A NOTE ON GENESIS, MISSION AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONMaharashtra Institute Of Technology Transfer for Rural Areas, NashikSent to GGS on 100811AUGUST 2011 <br />MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR RURAL AREAS (MITTRA)<br />INTRODUCTION: <br />Genesis: Dr. Manibhai Desai, an associate of Mahatma Gandhi founded BAIF Development Research Foundation in 1967 for providing gainful self-employment to the rural communities through sustainable use of natural resources. The programs soon spread to various locations in different states of India. To intensively implement these programs separate development organizations were promoted to work exclusively in these states. MIITRA was thus founded, in February 1993, to implement development programs in the state of Maharashtra. MITTRA programs are currently being implemented in 24 districts of Maharashtra.<br />Maharashtra Institute of Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (MITTRA), instituted in 1993, is a non- profit making organization. The word MITTRA meaning ‘Friend’ in Marathi and ‘Sun’ in Sanskrit symbolizes the rays of light that brings new life to the world each day. <br />MITTRA (hereafter referred as Organization) is a non-political, secular, non-profit, professionally managed organization. It is registered under Societies Registration Act (1860) on 9.2.1993 with Registration Number: MAH/6941-93/Pune and Bombay Public Trust Act (1950) on 16.3.1993 with Registration Number: F-8056/Pune <br />The Organization is headquartered in Nashik with regional offices at: Jawhar (Thane), Peint (Nasik), Amalner (Beed), Wardha, Amravati, Shahada (Nandurbar), Jalgaon, Yavatmal, Chandrapur, Hingoli, and Nashik. <br />Mission: The Organization’s mission is to create opportunities of gainful self-employment for rural families, especially disadvantaged sections, ensuring sustainable livelihood, enriched environment, improved quality of life and human values. This mission is achieved through development research, effective use of local resources, extension of appropriate technologies and upgrading of skills and capabilities with community participation. <br />Approach: The approaches adopted for implementation are: <br />Multi-disciplinary cluster development approach <br />Integration of environmental protection with livelihoods promotion<br />Every disadvantaged participant family considered as an unit of development <br />applied research and training Blending development with<br />Empowerment of women, education and community health for enriching quality of life<br />Promotion of people's organizations for ensuring sustainability of the project initiative <br />Thematic Areas: The Organization is working in the following thematic areas to fulfill the Mission:<br />1. Livestock Development<br />2. Wadi - Tree based farming (Agro Hortiforestry) and Improved Agriculture<br />3. Integrated Watershed Development <br />4.Water Resource Development<br />5. Livelihoods promotion of the landless families<br />6. Women´s Empowerment<br />7. Community Health and Social Development<br />8. Strengthening People´s Organizations<br />9. Shikshan Mitra<br />10.Research<br />11. Dissemination: <br />12. Training<br />1. Livestock Development<br />Livestock rearing is traditionally undertaken by majority of farmers to supplement their income from agriculture. However, productivity of the livestock reared by the farmers is low due to a variety of reasons. Low awareness about improved livestock rearing practices is the main constraint for low productivity, in addition to genetic makeup of the livestock.Efforts are therefore undertaken through various projects to address these constraints through transfer of appropriate technologies and provision of quality services. BAIF is maintaining an elite herd of Jersey and Holstein Friesian breeds at the Central Research Station, Urulikanchan to produce superior bulls for semen collection. The Semen Freezing Laboratory with ISO 9002 certification produces over 4.5 million doses of frozen semen annually. Embryo Transfer Technology for production of elite bulls and genetic conservation of indigenous breeds is the unique feature of this laboratory.<br />Aims and Objective:<br /><ul><li>Bringing down the age of first calving to 24 - 25 months.
Reducing inter calving period to 13 - 14 months.
Clean milk production.</li></ul>This program aims at providing services like preventive health, fodder development, technical advice; community organization; and training to local youths to acquire technical skills.<br />Approach:<br />The approach of the program is to provide door to door service to breed local cows, using superior quality breeds like Jersey and Holstein Friesian and improved breeds of buffaloes.<br />Main aspects of program:<br />Establishment of cattle development centers (CDC) <br />Use of frozen semen for insemination <br />Follow-up of pregnant cows and buffalos till their calving <br />Training farmers in dairy practices and livestock management <br />Creating awareness about immunization and contagious diseases <br />Implementing preventive immunization program <br />Production of clean milk in a cost effective manner <br />Empowerment of groups of milk producing farmers. <br />The advantages:<br />Over 50% of the rural families owning cattle take benefit of the program; <br />The program uses the inferior quality livestock already owned by the farmers without any capital investment; <br />Efficient delivery of services and mentoring help the farmers to adopt improved technologies with greater efficiency; <br />4762500Superior quality cattle and buffaloes produced under the program come into milk production at the age of 3 years and are valued at Rs.15,000-Rs.20,000. Thus these animals serve as a fixed deposit and help to overcome financial crisis; <br />Crossbred cows produced under the program yield over 2500 kg / lactation and generate a surplus of Rs.7000-Rs.8000 per year. Thus, a family can earn over Rs.18,000-Rs.20,000 per year with 3 crossbred cows and remain above poverty; <br />With the ownership of high yielding cattle and buffaloes, the farmers prefer to adopt stall feeding, which reduces the pressure on eco-system and enhances the production of farmyard manure useful for giving a boost to the farm production; <br />With high yielding animals, the farmers intend to reduce the herd size and thus the pressure on food and fodder supply would ease. <br />Livestock development program provides an excellent opportunity for women to earn their livelihood and ensure nutritional supplementation, particularly right0for their children. This program has enabled poor farmers to regain their confidence and produce good quality cattle. Door to door service has helped them to avail of timely services and to develop confidence in technology adoption.<br />This program has also conserved community pastures and forests and promoted organic farming, women empowerment and nutritional security through easy supply of milk and enhanced agricultural production.<br />Achievements of the Livestock Development Program are as follows: <br />ParticularsNo. of CDCsInseminationsRemarks1.Sponsored by milk and sugar cooperatives 3262,765Conception Rate: 43 - 55 %2.Supported by Farmers 717,4963.Sponsored Development Projects 14572,873Total1841,53,134<br />BAIF is maintaining an elite herd of Jersey and Holstein Friesian breeds at the Central Research Station, Urulikanchan to produce superior bulls for semen collection. The Semen Freezing Laboratory with ISO 9002 certification produces over 4.5 million doses of frozen semen annually. Embryo Transfer Technology for production of elite bulls and genetic conservation of indigenous breeds is the unique feature of this laboratory.<br /> 2. Wadi - Tree based farming (Agro Hortiforestry) and Improved Agriculture<br />-1739901257935Tribal Rehabilitation through development of orchards, popularly known as wadi, on degraded lands owned by the poor tribal families was launched in Vansda block of Valsad in Gujarat in 1982. The participants are assisted to develop 0.4 ha orchards with fruit species of their choice. Fodder and fuel species are established on field bunds and the inter space is used for cultivating food crops. Women are active partners, and a special component of drudgery reduction and capacity building is also introduced.<br />Wadi is the agri-horti-forestry program for rehabilitation of tribal families, and is implemented in almost all the regions of MITTRA except some parts of Western Maharashtra. Eco friendly farming practices such as organic farming, vermicomposting, use of biofertilisers and biopesticides are promoted through awareness, training and input supply. <br />Aims and Objective:<br />The main objectives of the Wadi program are food security and poverty alleviation through development of wastelands.It aims at providing substantial and sustainable income, regeneration of available natural resources, checking migration and providing employment throughout the year. The Improved Agriculture activity aims at improving crop yields by way of introduction of cultivation practices, improved seeds, using organic fertilizers like Vermicompost, vermiwash for improving the quality of soil and minimizes the cost of agricultural inputs <br />Approach:<br />Wadi program helps improve the productivity of small land holding area of the participant family. Tree-based farming with preference for drought tolerant fruit species is being promoted to improve the productivity and employment potentials of degraded lands.<br />19050320040There is an emphasis, through the programs on adoption of improved agricultures activities to achieve food availability round the year. These include practices like use of improved seeds, use of organic fertilisers and pesticides, integrated pest and nutrient management practices, etc. <br />The use of improved agricultural practices also helps achieve another important out come. Through such practices the money required to purchase food grains can now be saved to improve quality of life. Citing the growing demand for organic fertilizers, which is seen as a changing trend, vermiculture activity is promoted. The vermicompost obtained is being used for vegetable growing and for fruit plants in Wadis. <br />Tree based farming (Wadi) Program: Achievements<br />ParticularNo of DistrictsTalukasVillages Wadis Developed (acres)Participant FamiliesDuring April 2010-Mar 2011 81620087259706Cumulative, since inception1968270387341.589895<br />Coverage of the Wadi in different programs in the year 2010-11 is as follows: <br />ParticularsDistrictsTalukasVillagesNo of Wadis developed (acres)Participant Families1.Jan Samrudhi, Hingoli 15425595592.Sukhi Baliraja Initiative in Vidarbha (Amravati, Buldhana, Wardha, Washim, Yavatmal)5510164807461ITDP (Dahanu, Talasari, Taloda, Nadurbar, Dharni, Chikhaldara)365716861686Total91620087259706<br /> 3. Integrated Watershed Development <br />Integrated Watershed management is an important activity for development of rural community. It not only helps restore the quality of life of people but also enriches the land, vegetation and helps retain soil moisture in a sustainable manner.<br />Aims and Objective: The objectives of integrated watershed and water resources management are as follows:<br /><ul><li>717550To Conserve soil and water resources
Enrich the ecosystem and further develop the bio-diversity
Increase availability of safe drinking water, fodder and fuel wood
Create gainful self-employment opportunities. </li></ul>The Benefits:<br />Water Resources Management helps creating gainful livelihood opportunities and promotes community development<br />Approach:<br />The holistic watershed management program helps in making the watershed dwellers capable of managing the natural resources for optimal benefits. The management of natural resources with understanding of scientific and technical aspects and with an idea of catering to the needs of the community always has positive impact on the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the community.<br />18415382270Methodology:<br />Village Watershed Committees and SHGs are formed and micro planning is done for individual families. Along with area treatment, improved agricultural practices, promotion of appropriate agro-horti systems, promotion of support activities like silvi-pasture, improved chullahs/ biogas; enterprises by women, agro service centres are promoted as part of integrated approach towards the program. The activities are planned, implemented and managed by the community itself through village watershed committees and self help groups. These people?s organisations handle the responsibility of maintaining the area treatment and sustaining the activities initiated in the program. <br />Soil and Water conservation measures:<br />An area treatment measure consists of Continuous Contour Trenches (CCTs), Water Absorption trenches (WAT), Afforestation, Agro horticulture, and silvipasture management activities. Treatments like loose boulder structures, Nalla bunds, Gabions and ferro-cement gabions are undertaken on drainage lines of watersheds.<br />Watershed Development Program: Achievements<br />Particulars*On- going projects **Completed projects Total1.Total villages 238102482.Area completed in (2010-11 (hectares)144700144703.Cumulative Area covered (hectares) 41626438846014<br />* On- going projects: Jan Utkarsh, NHWDP Phase I + II, HUL Sponsored, IGWDP, DPAP, General mills, SBI, SKSY, NAIP<br />**Completed watershed projects ( Mankhed, Manhere, Kelghar, Khirwire)<br />4. Water Resource Development<br />-55880208915MITTRA has been actively involved in implementing water resources development (WRD) programs which is an integral part of natural resources management. WRD is implemented in all development programs. The activities of Water Resource Development include spring development, diversion channels, well development, lift irrigation schemes, Jalkunds, promoting use of treadle pumps etc.<br />Benefits: WRD program helps to:<br />Improve the survival of plants in wadis<br />Improved the crop production<br />Provide drinking water for animals and humans.<br />Cumulative Progress of WRD Activities <br />Sr.ParticularsTotal (Nos)1Temporary check dams 36812Permanent check dams 853Spring Development 15594Jalkund15295Lift irrigation schemes 156Well development 28047New well development 3789Drum Drips /drums 281410Treadle Pumps 137111Roof top Water harvesting 36<br />Cumulative Progresses of Sources Developed<br />Type of source developed Total sources / unitsTotal areaType of source developed1.Ground water 49051343293482.Surface water 956811860339953.Water utilization structures 3175245583373734.Drinking water 364- -19832Total4658970875100548<br />5. Livelihoods promotion of the landless families<br />Since 20-30% of the families in the MITTRA´S operational areas are landless special emphasis is given to support them through various interventions for better livelihood. Developing programs for the landless is very ticklish as the landless pursue numerous vocations, each based on different resource(s). The resources vary from place to place. There is no common or a fixed “resource base” on which a mass program can be built upon.<br />Aims and Objective:<br />Developing programs for the landless and support them to undertake better livelihood options. <br />Approaches:<br />The following approaches are taken while working with the landless -<br />Finding opportunities for adding value to time of the landless by imparting intensive skills training; for e.g. from developing a helper to a mason to a skilled mason by imparting training in masonry.<br />Identifying off-farm supportive opportunities for land-based activities like nursery raising. <br />Creating opportunities from opportunities. Economic development in land based / agriculture sector opens up new opportunities in the service sector. The land less can avail such jobs like diesel pump repairs, installation of irrigation systems, masonry, grocery and small trade. These activities can be earmarked exclusively for landless.<br />Giving priority to the landless at entrepreneurial level. At a subsequent stage, processing and marketing opportunities also develop at individual and community levels; the landless are motivated and given priority in related enterprises.<br />The nature of interventions:<br />Broadly the activities of the landless development are classified as under :<br />Skill - example - Mason, Carpentry<br />Services - example -Hotel <br />Agriculture/livestock- example - Vegetable cultivation, Goat rearing <br />Trading - example - Kirana Shop <br />Landless Development Program: Achievements <br />PeriodLandless Families SupportedTill 2009-106251In the year 2010-11496Cumulative Number of Families6747<br />6. Women´s Empowerment<br />Aims and Objective:<br />190503515Women´s development has been a special area of focus in the programs of MITTRA. Efforts are taken to bring women together, organize them in self-help groups (SHG) and seek empowerment of women through trainings, study tours and regular facilitation through meetings. <br />Approach:<br />SHG is at the centre of women´s development. Efforts are being made to resolve women´s problems through SHGs. Empowerment of SHGs leads to improvement in areas of health, credit supply, increased income, and drudgery reduction.<br />Activities:<br />Activities Prior to SHG Formation: Before a group is formed, a survey of economic conditions of village families, their management, natural resources of the village, and problems faced by women, is conducted with help of the women. <br />SHG Formation: Importance of SHG is explained to villagers through meetings and home visits. SHGs of 10 to 12 women each are formed. A president and a secretary are selected for each SHG. Guidance is provided for preparing rules and norms regarding functioning of the SHG and record keeping. <br />Consistency: For development of collective decision making, regular monthly meetings, issuing internal loans, observance of rules are all necessary and MITTRA helps and ensures this. Members are trained to make decisions and implement them. Income generating activity programs are also conducted. As a result of all this, the SHG takes roots and some, who become strong, even take up important issues like prohibition of alcohol in village, cleanliness, safe drinking water, etc. <br />Supported byNo. of VillagesNo. of SHGs1.DRDA 115818562.Tribal Dept 179418033.Milk federation 36644.NABARD s and other4341089Total31224812<br />Status of SHGs is as follows: <br />Name of RegionNo of SHGs1. Nashik18342.Jawhar6563.Shahada Jalgaon7204.Chandrapur5455.Yavatmal4866.Wardha437.Hingoli4888.Beed40Total 4812<br />7. Community Health and Social Development<br />19050179602Background:<br />The health of the tribal / rural poor people has been a topic of serious concern for the past few decades. Some of the health problems are grossly due to the socio economic conditions and cultural practices related to health and hygiene, while others revolve around factors like low agriculture production, low family income, illiteracy, distress migration; all of which hampers the quality of life.<br />19050512445Aims and Objective of community health program:<br />The objectives of the MITTRA´s community health (CH) program include making the community aware of health through people´s organisations (POs.) The CH program essentially aims at improving personal and family health conditions by bringing about a change in behavioural habits. The focus is given on improving the health status of women and children through different need-based interventions.<br />Approach towards community health:<br />190504150 The community health (CH) program is based on the health promotion and disease prevention approach, and contributes in achieving holistic and sustainable development of the community. The CH program implements its activities by adopting one or many of the suitable approaches such as participatory demonstration, model building and campaign. A very strong emphasis is given on capacity building of PO´s and health education for the community at large. The women members of the SHGs are nodal points for spreading awareness about CH program.Emphasis is given on health promotion, preventive health care measures, health education and awareness generation; strengthening linkages and referrals with existing government health services.Attempt is also made to consolidate the indigenous knowledge and good practices of the traditional healers (Vaidus) regarding health, to ensure the availability of better health services in remote areas. <br />The implementation strategy :<br /><ul><li>190502968Identifying the needs of the people related to their health.
Planning with them about what could be done to make them healthy.
Communicating with them through people´s organizations like Wadi Tukadi, SHGs, and Youth groups about the changes those needs to be made in their behavior.
Creating linkages with the concerned local persons and institutions including government and private health service providers
Sustaining the community health program in the village.Knowledge inputs are given to members of the people´s organizations which are then transferred to the community through the PO members. This helps to improve the health status of the community and in turn improve the quality of life.The activities of the CH Program include promotion of best health practices regarding safe drinking water, clean kitchen package, water resource management, and waste water disposal management, improved nutrition through kitchen garden, hygiene and sanitation.</li></ul>Achievements of Community Health program<br />SrParticularsAchievementDuring 2010–11Achievement(cumulative )1No of families covered 1512,09,1452No of vaidu treatment centres01683No of Kitchen Gardens developed25,9122,29,4704N of Drinking water schemes2,4223,0855No of Mother Kits and Child Kits distributed1055,9556Referral cases (no)77877Deworming - no. of students32788,5248Scabies treatment – cumulative no. of cases28866,940<br /> Reproductive and Child Health component in the CH program includes activities like ante natal care, neo natal care, post natal care, and health care of children less than five years.<br /> <br />8. Strengthening People´s Organizations<br /> Background:<br />-183515301625Participation of people is the most cherished and essential component while working with people for their sustainable development. MITTRA has a strategy of forming groups and working with them. Over the time, these groups mature and start realising their capabilities and roles. The informal and formal groups, operating at community level are commonly known as community based organizations (CBOs) or local institutions or people’s organizations (POs). <br />MITTRA has been able to establish several POs in all its programs. Wadi Tukdi, Self Help Groups, Federations, Youth groups, Village Watershed Committees, are some of the examples of primary level POs. At apex level, the federations of SHGs and the cooperatives are developed as independent bodies. It has been a long process, spreading over a span of twelve to fifteen years, of developing the capacities and handholding. However, it has resulted in establishment of a strong, local level structure, for the benefit of the participants and the community at large.<br />The genesis of the POs is rooted in the principle that people possess wisdom and have capacities to manage their own lives, provided they are given opportunities. POs are considered essential for sustainability of the program interventions. <br />Roles of People’s Organizations:<br />190504150The people´s organizations act as intermediary structures to reach out to the community. They also help in planning and execution of the program activities. They ensure that the services and benefits are utilized appropriately for all needy section of the community. Thus the POs operate as extended centers of MITTRA at field level. MITTRA´s major roll is to increase capacities and capabilities of the Pos, so that they gain more control over decisions that shape their lives. <br />Activities undertaken by People´s organizations:<br />Identifying the poorest families<br />Providing support to these families by better management of the program inputs. <br />Conducting training, monitoring progress, inculcating saving habits.<br />Building the capacities to develop micro enterprises and income generation activities.<br />Networking and developing linkage institutions such as banks, Govt. departments, and markets.<br />Coverage area:<br /><ul><li>People´s organization are established by MITTRA in it´s various programs in the districts Nashik, Thane, Ahmednagar, Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Pune, Raigad, Dhule, Yevatmal, Nanded, Amravati, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Nagpur, Gondia and Hingoli.</li></ul>Achievements: People´s organizations established as on September 2010<br />SrDistrictNo. of Registered POsNo. of Unregistered POsTotal1Nashik 0205072Nandurbar 0208103Ahamadnagar 0200024Thane 0204065Total 081725<br />Types of POs established <br />SrParticularsCumulative Number1Self Help Group (SHG)44732Wadi Tukdis 52243Cooperatives 74Pushpa Udpadak Sanghs 45Federations 36Lead Vibhags 9<br />Different activities are undertaken by the People´s organizations are shown below. <br />SrParticularsActivityNumber1Milk Collection centers Milk collection 182Bulk Milk Coolers Milling chilling63 Processing Units Processing of cashew and other fruit produce 154Agro Service Centers Agriculture inputs25Seed Bank at Nimbipada, District Nandurbar Seed bank16Vegetable Cultivation- by ‘Amrai’ at Pimpalshet, District Thane Vegetable cultivation 17Government Health Projects implemented by Mahila Sangh, at Jawhar Dist Thane.Community Health58Collective marketing of fruits: Strawberry (Kalwan) and Custard Apple (Shahada).Marketing of fruits19Societies registered for collection and marketing of flowers (Number) Marketing of flowers410Onion purchase (Kalwan)- in processMarketing of onion1<br />Highlights <br />The People’s Organizations in MITTRA program area are mainly engaged in collection and processing of Cashew and Mango fruits those are cultivated by the wadi program participants. They are also undertaking activities like marketing of onion, strawberry, custard apple and preparing and selling grafts. <br />Agribusiness activities in MITTRA program area are routed through the Vasundhara Agri- horti Producer’s Company Limited, Pune. (VAPCOL) having branch office at Peinth. Thirteen producer organizations which are located at different Locations in MITTRA program area are members of VAPCOL. <br />This year, the turnover of VAPCOL Peth branch has increased to more than 1.5 crores<br /> VAPCOL has one cashew value addition unit (of one tone/day capacity) at Peint.<br />15 new cashew processing units are set up at different villages, each having capacity of processing 50 Metric Tonne/year.<br />The people’s organisation (Kalwan Taluka Jan Uthan Swamrojgar Mandal at Abhona, in Kalwan block of Nashik district has developed a storage facility (300 M Tonne capacity) for onion. <br />Performance of POs established by MITTRA.<br />Sr. no. DescriptionAchievement1Collection and processing of cashew187 M Tonne2Collection of Mango63 M Tonne3Collection of ‘Karvand’12 M Tonne4Cashew processing with value addition60 MT5Marketing of Onion80.6 MT Tonne6Marketing of Strawberry2 M Tonne<br />9. Shikshan Mitra<br />19050466725Shikshan-Mitra program by MITTRA was launched in 2003 for tribal children in Ashram Schools, with an aim of making education more relevant to the tribal children. The program provides spaces for learning to the students. ‘Learning by doing’, is the mantra for program implementation. The educational project activities related to agriculture, health, are done by the students themselves.<br />Aims and Objective:<br />Shikshan-Mittra Program was launched by MITTRA with the aim of making the education more relevant to the setting and the lives of the tribal children and developing ashram schools as Development Centers for the surrounding Tribal Areas.<br />Specific Objectives:<br /> To equip the tribal students with life skills and information<br /> To provide avenues for personality development<br /> To facilitate a complementary interaction between the ashram schools and the community / parents<br /> To facilitate better career choices by tribal boys & girls<br /> To develop a sense of ownership about the program in the ‘school community’<br />Approach: Shikshan Mitra program is a student focused program. It envisages that the residential tribal schools (ashram shalas) will act as development centers for the surrounding area.<br />Shikshan-Mitra Expansion Project in Nandurbar<br />190502318This independent project has been launched in Nandurbar district from 1st June 2009. Project reach is 50 government and private aided Ashram Schools in Nandurbar. Along with regular activities in the Shikshan Mitra program, following new initiatives have been initiatedWork with Alumni and DropoutsWork with alumni and dropouts are a forward link of Shikshan-Mitra program. Presently following activities are conducted under this intervention <br />Developing a comprehensive database<br />Organizing camps for dropouts on regular basis <br />Career counseling for students in 10th and 12th standard<br />Parent counseling for continuation and promotion of higher education, especially for the girls<br />1. Environment Education<br />Environment education has already been included in the school syllabus. School level program is supplemented by making it more contextual and oriented towards tribal life. Practical assignments and projects help students to understand subjects like biodiversity and interdependence among various ecosystems<br />2. Intensive training for field staff<br />Training, regional workshops and monthly meetings are conducted to enhance capacities of a team of eight members of MITTRA staff which has been constituted for the project. Topics covered include; understanding of project design with special focus on approach and objectives, scenario of education in Nandurbar district, status of higher education and career choices among tribal adolescents in Nandurbar, level of participation of children etc.<br />3. Record system<br />A systematic record system has been developed for this program. Along with earlier existing records some new records and documents have been evolved.<br />Summary of achievement: Work in Ashram Schools in Shahada region<br />SrTotalDescriptionThis yearCumulative1Total schools00532 AgricultureDevelopmentHorticulture (no of plants)10001902Forestry(no of plants)500021598Vermicompost3353Medicinal plantation1830Nursery05133Health programScabies control53676927Worm control001099Awareness program001204TrainingsTeacher’s training02103Vocational 00272Floriculture3939Syllabus linkage0507Environment education0507Fun Learn Camp0304Ex Student Camp (no of villages)0409Career Guidance(no of Schools)0505Visit to local institutions103142<br />10.Research<br />One of the major challenges for MITTRA is bringing in low cost technologies for improving livelihoods of small and marginal farmer. MITTRA is on a constant lookout for such technologies. It is extremely important to adopt a systematic approach, which necessitated establishment of Green and Appropriate Technologies Resource Centre (GATRC). <br />The objective of GATRC is to consolidate learning, incubate new and locally relevant ideas and transfer them for the benefit of small and marginal farmers. GATRC aims at systematic and efficient resource utilization on farms which includes new crops, sustainable farming practices, water resource development and its use. GARTC aims for adaptation and promotion of low cost appropriate agricultural technologies for sustainable development.<br />Green technologies as commonly understood is the application of technologies that are profitable, environmentally benign and sustainable. Sustainability is the core of green technologies and in the context of the small farmer; efforts have to be directed towards steering agriculture onto a more sustainable path. Green technology solutions thus need to be socially equitable, economically viable and environmentally sound.<br />Approach<br />- Introduction and evolution of new crop varieties and cultivation practices. <br />- Promotion of low cost technologies for sustainable agriculture.<br />- Capacity building of farmers and staff.<br />- Consolidation of people’s knowledge on local crops and conservation of germplasm.<br />Highlights <br />Promotion of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for Small and Marginal Farmers of Maharashtra.<br />The system of Rice Intensification (SRI) involves single and young seedlings transplantation with care instead of conventional method of multiple and matures seedlings from the nursery. SRI spaces rice plants more widely and does not depend on continuous flooding of rice fields. <br />It uses lesser seed, chemical inputs and promotes soil biotic activities in and around plant roots, enhanced through liberal applications of compost and weeding with a rotating hoe that aerates the soil. <br />Information about SRI work in MITTRA:<br />Sr. No Districts Clusters(Numbers)Villages(Numbers)Farmers(Numbers)Total Area (Acre)1Thane, Raigad 92035374.42Dhule, Shahada2360603Chandarpur,GadchiroliNagpur, Gondia 1450434425.534Nasik 32624070 Total 28991087629.93<br />Advantages of SRI :<br />Saving on inputs like seed and water <br />Incidence of pests and diseases is low <br />Seed multiplication possible with less quantity of parent seed. <br />Increase in grain and fodder yield<br />More resistant to lodging as SRI provides stronger tillers and extensive root.<br /> Reduced harvesting duration (by 10 days)<br />Maximum use of existing resources <br />Comparison of SRI method with traditional one: Case of plantation in Thane district.<br />Treatment TypeTraditionalSRI % increase (+)/ decrease (-)over Traditional VarietyKarjat 3Karjat 3--------Height of plant (ft )728619.2Av. Tillers Number per plant162237.5Av. Effective tillers -Number per plant162131.3Maturity days110102-7.2No. of grains in panicle768714.4Empty grains in panicles115-54Grain Yield ( KG) 1 x 1 sq.meter.0.340.4738Straw Yield ( KG) 1 x 1 sq.meter.1.762.225<br />Conservation, revival and sustainable use of crop genetic resources and promotion of sustainable Agriculture practices<br />Objectives:<br />This program has been initiated in Jahwar and Nandurbar district of Maharashtra with the following objectives:<br /><ul><li>To revive and conserve diversity of landraces and local knowledge associated with it with special focus on food security, risk mitigation and livelihood development.
To undertake agronomical and morphological characterization of crop landraces along with trials for productivity enhancement of worthy cultivars under organic agriculture practices.
To encourage establishment of community managed seed banks and village level seed production and multiplication.</li></ul>Approach:<br /><ul><li>Promotion of on-farm seed banking and exchange of seeds within and between groups and villages
Participatory varietal selection through indigenous knowledge coupled with scientific approach.</li></ul>Achievements (April 2010-March 2011)<br /><ul><li>Agronomical and morphological characterization of paddy-135 landraces, finger millet-25 , Proso millet-10 done at 7 in-situ experimentation centres in Jawhar Taluka.
Nutritional characterization of 14 paddy landraces which claimed by tribal as medicinal and nutritional importance had been done.
Established central seed bank has a collection of 300 landraces of different types of crops such as paddy, millets, pulses, tubers, and vegetables)
Produced and distributed about 2500 kg paddy seed of 14 paddy landraces in 7 villages in Jawhar Taluka through 2 community seed banks.
Successful conservation of vegetable and tuber crop landraces through kitchen gardens.</li></ul>Seed pallet method of paddy cultivation demonstrated at 2 places in Jawhar Taluka.<br />Maize and sorghum Germplasm conservation programme is initiated in Dhadgaon block of Nandurbar District. Six landraces of millets and six landraces of Sorghum are collected.<br />Summer paddy cultivation program is initiated in Palghar and Dahanu clusters in Thane district (37 farmers) and 25 paddy landraces are under conservation and revival phase.<br /><ul><li>About 350 farmers are involved in community seed production program of indigenous paddy landraces.
Reached to approx. 3000 farmers through exhibitions of local landraces, rallies of seed savers and awareness programs on organic agriculture. </li></ul>11. Dissemination: <br />I. Regular publications<br />SrName of periodicalNature of PeriodicalContributorsPrimary Audience1 Maitreya Booklet-Strengthening dialogue among staff & information sharing MITTRA Staff MITTRA Staff 2 Goshti Vikasachya Booklet- Compilation of selected case studies from MITTRA work area MITTRA Staff MITTRA Staff3 Ugavati Wall paper-Strengthening experience sharing of program participants Program Participants MITTRA Staff and program Participants4 Balkhajina Wallpaper-Forum for expression of Students from Ashram Schools Students from Ashram Schools Students from Ashram Schools. MITTRA Staff, Ashram School Teachers and authorities5 Asha Wartapatra Booklet- Forum for information sharing about Shikshan Mitra program and related topicsExperts in the field of Education, Ashram School Teachers.MITTRA Staff<br />II. Audio Visual films <br />A) Best Practices Video films Series: Wadi<br />1. Wadi to be proud of Part I Language: Marathi, Hindi, and English Duration: 39 minutesContents: <br />Site selection for Wadi<br />Layout of Wadi<br />Soil conservation measures in Wadi<br />Pit Digging<br />Pit filling<br />Fencing for the Wadi<br />Water management for Wadi<br />2. Wadi to be proud of Part II Language: Marathi, Hindi, and English Duration: 40 minutesContents: <br />Forestry<br />Plantation<br />Aftercare of fruit trees<br />Live Hedge for Wadi<br />Aftercare of Wadi<br />3. Wadi to be proud of Part III Language: Marathi, Hindi, and English Duration: 40 minutesContents: <br />Organic Farming<br />Vermi Compost (tray method)<br />Vermi wash<br />Floriculture<br />Aourogreen<br />B) Best Practices Video films Series: Community Health<br />1. An Ideal Home Language: Marathi, Hindi, and English Duration: 25 minutesContents: <br />Sufficient Light at home<br />Safe Drinking Water<br />Smoke-free home<br />An Ideal Cattle Shed<br />Hygienic Kitchen<br />A Smooth Grinding Stone<br />2. An Ideal VillageLanguage: Marathi Duration: 41 minutesContents: <br />Well and hand pump water chlorination<br />Construction of washing platforms near hand pumps<br />Construction of bathrooms and bathing platform<br />Soak pit construction<br />Village cleanliness<br />Washing platforms for community use<br />Construction of drinking water tanks for animal<br />Developing kitchen gardens <br />Vermi compost preparation<br />C) Nidhaan (meaning a treasure) - a series based on video interview of eminent personalities in social field. <br />1. Nidhaan Part I Language: Marathi Duration: 2 hours 30 mins Set of 2 DVDsContents:This part is based on interaction with Dr. Mukund Ghare, well known for his holistic understanding about water sector in India. 2. Nidhaan Part II Language: Marathi Duration: 2 hours 15 minutes Set of 2 DVDsContents:This part is based on interaction with Mr. Sharad Kulkarni, who is well known for his knowledge about tribal culture and experience regarding tribal development. <br />D) Shikshan Mitra Program: Rural Development through Education<br />Language: Marathi, English Duration: 25 minutesContents:‘Shikshan Mitra’ program aims at creating development centres out if the Ashram Schools-Residential Tribal Schools. This is being achieved by providing opportunities for the students to understand the school syllabus in the contexts of their lives. This video film is based on the experiences during the past four years of working with tribal students and experiments pertaining to education.<br />E. Green and Appropriate Technology Resource Center: A video film of 20 minutes on the activities, processes and learnings of the program on efforts to diversify income through underused crops in Jawhar and Vikramgad blocks of Thane district was produced in English.<br />Video documentary “From seed sovereignty to Food security” covering crop germplasm conservation work at MITTRA is prepared in Marathi.<br />F. Documentary Film: ‘Mor Dekhane Jungle main’ (The peacock trail): 90 minute film on Rural Development. <br />12. Training<br />Background<br />Training is a process of continuous learning. Through the training programs, the organization is trying to impart knowledge and skills to the staff from different disciplines. MITTRA conducts training programs at its training centres situated at Peint, Nashik district and Jawhar, Thane district. Both the training centres are well equipped with the necessary lodging, boarding and teaching-learning facilities like LCD and laptop computers and other equipment.Both the centres are situated in a natural environment which is conducive for learning. Both the training campuses are backed by the demonstrations of training topics, field plots for experimentation and trials techniques like organic farming, germ plasm and cultivation of aromatic crops. MITTRA Training Division was established as an independent unit in April 2006 . Presently, different types of trainings are held at Jawhar and Peith Training campuses. These cater to the needs of co-learning, capacity building and developing a knowledge base in the context of rural development. <br />Intended Participants<br />The training programs are designed mainly for program participants, farmers, government functionaries and development practitioners. Skill based trainings are also organized for landless participants. Capacity building efforts are done for representatives of People’s Organisations and Panchayat Raj institutions. The training division also handles the responsibility of induction of newly recruited staff and Management Development Training program for senior staff of MITTRA.<br />Jawhar Campus :<br />Can cater to two trainings at a time and house about 50-60 trainees at a time in the dormitory.<br />Highlights:<br /><ul><li>Thematic plantations – Floriculture, Aromatic plants, Medicinal, Ornamental, Fruit plants etc.
Organic farming Demonstration unitProcessing Centre / Pack house
Demonstrations of Micro Drip irrigation systems
Vrindavan outlet</li></ul>Peint Campus :<br />Can cater to two trainings at a time and house about 50-60 trainees at a time in the dormitory.<br />Highlights:<br /><ul><li>Thematic plantations – Floriculture, Aromatic plants, Medicinal, Ornamental, Fruit plants etc.
Vrindavan outlet</li></ul>Both the centres are situated in a natural environment which is conducive for learning. Both the training campuses are backed by the demonstrations of training topics, field plots for experimentation and trials technigues like organic farming, germ plasm conservation.<br />Some of the subjects for the training programs:<br /><ul><li>Capacity building of People´s Organizations -SHGs, Wadi tukdi, Vibhag.