                                                            screening




                   Evaluation and        Short listing of
                     selection             markets


                            Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Entry mode choice

   Considered by many as the most important
    aspect of a firm’s internationalization strategy

   Entry mode will determine long-term success or
    withdrawal from foreign markets

   Poor decisions can be very costly for the firm




                        Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Factors in the entry mode decision

 Target country      Target country           Target country       Home country
 market factors      environmental              production           factors
                        factors                   factors




External factors
                                Entry mode
                                 decision
Internal factors



           Company product                           Company resource
               factors                                and commitment
                                                           factors
                              Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Elements of market entry strategies

                                                                               Entry
                                                                             operation




Choice of target   Setting objectives       Choice of            Design the         Target
product/market         and goals           entry mode           marketing plan      market




                            Control systems:
                          monitoring operations /
                          Revising entry strategy

                                    Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Different types of entry modes

   Exporting (commercial strategy, commercial
    modes)

   Foreign direct investment (industrial strategy,
    integrated modes)

   Associated or contractual modes (contractual
    strategy, competitive alliances)


                       Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Entry mode continuum



      Exporting     Contractual modes                       FDI



  -                                                               +
          Commitment, risk, control, profit potential



                          Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Types of exporting
   Indirect exporting
       Distributor / export merchants
       Export agent
       EMC
   Direct exporting
       Export department
       Export sales representatives
       E-business
   Cooperative exporting
       Export groups
       Piggyback exporting

                           Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
   The ultimate form of foreign involvement

   Direct ownership of foreign-based assembly,
    manufacturing or sales facilities

   The company can buy part or full interest in a
    local company (M&A) or build its own facilities

   Considered the “preferred” mode of entry




                       Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Advantages and disadvantages of FDI
Advantages
-   Cost economies (labor, raw materials, incentives, freight savings, etc…)
-   Better image in host country
-   Deeper relationship with government, customers, local suppliers,
    distributors
-   Better adaptation
-   Full control of investments
-   Long term objectives


Disadvantages
-   High initial and operating costs
-   High level of risk

                                Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
FDI options

   Make-or-buy decision
       Greenfield investment
       Mergers and acquisition

   Branch or subsidiary
       Structure
       Legal status

   Analyzing FDI project
       Assessing profitability
       Discounted cash flow analysis
                          Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Associated entry modes
   Newest, most recent forms of international business

   Transfer of technology or know-how between two firms

   Shared risks

   Only option in countries where the government requires
    foreign firms to use local capital

   Better access to local market knowledge



                         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Types of associated entry modes
   Joint venture: foreign and local investors share ownership and control
    of local operations

   Licensing: licensor licenses a foreign company to use a
    manufacturing process, trademark, patent, trade secret or other item of
    value for a fee

   Management contracts: firm exports management services instead of
    a product, separation between ownership and management

   International Franchising: contractual association between a
    franchisor (manufacturer, wholesaler or service organization) and
    franchisees (independent business people who buy the right to own
    and operate units in the franchise system). Franchising is based on
    some unique product, service or method of doing business.
     Industrial franchising
     Distribution franchising
     Service franchising
                               Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Comparing different entry mode options

    High                     Franchising                                                          FDI

                                  Licensing                                            Wholly owned
                                                                                      subsidiary (M&A)
     Contribution of know-




                                      Management contract
                                                                            Branch office
                                       AD / Concessionaire



                                                                      Minority shareholding
                                                                    through partial acquisition
     how




                                     ITC / distributor
                                                                              Majority JV investment
                              Foreign buying                                 (local partner know-how)
    Low                        department

                              Low                   Level of ownership                            High
                                                 Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Case Study: DIFFERENT FOR GAMBLE
   Procter and Gamble (P&G), a global consumer products giant,
    “stormed the Japanese market with American products, American
    managers, American sales methods and strategies. The result was
    disastrous until the company learnt how to adapt products and
    marketing style to Japanese culture. P&G which entered the
    Japanese market in 1973 lost money until 1987, but by 1991 it
    became its second largest foreign market.”
   P&G, acclaimed as “the World’s most admired marketing machine”
    entered India, which has been considered as one of the largest
    emerging markets, in 1985. It entered the Indian detergent marketing
    in the early nineties with the Ariel brand through P&G India (in which
    it had a 51 percent holding which was raised to 65 per cent in
    January 1993, the remaining 35 percent being held by the public).
    P&G established P&G Home products, a 100 percent subsidiary
    later (1993) and the Ariel was transferred to it. Besides soaps and
    detergents, P&G had or introduced later product portfolios like
    shampoos (Pantene) medical products (Vicks Prof.
                                 Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst.
                                                           range, Clearasil and
    Mediker) and personal products (Whisper feminine hygiene products,
   The Indian detergents and personal care products market was
    dominated by Hindustan Lever Ltd. (HLL). In some segments of the
    personal care products market the multinational Johnson & Johnson
    has had a strong presence. Tata group’s Tomco, which had been in
    the red for sometime, was sold to Hindustan Lever Ltd.(HLL).
   HLL, a subsidiary of P&G’s global competitor, has been in India for
    about a century. The take over of Tomco by HLL further increased its
    market dominance. In the low priced detergents segment Nirma has
    established a very strong presence. Over the period of about one
    and a half decades since its entry in India, P&G invested several
    thousand crores. However, dissatisfied with its performance in India,
    it decided to restructure its operations, which in several respects
    meant a shrinking of activities - the manpower was drastically cut
    and thousands of stockists were terminated. P&G, however holds
    that, it will continue to invest in India. According to Gary Cofer, the
    country manager, “ it takes time to build a business category or brand
    in India. It is possibly an even more demanding geography than
                                   Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
    others.”
   China, on the other hand, with business worth several
    times than in India in less than 12 years, has emerged as
    a highly promising market for P & G. When the Chinese
    market was opened up, P & G was one of the first MNCs
    to enter. Prior to the liberalisation, Chinese consumers
    had to content with shoddy products manufactured by
    government companies. Per capita income of China is
    substantially higher than India’s and the Chinese
    economy was growing faster than the Indian. Further, the
    success of the single child concept in China means
    higher disposable income.
   Further it is also pointed out that for a global company
    like P&G, understanding Chinese culture was far easier
    since the expat Chinese in the US was not very different
    from those back home where as most Indian expats
    tended to adapt far more to the cultural nuances of the
    immigrant country.
                          Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
   One of P & G’s big bets in India was the compact technology premium
    detergent brand Ariel. After an initial show, Ariel, however, failed to generate
    enough salesconsumers seem to have gone by the per kilo cost than the
    cost per wash propagated by the promotion. To start with, P&G had to import
    the expensive state-of-the –art ingredients, which attracted heavy customs
    duties. The company estimated that it would cost Rs. 60 per kilo for Ariel
    compared to Rs. 27 for Surf and Rs. 8 for Nirma. Because of the Rupee
    devaluation of the early 1990s, the test market price of Rs. 35 for 500 gms
    was soon Rs. 41 by the time the product was launched. HLL fought Ariel
    back with premium variants of Surf like Surf Excel.
   It is pointed out that, “in hindsight, even P & G managers privately admit that
    bringing in the latest compact technology was a big blunder. In the eighties,
    P & G had taken a huge beating in one of its most profitable markets, Japan,
    at the hands of local company Kao. Knowing the Japanese consumer’s
    fondness for small things, Kao weaved magic with its new-found compact
    technology. For a company that prided itself on technology, the drubbing in
    Japan was particularly painful. It was, therefore, decided that compacts
    would now be the lead brand for the entire Asia-Pacific region.
                                   Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
   When P & G launched Ariel in India, it hoped that the Indian consumer would
    devise the appropriate benchmarks to evaluate Ariel. As compacts promised
    economy of use, P & G hoped that consumers would buy into the low-cost-
    per wash story. But selling that story through advertising was particularly
    difficult, especially since Indian consumers believed that the whasing wasn’t
    over unless the bar had been used for scrubbing. Even though Ariel was
    targeted at consumers with high disposable income, who represented half
    the urban population, consumers simply baulked at the outlay.
   Thereafter, one thing led to another. Ariel’s strategy of introducing variants
    was a smart move to Flank Lever at every price point by cleverly using the
    brand’s halo effect. And by supporting the brand in mass media and retaining
    the share of voice. By 1996, it had become clear that Ariel’s equity as a high-
    performance detergent had begun to take a beating. Its equity as a top-of-
    the-line detergent was getting eroded... Nowhere in P&G’s history had a
    concept like Super Soaker been used to gain volumes.... It was decided that
    Super Soaker would no longer be supported, nor would Ariel bar be
    supported in media.”

                                   Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
Questions
   Discuss the reasons for the initial failure of P&G in
    Japan.
   Where did P&G go wrong (if it did) in the evaluation
    of the Indian market and its strategy ?
   Discuss the reasons for the differences in the
    performance of P&G in India and China.




                         Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.

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6. International Marketing, Market Selection, Modes of Entry in International Markets

  • 1. International Marketing, Market Selection, Modes of Entry in International Markets International Business Management Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 2. What is Marketing?  “Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others.” (Kotler) Process, Exchange, Value Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 3. Marketing process Capture Create value for customers and value from build customer relationships customers in return Understand Design a Construct a Build profitable Capture the customer- marketing relationships value from marketplace driven program that and create customers to and customer marketing delivers customer create profits needs and strategy superior satisfaction and wants value customer quality Marketing Global Ethics and technology markets social responsibility Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 4. What is international marketing? - “International marketing is the process of planning and conducting transactions across national borders to create exchanges that satisfy the objectives of individuals and organizations” (Czinkota and Ronkainen) - “International marketing focuses its resources on global market opportunities and threats” (Keegan and Green) - “International marketing is the motor of the internationalization process of the firm” (Usunier) - It is a tool used to obtain improvement of the firm’s position in the global market - Strategy and action, global and local Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 5. International Marketing Decisions Deciding whether to go abroad Deciding which markets to enter Deciding how to enter the market Deciding on the marketing program Deciding on the marketing organization Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 6. What are the similarities and differences between international marketing and domestic marketing?  Similarities: basic concepts, practices and tools are almost identical, key success factors are the same…  Differences: more strategic, more variables, more complex, cultural differences, legal constraints, information sources, managing distances, entry mode choice… Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 7. Driving Forces of International Marketing  Technology  Culture  Market Needs  Costs  Free Markets  Economic Integration  Peace  Strategic Intent  Management Vision, Strategy and Action Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 8. Restraining Forces of International Marketing  Culture  Market Differences  Costs  National Controls  Nationalism  Peace vs. War/ Stability  Management Myopia  Organization History  Domestic Focus Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 9. International Marketing Challenges  Unstable governments  Political restrictions  Incompatibility of technical standards  Foreign-exchange problems  Government bureaucracy/Corruption  Tariffs and other trade barriers  Technological pirating  High cost of product and communication adaptations Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 10. Standardization vs. adaptation  Factors encouraging standardization  Economies of scale in production  Economies in R&D  Economies in marketing  Global competition  “Shrinking” of world market Degree of standardization,  “Converging, homogeneous cultures” Degree of adaptation,  Factors encouraging adaptation global/local  Differing use conditions paradox  Government and regulatory influences  Local competition  Differing consumer behavior patterns  “True” to marketing concept Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 11. Need for adaptation High Degree of cultural grounding Low Industrial/Technology intensive Consumer Nature of product Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof. Source: Czinkota and Ronkainen
  • 12. Market Selection  Firm related factors  Market related factors  Other factors Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 13. Market Selection: Firm related factors  Ethnocentric: everything is centered on the domestic market.  Polycentric: several important foreign markets exist.  Regiocentric: the market is composed of several large economic regions.  Geocentric: the world is one large global market. Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 14. Market Selection: Firm related factors Ethnocentric Polycentric Geocentric Approach International Each country is The world is one operations are relatively common market secondary independent Vision Centered on the Each market is Global vision of domestic market unique the world Priority Searching for Taking into Unifying identical consideration differences in segments in differences in the world foreign markets foreign markets market Planning National Subsidiary in World center headquarters each country headquarters Structure International Division for Matrix structure division each zone Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 15. Market Selection: Firm related factors Ethnocentric Polycentric Geocentric Staff Citizens from Citizens from Most qualified the domestic each market market Marketing Extension Adaptation Extension, strategy Adaptation, Creation Management Centralized Decentralized Integrated and style interactive Production Domestic Local Low-cost sources of supply Partnerships Agent, licensing Joint-ventures Strategic alliances Performance Domestic Local market World market measures market share Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof. Mrs. share share
  • 16. Market Selection: Market related factors  A)General factors  economic factors  business regulations  political factors  B) Specific factors  trends in domestic market  trends in export and import  nature of competition  supply conditions of raw materials Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 17. Market Selection: Other Factors  Political restrictions  Special requirements  Product specification  Distant location  Market accessibility  Business community Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 18. Market Selection Process International marketing objectives Commercial Parameters for production selection Preliminary Test marketing screening Evaluation and Short listing of selection markets Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 19. Entry mode choice  Considered by many as the most important aspect of a firm’s internationalization strategy  Entry mode will determine long-term success or withdrawal from foreign markets  Poor decisions can be very costly for the firm Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 20. Factors in the entry mode decision Target country Target country Target country Home country market factors environmental production factors factors factors External factors Entry mode decision Internal factors Company product Company resource factors and commitment factors Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 21. Elements of market entry strategies Entry operation Choice of target Setting objectives Choice of Design the Target product/market and goals entry mode marketing plan market Control systems: monitoring operations / Revising entry strategy Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 22. Different types of entry modes  Exporting (commercial strategy, commercial modes)  Foreign direct investment (industrial strategy, integrated modes)  Associated or contractual modes (contractual strategy, competitive alliances) Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 23. Entry mode continuum Exporting Contractual modes FDI - + Commitment, risk, control, profit potential Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 24. Types of exporting  Indirect exporting  Distributor / export merchants  Export agent  EMC  Direct exporting  Export department  Export sales representatives  E-business  Cooperative exporting  Export groups  Piggyback exporting Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 25. Foreign direct investment (FDI)  The ultimate form of foreign involvement  Direct ownership of foreign-based assembly, manufacturing or sales facilities  The company can buy part or full interest in a local company (M&A) or build its own facilities  Considered the “preferred” mode of entry Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 26. Advantages and disadvantages of FDI Advantages - Cost economies (labor, raw materials, incentives, freight savings, etc…) - Better image in host country - Deeper relationship with government, customers, local suppliers, distributors - Better adaptation - Full control of investments - Long term objectives Disadvantages - High initial and operating costs - High level of risk Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 27. FDI options  Make-or-buy decision  Greenfield investment  Mergers and acquisition  Branch or subsidiary  Structure  Legal status  Analyzing FDI project  Assessing profitability  Discounted cash flow analysis Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 28. Associated entry modes  Newest, most recent forms of international business  Transfer of technology or know-how between two firms  Shared risks  Only option in countries where the government requires foreign firms to use local capital  Better access to local market knowledge Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 29. Types of associated entry modes  Joint venture: foreign and local investors share ownership and control of local operations  Licensing: licensor licenses a foreign company to use a manufacturing process, trademark, patent, trade secret or other item of value for a fee  Management contracts: firm exports management services instead of a product, separation between ownership and management  International Franchising: contractual association between a franchisor (manufacturer, wholesaler or service organization) and franchisees (independent business people who buy the right to own and operate units in the franchise system). Franchising is based on some unique product, service or method of doing business.  Industrial franchising  Distribution franchising  Service franchising Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 30. Comparing different entry mode options High Franchising FDI Licensing Wholly owned subsidiary (M&A) Contribution of know- Management contract Branch office AD / Concessionaire Minority shareholding through partial acquisition how ITC / distributor Majority JV investment Foreign buying (local partner know-how) Low department Low Level of ownership High Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 31. Case Study: DIFFERENT FOR GAMBLE  Procter and Gamble (P&G), a global consumer products giant, “stormed the Japanese market with American products, American managers, American sales methods and strategies. The result was disastrous until the company learnt how to adapt products and marketing style to Japanese culture. P&G which entered the Japanese market in 1973 lost money until 1987, but by 1991 it became its second largest foreign market.”  P&G, acclaimed as “the World’s most admired marketing machine” entered India, which has been considered as one of the largest emerging markets, in 1985. It entered the Indian detergent marketing in the early nineties with the Ariel brand through P&G India (in which it had a 51 percent holding which was raised to 65 per cent in January 1993, the remaining 35 percent being held by the public). P&G established P&G Home products, a 100 percent subsidiary later (1993) and the Ariel was transferred to it. Besides soaps and detergents, P&G had or introduced later product portfolios like shampoos (Pantene) medical products (Vicks Prof. Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. range, Clearasil and Mediker) and personal products (Whisper feminine hygiene products,
  • 32. The Indian detergents and personal care products market was dominated by Hindustan Lever Ltd. (HLL). In some segments of the personal care products market the multinational Johnson & Johnson has had a strong presence. Tata group’s Tomco, which had been in the red for sometime, was sold to Hindustan Lever Ltd.(HLL).  HLL, a subsidiary of P&G’s global competitor, has been in India for about a century. The take over of Tomco by HLL further increased its market dominance. In the low priced detergents segment Nirma has established a very strong presence. Over the period of about one and a half decades since its entry in India, P&G invested several thousand crores. However, dissatisfied with its performance in India, it decided to restructure its operations, which in several respects meant a shrinking of activities - the manpower was drastically cut and thousands of stockists were terminated. P&G, however holds that, it will continue to invest in India. According to Gary Cofer, the country manager, “ it takes time to build a business category or brand in India. It is possibly an even more demanding geography than Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof. others.”
  • 33. China, on the other hand, with business worth several times than in India in less than 12 years, has emerged as a highly promising market for P & G. When the Chinese market was opened up, P & G was one of the first MNCs to enter. Prior to the liberalisation, Chinese consumers had to content with shoddy products manufactured by government companies. Per capita income of China is substantially higher than India’s and the Chinese economy was growing faster than the Indian. Further, the success of the single child concept in China means higher disposable income.  Further it is also pointed out that for a global company like P&G, understanding Chinese culture was far easier since the expat Chinese in the US was not very different from those back home where as most Indian expats tended to adapt far more to the cultural nuances of the immigrant country. Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 34. One of P & G’s big bets in India was the compact technology premium detergent brand Ariel. After an initial show, Ariel, however, failed to generate enough salesconsumers seem to have gone by the per kilo cost than the cost per wash propagated by the promotion. To start with, P&G had to import the expensive state-of-the –art ingredients, which attracted heavy customs duties. The company estimated that it would cost Rs. 60 per kilo for Ariel compared to Rs. 27 for Surf and Rs. 8 for Nirma. Because of the Rupee devaluation of the early 1990s, the test market price of Rs. 35 for 500 gms was soon Rs. 41 by the time the product was launched. HLL fought Ariel back with premium variants of Surf like Surf Excel.  It is pointed out that, “in hindsight, even P & G managers privately admit that bringing in the latest compact technology was a big blunder. In the eighties, P & G had taken a huge beating in one of its most profitable markets, Japan, at the hands of local company Kao. Knowing the Japanese consumer’s fondness for small things, Kao weaved magic with its new-found compact technology. For a company that prided itself on technology, the drubbing in Japan was particularly painful. It was, therefore, decided that compacts would now be the lead brand for the entire Asia-Pacific region. Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 35. When P & G launched Ariel in India, it hoped that the Indian consumer would devise the appropriate benchmarks to evaluate Ariel. As compacts promised economy of use, P & G hoped that consumers would buy into the low-cost- per wash story. But selling that story through advertising was particularly difficult, especially since Indian consumers believed that the whasing wasn’t over unless the bar had been used for scrubbing. Even though Ariel was targeted at consumers with high disposable income, who represented half the urban population, consumers simply baulked at the outlay.  Thereafter, one thing led to another. Ariel’s strategy of introducing variants was a smart move to Flank Lever at every price point by cleverly using the brand’s halo effect. And by supporting the brand in mass media and retaining the share of voice. By 1996, it had become clear that Ariel’s equity as a high- performance detergent had begun to take a beating. Its equity as a top-of- the-line detergent was getting eroded... Nowhere in P&G’s history had a concept like Super Soaker been used to gain volumes.... It was decided that Super Soaker would no longer be supported, nor would Ariel bar be supported in media.” Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.
  • 36. Questions  Discuss the reasons for the initial failure of P&G in Japan.  Where did P&G go wrong (if it did) in the evaluation of the Indian market and its strategy ?  Discuss the reasons for the differences in the performance of P&G in India and China. Mrs. Charu Rastogi, Asst. Prof.