Role of livestock extension in the food security scenario of India- Dr.Subin Mohan


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Role of livestock extension in the food security scenario of India- Dr.Subin Mohan

  2. 2. Kevin Carter Pulitzer Prize,1994
  3. 3. Global Poverty <ul><li>According to the common definition of poverty, when a person finds it difficult to meet the minimum requirement of acceptable living standards, he or she is considered poor (FAO). </li></ul><ul><li>1020 million people suffering from poverty </li></ul><ul><li>According to UNICEF, 20,000 children die each day due to poverty </li></ul>
  4. 4. Poverty in India <ul><li>According to government estimates, in 2007 there were below 300 million people living below the poverty line. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
  5. 5. HOW TO TACKLE THIS SITUATION? Ans: Ensure food security..
  6. 6. What is Food Security? <ul><li>Condition when each and every individual is able to get a nutritionally adequate diet in quality as well as quantity and the food consumed is efficiently being utilized biologically for healthy productive living. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening the livelihood security of all members with in a household by ensuring both physical and economic access to balanced diet including the needed micronutrients, safe drinking water and environmental sanitation, basic health care and primary education. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Causes for food insecurity <ul><li>Fall in production level of food grains due to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Recent raise in food prices due to occurrence of droughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of food grains for bio fuel production (Eg. Maize in USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic expansion in countries like India, China and Vietnam leads to sharply increase the demand for food. </li></ul><ul><li>In equal distribution of income and wealth </li></ul>
  8. 8. Contd.. <ul><li>Growth rate of population is greater than the rate of growth in food grain production (e.g. between 1990-91 to 2006-07 growth of population is 1.9% where as corresponding growth rate of food grain production is 1.2% only) </li></ul><ul><li>Crop failure in some of the leading wheat and rice producing nations (e.g. Reduction in cereal production by 16% in USA & EU, 33% in Australia and wheat by 52% in USA according to FAO, 2008) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Contd.. <ul><li>Unpredictable climatic factors like floods, droughts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation of the cultivable area </li></ul><ul><li>Changing diets in emerging economies </li></ul><ul><li>Unavailability of land for cultivation due to fragmentation. </li></ul><ul><li>> </li></ul>
  10. 10. How to overcome this situation? <ul><ul><li>Enhancement of agricultural production and productivity through widening cultivable lands and evolving high yielding varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance both public and private investment in agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve food production technologies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Contd.. <ul><ul><li>Setting up of local level community food banks, comprising locally grown grains and legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote dairy farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food preservation of the surplus should be ensured in the rural areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote the setting up of the fodder and feed banks for the livestock </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Contd.. <ul><ul><li>Setting up of agro based industries to provide employment opportunities to rural people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Help Groups (SHG’s) should be strengthened, widened and universalized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming co-operatives should be strengthened in rural areas </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Contd.. <ul><ul><li>Help the poor to shift from unskilled to skilled work through training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building should be ensured through training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification of lively hood activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Livestock production and its role in food security
  15. 15. Advantages of livestock production <ul><li>Majority of livestock are kept by smallholders </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding cost is less- diet is mostly made up of residues from the farmer’s own crops, and the livestock graze and scavenge on waste land. </li></ul><ul><li>Land requirement is less. </li></ul><ul><li>Year round income and job. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contd.. <ul><li>Less affected by natural calamities. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal products in form of milk and meat provides food and nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>By-products- Source of income, fuel etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Converts low quality fibre to high good quality protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick source of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial investment is low. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Agricultural GDP Growth Rates Source: -0.8 1.9 1.5 -0.6 Total GDP -9.4 3.8 7.7 -2.1 Total Agri Sector 14.6 0.6 -3.6 0.0 Fishing 1.1 1.1 1.4 2.1 Other Agriculture 4.5 2.6 5.0 4.0 Livestock -20.0 10.6 -11.1 23.2 Rice -15.0 4.0 16.4 -8.7 Sugar 2000 2001 2002 2003 Sector
  18. 18. Indian Livestock production statistics (F&B News, 2009) 2 Goat meat production 4 2 World cattle population 5 17 Sheep meat production 6 1 Buffalo meat production 3 1 World buffalo population 2 1 Total milk production 1 Rank Item Sl.No
  19. 19. Role of Livestock Extension in ensuring food security
  20. 20. LIVESTOCK EXTENSION IN INDIA <ul><li>Livestock extension is an applied techno-social discipline developed for the improvement of production and health aspects of livestock through educational means. (Sharma, G.R.K, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>India has largest extension system in world (over 1.15 lakhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Caters the needs of 90 million farm families. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of technology and information & human resource development </li></ul>
  21. 21. Achievements <ul><li>Food security </li></ul><ul><li>Correction of nutritional and regional imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of widespread rural employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Production increased </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transfer of technology <ul><li>Lack of awareness about technologies among farmers- reason for the less production of livestock products in India. </li></ul><ul><li>So, many technologies and practices that have been proved on research stations to be both productive and sustainable, is used by only a few farmers. e.g. Teat dipping </li></ul><ul><li>If these are imposed on farmers, then they will not be adopted widely. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Extension role in TOT <ul><li>So, extension agents should act as bridge between the farmers, analyzing their situation and needs, helping the research stations to do research based on the need of the farmer and transferring that technologies to the field. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Participatory Technology Development (PTD) <ul><li>is the process in which the knowledge and research capacities of farmers are joined with those of scientific institutions, while at the same time strengthening their capacities to experiment and innovate. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Contd.. <ul><li>Farmers are encouraged to generate and evaluate indigenous technologies and to choose and adopt the best (scientific/indigenous) on the basis of their own knowledge and value systems. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. researcher designed and implemented on-farm trials and demonstration plots </li></ul>
  26. 26. TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>For sustainable livestock development, proper scientific knowledge about the different aspects of livestock production is a must for the dairy farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>For this, new learning path for the farmers is a must </li></ul><ul><li>This is often remains unrecognized by extensionists </li></ul><ul><li>Learning for sustainable livestock development involves a transformation in the fundamental objectives, strategies, theories, risk perceptions, skills, labour organization, and professionalism of farming. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Key elements of learning path <ul><li>The information system and a data base: .  Sustainable livestock development must be responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers need to invest in observation and record keeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework:  Sustainable livestock development is knowledge intensive, and so farmers must know about all basics about management activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills : Sustainable farming requires a whole set of new skills, including observation, management and risk assessment. </li></ul>
  28. 28. POLICY MAKING <ul><li>Policy making processes must be participatory in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Should create conditions for sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>Based on data of locally available resources and on local skills and knowledge of the farmers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Role of extension in policy making <ul><li>Making visible the interdependence between stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Points out the extent to which the resource units can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to develop approaches that ensures participation and negotiation in policy formulation </li></ul>
  30. 30. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>Women produce between 60 and 80 percent of the food in most developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>They are responsible for half of the world's food production </li></ul><ul><li>Their key role as food producers and providers and their critical contribution to household food security is only now becoming recognized. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Role of extension in women empowerment <ul><li>Organizing programmes for training women in dairy development </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the benefits of training, extension and various programmes will reach women. </li></ul><ul><li>provide better employment and income-earning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>promote women's organizations </li></ul><ul><li>review and re-orient government policies so as to ensure more role for women in food security matters. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Human Resource Development: <ul><li>Development of Human resource through capacity building will be done by regular training of farmers, field functionaries extension personal and specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>The potentialities of the farmers increases as a result production also increases </li></ul><ul><li>> </li></ul>
  34. 34. Ministry of Agriculture/ Department of Animal Husbandry- Both Central and State level <ul><li>List of Services provided: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish veterinary hospitals for providing better health coverage to the livestock and poultry and to take preventive measures against the diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Artificial Insemination Centers for providing A.I. facilities to the entire breedable population of cattle and buffalos for improving the genetic makeup. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Contd.. <ul><li>Provide diagnostic services and other veterinary services for the poultry farmers as well as to provide vaccination for the poultry diseases and to provide good quality chicks to the poultry farmers and improved varieties of backyard poultry units to the interested farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To provide the schemes for setting up Poultry, Dairy, Piggery and Goat farms by the interested farmers and to provide all technical assistance. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Contd.. <ul><li>To provide training on Poultry, Goatery and Piggery to the interested farmers and to provide extension services for dissemination of information on modern livestock practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To establish grazing/fodder land in all the Panchayats and to assist in the development of fodder land by the farmers through supply of inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide good quality of calf/piglets and kids of Goat to the farmers as per availability. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) <ul><li>ICAR through its research and technology development that has enabled the country to increase the production of- </li></ul><ul><li>Food grains -4 times </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural crops -6 times </li></ul><ul><li>Fish- 9 times </li></ul><ul><li>Milk- 6 times </li></ul><ul><li>eggs-27 times since 1950-51 </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures national food and nutritional security. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a major role in promoting excellence in higher education in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: www. icar </li></ul>
  38. 38. Functions of ICAR <ul><li>Education, research and its applications in all agricultural sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Dissemination regarding agriculture through its publications and information system, and promoting transfer of technology programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>consultancy services in the fields of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Look into problems related to rural development concerning agriculture </li></ul>
  39. 39. Important ICAR institutes dealing with livestock extension <ul><li>Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) </li></ul><ul><li>National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) </li></ul>
  40. 40. IVRI <ul><li>The field extension programmes have five major components viz., animal health, animal production, green fodder demonstration, food crop demonstration and educational programmes including training for farmers, livestock owners, farm women and village youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational programmes include organization of kisan melas, exhibitions, film shows, farm and home visits, publication of farmer's literature and arranging organized training. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term training courses for field veterinarians, senior officers of the state Department of Animal Husbandry are regularly organized in collaboration with the Union Ministry of Agriculture. </li></ul>
  41. 41. NDRI-Dairy Extension Division- achievements <ul><li>Education, Research and Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of women dairy farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Development </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Technology Development for sustainable Dairying </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Package on clean milk production </li></ul><ul><li>Video Films (Bi-lingual) </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy  Samachar: A Quarterly extension bulletin  Dairy Samachar  is published by the Division- main objective that the improved technologies and package of practices of dairy farming should reach the dairy farmers. </li></ul>
  42. 42. National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)- Functions <ul><li>Ensuring women dairy farmers’ participation in dairy cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, education, extension and training of dairy farmers in various animal husbandry activities </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up information systems at various levels using modern technology </li></ul><ul><li>An information system named Geographical Information System (GIS) provides decision support and helps in strategic planning in areas of milk procurement, veterinary health, epidemiology and other operational matters. </li></ul>
  43. 43. State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) <ul><li>Education, Research and Extension </li></ul><ul><li>promotes livestock development by providing the extension functionaries and the farmers with information, training and other extension support on continuous basis regarding improved production technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directorate of Extension implements these extension activities. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) <ul><li>KVK aims at technology assessment, demonstration and its dissemination through training of farmers, rural youth and extension personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers modern technological packages at the farmers doorstep </li></ul><ul><li>KVK has started the instructional units for not only imparting the skills but also for providing the critical inputs as per the demand and need of the farmers </li></ul><ul><li>KVKs conducted on-farm trials on 1236 technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized more than 82,000 training programmes benefiting about 19 lakh farmers and extension personnel. (GOI, 2002-05) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Non-Government Organisations (e.g. BAIF) <ul><li>BAIF is maintaining an elite herd of Jersey and Holstein Friesian breeds at the Central Research Station , Urulikancham to produce superior bulls for semen collection.  </li></ul><ul><li>conserving native breeds of India </li></ul><ul><li>Research on non-conventional forage and feeds has been undertaken  </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant technologies are being disseminated to the field </li></ul>
  46. 46. Self Help Groups (SHGs) <ul><li>SHG is a small group of rural poor, who have voluntarily come forward to form a group for improvement of the social and economic status of the members. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship development. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of local resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To organize training for skill development. </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>> </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>Global poverty and food insecurity continue to remain as critical issues in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable livestock development, is a pragmatic approach to address both rural poverty and food insecurity. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock sector can be improved further, only with the strong support of our extension system, which acts as a bridge between the farmers and the research institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Livestock extension services have been sadly neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>It has to be strengthened for ensuring food security in India. </li></ul>