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Extensionstrategy livestockextension india final

  1. 1. Mahesh Chander & Prakashkumar Rathod ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122 (UP) INDIA Extension Strategies for Animal Husbandry Sector Development in India
  2. 2. • Productivity & Quality improvement depends on technology generation, technology transfer, technology users and support mechanisms, which need to be geared up. • Farmers need to be updated on new technologies and scientific management practices of livestock production on regular basis. Introduction
  3. 3. • Productivity can be substantially improved by effective targeted extension services focused on livestock development. • Multifarious agencies for Extension service delivery- But….. Poorly harnessed for accessing information on improved animal husbandry and livestock production Introduction
  4. 4. • Livestock extension activities are sporadic, casual, occasional, highly unorganized--- so do not effectively meet the requirements of a vast majority of livestock farmers. • Failure of development programmes due to lack of focused livestock extension service. • Face constraints like budget, human resource, infrastructure etc. • Poor infrastructure and high costs of delivering information • Modern ICTs can reduce the cost of information delivery/act as solutions for future. • Time to consider a wide range of options for sharing information with farmers. Livestock/Dairy Extension Today…
  5. 5. Agencies providing Livestock Extension Service in India • Directorate of Extension, MoA, GOI –Crop focused, very little involvement in A H activities. • Dept. of AH, Dairying & Fisheries (DAHDF) GOI- limited budget & no staff to look after extension. • Animal Science institutes of ICAR- limited extension activities, occasional, mandate specific • NDDB -restricted to dairying that too among members of dairy cooperatives. • Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs)-Animal husbandry component is weak. • State Agricultural/Veterinary Universities- occasional in nature, not well equipped for extension.
  6. 6. Agencies providing Livestock Extension Service in India • State Cooperative Dairy Federations- restricted to milch cattle of cooperative members. • NGOs- potential is not fully harnessed, only a few like BAIF & Pradan could come up. • Private Sector agencies- private dairies/ poultry firms, contract farming of poultry and dairy-emerging option for the farmers. • Agri-input dealers and vet pharma companies- concerned with their product promotion not on farmers’ development. • State Department of Animal Husbandry (SDAH)- major stakeholder but inadequately staffed, poorly budgeted, ill equipped- major concern is animal health-clinical approach, little orientation for livestock extension.
  7. 7. Scenario of Livestock Extension Activities Activities Reality Advisory and consultancy service Poor extension • Animal health treatment is the priority • Capacity building needs special focus • Lack of time and infrastructure • Differentiate felt and unfelt needs • Gap between farmers, line departments and universities • Reorienting mindsets • Need to focus on HRD, PPP • Role of ICT- Very important Livestock mela/fair/exhibition Health/ Sterility/ Fertility/ vaccination Camps Demonstrations Training programmes on various topics for farmers, officers and paraprofessionals Village and farm visits Use of mass media like radio ,TV, newspaper Publication of literature Very rare use of ICT and social media
  8. 8. Exclusive Extension Wing and Human Resources in SDAH State Separate Ext. Wing Human Resource ( Extension Officers) Andhra Pradesh Yes HQ-4 Dist-3 Arunachal Pradesh No Total-48 Dist-3 Assam No Dist-136 Bihar Yes HQ-2 Chattisgarh No HQ-146(VEO) Dist & Block-63 Goa Yes HQ-1 Dist-12 Gujarat Yes Himachal Pradesh No HQ-1 Dist-11 Karnataka Yes HQ-3 Block-176 Madhya Pradesh Yes HQ-263 Dist-50 Maharashtra No Block-291 HQ-1 Asst Commissioner Manipur No Sub Dir.Office-8 AEO-27
  9. 9. Exclusive Extension Wing and Human Resources in SDAH State Separate Ext. Wing Human Resource ( Extension Officers) Meghalaya No Block-39 Punjab No JD (AH)-5 DD-25 Rajastan No HQ-3 DD Sikkim Yes HQ-3 North-8 East-10 West-5 South-5 Tamil Nadu No Field Staff-300 Tripura No District-34 Uttarkhand No HQ-1 Dist-882 West Bengal No HQ-15 Dist-950 Andaman& N Yes HQ-1 Chandigarh No HQ-5 Dadra& N H No HQ-1
  10. 10. Budget allocation for livestock extension activities (in %) Source: Chander and Rathod, 2013 Optimum budget expected is 10% for extension activities within the total Animal husbandry and dairy sector budget
  11. 11. Extension Strategies for Development • Public sector extension services- Not the preferred option for accessing information on modern technologies in livestock production. • An effective extension machinery and access to inputs can improve productivity by adopting latest technologies. Reducing knowledge gap of farmers: • Only 5% households access any information on animal husbandry against 40 % of households accessing information on modern technology for crop farming (GOI, 2005).
  12. 12. Strengthening Livestock Extension • Pluralism in livestock extension services-Need of the hour • Effective coordination- public and private agencies • Encourage participation of private organizations/ NGOs./CSR initiatives etc. Feedback mechanism • Poor research, extension and farmer linkage • Poor dissemination of livestock technologies • Farmers’ feedback- very essential • Research can be field tested by interdisciplinary teams based on factors like location, resources etc. Extension Strategies for Development
  13. 13. Improving Research-Extension linkages: • Research outputs can be effectively communicated by stronger linkages • Promotion of direct interface between farmers , officers of line departments and scientists • Research priority setting by SREP based on PRA and joint study of teams including line depts. officials and scientists of the KVKs or Universities. • Participatory Technology Development can connect farmers with the scientists leading to need based researches. Extension Strategies for Development
  14. 14. • Involvement of Government Agencies, reputed NGOs and private sector. • Diploma Courses: Supplement the efforts of veterinarians at the grassroot level by providing practical livestock production guidelines towards developing a sustainable livestock based enterprise. • Training of Para-professionals: The training programmes for para-veterinarians and similarly placed personnel like AI technicians must be undertaken on regular basis. • Training of officers/professionals Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  15. 15. • Prospects of milk and meat value addition • Buffalo calves rearing for meat purpose • Livestock input industry • Commercial feed and fodder production • Dry fodder enrichment • Hay/silage preparation etc. • Commercial breeding units • Providing private doorstep AI services Capacity Building in Livestock Extension Entrepreneurship and Vocational Training: • Vocational training of rural youths and farm women • Development of commercial dairy/sheep/goat/poultry farms
  16. 16. Farmers’ training and Farmer led approach: • Based on participatory mode depending on socio-economic background of the farmers. • Progressive farmers after various scientific orientations can be encouraged to act as extension agents . Role of Agricultural Specialists: • Veterinarians can be supported by Agricultural Officers for knowledge and inputs about agronomy. • Model successful in the state of Punjab to make aware about feeding of crop residues; vegetable or fruit wastes etc. with such programmes. Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  17. 17. Merging of Extension with awareness activities: • Programme or camps like vaccination or health camp must be merged with extension activities. • A carefully designed extension education campaign initiated before and after vaccination by the extension personnel must be promoted. Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  18. 18. Gender and Livestock Extension: • Need for matching programmes and budgeting for women. • Women Extension workers must be promoted both in formal and informal mode. • Group mobilization approach- Leading women farmers may be trained for transfer of technologies and deployed as women extension functionaries. Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  19. 19. • The Women Dairy Cooperatives can have women extension workers to act as para-extension workers for a community or village with a minimum honorarium. • SHGs in Bidar district have excelled in animal husbandry and dairying Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  20. 20. • Infrastructure facilities like hostel, classrooms, laboratories, audio- visuals, farms etc. • Equipments for print, photostat, content development and validation mechanism and printing of extension literature. • Display boards, Audio-visual aids and mobile extension vehicles may also be needed at the hospital level. Capacity Building in Livestock Extension Developing Infrastructure in Extension:
  21. 21. Role of PPP in Extension: • PPP- Model for strengthening linkages among stakeholders • Can act as thought pattern and ‘method of choice’ • MoUs- TANUVAS with dairy farmers for growing the fodder for seed production Farmers grow fodder grasses like Bajra, Napier (Co-4), Guinea grass,(Anjan grass), Fodder sorghum (CoFS-27), Multi cut fodder Sorghum (CoFS-29), African tall maize, Legumes (Desmanthus, Stylo, Cowpea) and tree fodder varieties (Sesbania, Subabul, Glyricidia). Capacity Building in Livestock Extension
  22. 22. MoU of KVAFSU, Bidar with NGO (HKCAL) in Bidar (Karnataka Livelihood Mission Project)
  23. 23. ICT: Changing face of Extension • Increase effectiveness and efficiency of extension and help farmers to utilize information in solving their problems. • Information can be acquired, transmitted and used based on the need and situations • Promotion campaigns for adoption of technologies and practices like AI, vaccination, concentrate mixture feeding etc. • Interaction through Information Kiosks, Telecentres, toll-free Call Centres, websites, mobile phones software applications etc. • New advanced instruments like Personal Digital Assistants for Extension agents for technical information, communicating, field recording, database maintenance and scheduling.
  24. 24. Different ICT Tools • Rural Telecentres /VIC • Mobile telephony • Information Kiosks • Social Media Networks- Facebook etc. • TV and Radio etc….
  25. 25. Rural Telecenters • Also known as Village Information centres, ‘knowledge centres’, ‘information centres’, ‘Village Knowledge Centres’, ‘Common Service Centres’, ‘cyber dhabas’ etc. • Typical centre consists of ICT devices, print media, backup facility, training and discussion rooms and digital media (CDs) on agriculture and allied aspects. • Various govt, non-govt. and private initiatives for ICT enabled Telecenters. • Although more than 90,000 centres are operational, yet the services limit its access to a smaller population. • Success stories in South Karnataka & Puducherry- Must be emphasized in other regions.
  26. 26. Case of Puducherry • Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Puducherry has developed a touch screen kiosk. • To provide access to cattle owners to improve their knowledge on scientific animal health management. • Improvement in the health of the cattle (eg. less cases of mastitis, repeat breeding and tick infestations) after utilizing the information from the kiosk.
  27. 27. Advances in Mobile Telephony • Mobile phone conferencing • Smart and android mobile phone applications • MMS feature with video or photo sharing • mp3 or mp4 player, sound and video recorder, camera etc. • Toll free service • SMS Alerts • Mobile advisory services • Question and answer services • Radio-dial up services • Web portals and mobile telephony
  28. 28. 31 Sources: IndiaStats, InternetLiveStats, IAMAI, Tencent, Facebook, OSMA intelligence @wearesocialsg INDIAN SOCIAL MEDIA STATS Social Media Networks
  29. 29. • Mark Zuckerberg (Chairman and CEO), Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes on February 4, 2004
  30. 30. A marketing strategy Doctor sharing field experience
  31. 31. Facebook for Farmers
  32. 32. • Production and marketing of livestock products • Need to create basic market facilities and market information • Promotion of sheep/poultry associations • Interface meet between input dealers/companies/certification agencies (feed, milking machine, etc.) with farmers Market Driven Approach
  33. 33. Integrated Farming System (IFS) • Contributes to productivity, profitability, employment generation and bio-resource cycling • More self supporting, self sufficient and sustainable.
  34. 34. • Approach must change from individual to group or association • Livestock Interest Groups, SHGs or dairy Cooperatives, Joint Liability Groups- Successful models for effective production or marketing. • JLG formation for unemployed women and youth of 18-35 age group through Karnataka Livelihood Mission LIG Formation in NAIP Comp 3 project on Livelihood Security through Resource and Entrepreneurship Management in Bidar District Group/Association Approach
  35. 35. Interventions & Deliverables in NAIP Project • Community managed A. I. centers • A.I. service at village level • Fodder production and utilization • Demonstration of fodder plots &azolla unit • Fodder production and introduction of chaff cutter • Strategic Supplementation of area specific mineral mixture and UMMB • Animal health care service • Livestock shows/ Exhibitions/ Campaigns
  36. 36. Discipline: Dairy Husbandry/ Fodder development Name & Address : Mallikarjun M Swamy, R/o Kherda Ta. Aurad Dist. Bidar Problem: Fodder Scarcity Intervention: Introduction of improved fodder varieties Discipline: Dairy rearing Name & Address: Gyandao Reddy R/o Wanjarkheda Ta. Bhalki Dist. Bidar Problem: Low productivity Intervention: Technical guidance and Health care services Discipline:- Goat rearing Name & Address: Smt. Shanthabai Balagir Gosavi Enterprise: Goat husbandry Intervention: Introduction of Osmanabadi breed goats Success stories/Up scalable technologies
  37. 37. Farmer Led Approach • Identify motivated/entrepreneurial youth farmers /women • Support through technical guidance and promote them to act as extension agent for the village/community • Encourage farmers by giving incentives or recognition • Example- I year- 100 % salary from govt., II year- 50-50 shared by govt. and charges from the farmers., III year- salary/income has to be borne by the farmer himself by charging fees for his technical guidance and support)
  38. 38. Opportunities for India • Promote small scale farmers to rear low investment ventures like sheep, goats etc.. • Tremendous scope for farm diversification • Need to promote integrated farming • Extension can disseminate information in various aspects • Value addition of livestock products • Re-energizing small holders • Untapped export potential- Emphasize on advisory services about latest know-how, market information etc..
  39. 39. Conclusion • AH sector has greater scope and production potential • No single and specific strategy, but pluristic approach would work better • Need to seriously reorient the extension activities depending on the socio-economic-psychological status of farmers • Urgent need to develop quality human resource and infrastructure for effective dissemination • The grassroot level functionaries must be promoted to perform extension relevant activities rather than multiple tasks. • Promotion of innovation system is the need of the hour. • ICT, PPP, Farmer Led Extension and Farmers’ Associations- Can be most suitable solutions
  40. 40. Thank you