Lef 2008 digitaldisruptions

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CSC Report: Digital Disruptions: Technology Innovations Powering 21st Century Business

Serialized on Forbes.com, and acclaimed by eWeek, The Financial Times, Signal Magazine et al.

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Lef 2008 digitaldisruptions

  1. 1. Technology Innovations Powering 21st Century Business Leading Edge Forum 2008 Digital Disruptions new media rld er) wo new wave s sm art( er makeover social pow form y la t ren c ne w re p a sp ran orm atio n t al i t y inf
  2. 2. DIGTAL TRUST | LEADING ABoUT THE VoL. 8 EDGE FoRUM LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M As part of CSC’s Office of Innovation, the Leading Edge Forum to provoke conversations in the marketplace about the potential (LEF) is a global community whose programs help participants for innovation when applying technology to help advance realize business benefits from the use of advanced IT more rapidly. organizational performance. For more information about LEF programs, visit www.csc.com/lef. LEF members work to spot key emerging business and technology trends before others, and identify specific practices for exploiting The LEF Executive Programme is a premium, fee-based program these trends for business advantage. Members enjoy access to that helps CIOs and senior business executives develop into a global network of thought leaders and leading practitioners, next-generation leaders by using technology for competitive and to a powerful body of research and field practices. advantage in wholly new ways. Members direct the research agenda, interact with a network of world-class experts, and LEF programs give CTOs and senior technologists the opportunity access topical conferences, study tours, information exchanges to explore the most pressing technology issues, examine state-of- and advisory services. For more information about the LEF the-art practices, and leverage CSC’s technology experts, alliance Executive Programme, visit lef.csc.com. programs and events. LEF programs and reports are intended In this ongoing series of reports about technology directions, the LEF looks at the role of innovation in the marketplace both now and in the years to come. By studying technology’s current realities and anticipating its future shape, these reports provide organizations with the necessary balance between tactical decision making and strategic planning. To receive these reports, subscribe to the LEF RSS feed: www.csc.com/lefpodcast LEF LEADERSHIP WILLIAM KoFF PAUL GUSTAFSoN Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Director, Leading Edge Forum Office of Innovation Paul Gustafson is an accomplished technologist and proven Bill Koff is a leader in CSC’s technology community, providing leader in emerging technologies, applied research and strategy. vision and direction as vice president and chief technology officer As director of the Leading Edge Forum, Paul brings vision and for the office of Innovation. Bill plays a key role in guiding CSC leadership to a portfolio of programs that make up the LEF and research, innovation, technology thought leadership and alliance directs the technology research agenda. Astute at recognizing partner activities, and in certifying CSC’s Centers of Excellence technology trends, how they interrelate, and their implications and Innovation Centers. He advises CSC and its clients on criti- for business, Paul brings his insights to bear on client strategy, cal information technology trends, technology innovation and CSC research, leadership development and innovation strategy. strategic investments in leading edge technology. A frequent He has published numerous papers and articles on strategic speaker on technology, architecture and management issues, technology issues and speaks to executive audiences frequently Bill’s areas of interest include system architecture, digital disrup- on these topics. tions, innovative uses of data, and the open source movement. pgustafs@csc.com wkoff@csc.com
  3. 3. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGTAL TRUST | VoL. 8 Digital Disruptions Leading Edge Forum 2008 Technology Innovations Powering 21st Century Business CoNTENTS 2 Why Digital Is More Disruptive 4 New Media We have met the new media, and it is us. 15 Living in a New Reality We will blend physical and virtual reality, improving both. 27 Social Power The power inherent in connected people surges. 36 Information Transparency What is observed by one will be known to all. 47 New Wave of Waves The sky is not the limit as spectrum goes digital. 59 Platform Makeover This is not your father’s computing platform. 69 Smart(er) World Smarter everything makes us smarter everywhere. 80 Thriving on Disruption 82 NoTES 93 ACKNoWLEDGMENTS Get all LEF reports by subscribing to the LEF RSS feed: www.csc.com/lefpodcast 1
  4. 4. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M Why Digital is More Disruptive over the centuries we have experienced at least a few principal disruptions play out, they will raise questions, alter behaviors, disruptions to “business as usual” and “life as we know it,” trigger new business models, and ultimately become part of including the Industrial Revolution, the Computer Revolution, the foundation of a new economy. and most recently, the Internet Revolution. Though these unstoppable and, for the most part, irreversible disruptions have brought unprecedented economic growth, the digital disruptions begun with the Internet’s launch at the end of the As these disruptions play out, they 20th century and responsible for a tremendous spike in global will raise questions, alter behaviors, productivity promise a second-round impact in the 21st century that we can only begin to imagine. trigger new business models, and ultimately become part of the Digital disruptions are about information and communication technologies that change business models deeply, and often foundation of a new economy. shockingly. These disruptions, on par with the telephone and automobile, transform the marketplace and society so completely that it can take decades for their full effects to be realized. The seven digital disruptions that will reshape 21st century Clayton Christensen first introduced the notion of disruptive business are: technologies in his seminal book The Innovator’s Dilemma. A disruptive technology, in contrast to a sustaining technology, 1. New Media — old media was about stiff distribution channels, introduces a very different value proposition than was previously big-studio creators and power brokers. New Media is about available. Disruptive technologies are often not recognized by 1 flexible distribution channels, self-created content and broad existing customers as something they need currently, so firms find participation. Content moves from isolation to interaction. themselves facing a dilemma: if they listen to their customers and Creators are you and me. Distribution channels vary and bypass the innovation, new entrants may swoop in and take over, overlap, so that TV comes over the Internet and vice versa. often appealing to a different market first but then gradually taking Prime time and media-controlled broadcast and distribution over the original market. Therefore, disruptive technologies need to are things of the past. When the Writers Guild of America be considered from a market standpoint (what market values the went on strike to obtain royalties for digital viewings, the new technology’s characteristics?), not a technology standpoint. chaos ignited by the strike — TV shows were cancelled, reruns ran aplenty — showed that progress with new media will not This report focuses on the latest disruptive technologies in necessarily move from business model A to business model information and communication technologies. These digital B, but more likely from A to chaos to B. This is likely to be disruptions are completely reshaping industry, much the way true for all the digital disruptions. the music industry has been rocked in the last decade by the advent of digital media. The seven disruptions identified in 2. Living in a New Reality — We can break free of the physical this report are all at various stages of maturation and, like the world’s constraints by venturing into the virtual world. music industry transformation, are works in progress. As these Augmented reality, a blending of the virtual and real, enables 2
  5. 5. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS us to move effortlessly in time and space, interact in new 6. Platform Makeover — Silicon has its limits, so it is only ways, and experience things like never before. Participate in natural that new methods are being explored to provide a real-world event like a NASA spacecraft landing. Fly across next-generation computation power, in many more places, a weather map of the country to see where it’s raining. Host and with many more purposes than today’s computers. a town hall meeting for 100,000 employees without anyone As the new methods emerge — nanotechnology, molecular having to travel. Control your data center remotely. Learn computing, quantum computing, optical computing — they from life-size virtual guides at a historic tourist site. The ability will challenge silicon-based business models and markets. to visualize data from numerous sources in 3D will enhance one key disruption will be in cryptography. Quantum com- learning and productivity beyond what we can imagine today. puting blows apart current encryption techniques, which are effective because it takes a long time (hundreds of years) to 3. Social Power — Leveraging the power inherent in connected factor a large number and break an encryption scheme. A people is disrupting how we locate and retain expertise, col- quantum computer can do it in seconds. When that day comes, laborate, advertise, lend money and even listen to music. New everything that depends on encryption, from credit card business strategies harnessing social power put a premium transactions to e-mail, will be wide open and unprotected on relationships and what others say and do, and tap the viral until new security techniques are created. capability of social networks as distribution channels for advertising, software applications and more. Enterprises need 7. Smart(er) World — It doesn’t take long to point out what is to “let people be people” and flex their social muscle at the “dumb” about our current technology landscape: applica- office (with blog posts, social networks, etc.), but within tions that don’t understand what we mean, rapidly-changing corporate guidelines for acting responsibly. With social technologies that don’t work well together, systems that networks infiltrating the enterprise as well as becoming the crash for no known reason, computers that you “talk” to by hub of one’s Internet experience, major disruptions are afoot. typing. A smart(er) technology landscape that understands language and can reason is in the works. With that comes 4. Information Transparency — Information that was once cloaked innovations in knowledge gathering, decision making and in darkness — inaccessible or nonexistent — is now available in predicting. Smart virtual assistants are the future of online droves, shedding light on previously opaque people, processes customer service, disrupting labor-intensive call centers. and things. This leads to more efficiency and fewer surprises, Semantics can be put to work to find expertise in the and can redefine activities such as criminal investigations, enterprise, solving problems faster and averting crises. product comparisons, driving patterns and, thanks to ubiqui- Semantics at the IT infrastructure level make services more tous cameras, overseas hiring. When enterprises know where shareable and organizations more agile, since they can develop their employees and assets are in real time, they can operate applications and manage change faster. more safely and effectively. People are demanding access to more data, on their terms, and this force will be disruptive as Many of the digital disruptions overlap, triggering new and enterprises and government agencies work to respond. more powerful disruptions. Virtual worlds are the next frontier for social networks. Social networks have a strong influence 5. New Wave of Waves — The communications infrastructure is on new media. Information transparency is a prerequisite undergoing a major overhaul as the Internet and new radio for a smart(er) world. New waves are a key enabler of infor- waves that are extending the Internet create platforms that mation transparency. New platforms will turbocharge all the challenge the old regime. A general purpose communica- other disruptions. tions utility has formed that obliterates the limited products and services of telephony, TV and radio that used to ride This is an exciting time. In the pages that follow, we examine on 20th century infrastructures. As spectrum opens up, and each disruption and its potential to redefine 21st century spectrum allocation eventually falls by the wayside, the business. Forewarned is forearmed; explore with us what lies air waves become fertile ground — some say “beachfront ahead and plan accordingly. property” — for a vast array of new services from new players, not just traditional operators. This sets up a perfect storm for innovation, where it is not clear who the ultimate winner will be except for the consumer. 3
  6. 6. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M neW MeDia We have met the new media, and it is us. When you’re on youTube, you’re looking new media in the to traditional media sources. The proviewer is prolific and eye. The new media is the ordinary person — you and me — garners an enthusiastic, if narrow, following. The proviewer creating and sharing life experiences through videos. It is the actively creates, modifies, shares and evaluates; this is “lean citizen journalist, the blogger, the podcaster, the basement forward” rather than “lean back” media. musician, the cell phone author. It is professional talent freed from the vise of Big Media. New media is consumer-driven, Are we returning to our roots? Some say that the new media interactive, social, customized and personal. People want to is renewing the art of personal storytelling.2 We are enter- participate, and on their terms — their content, their schedule, taining each other individually and informing each other their place. personally, not unlike how people communicated hundreds of years ago. New media is about entertainment and news — digital video, audio and text — delivered for personal consumption and In conjunction with this, video is exploding. Video is often customization, typically on a laptop, mobile phone, game considered the best way to tell a story or convey information, box or hand-held device. New technologies continue the new and the Internet and related technologies have lowered the media revolution, with consumers wresting more control from barrier to widespread video. Enterprises can convey more of media titans and enjoying entirely new ways of experiencing their corporate messages in video, and proviewers are becoming entertainment and news. as facile with video as they are with text. Video is becoming just another data type: ordinary, plentiful and expected. The Internet has become a global channel for new media, breaking down the strong-hold grip that Big Media — traditional So although new media is not just about video, video is a TV, radio, film and news producers — have on their content and very important part of the story. Let us examine the story by their audiences. The Internet levels the playing field, allowing exploring the disruptions in content and distribution that are others — you and me — to play. driving the new media revolution. This new media world, where we can interact with artists and TV (AND EVERyTHING ELSE) oN My TERMS journalists and even be the artists and journalists, requires a new way to navigate it all. The entire access experience is Created by Me changing and will continue to change, as the content itself Content is no longer the sole purview of big TV and film also changes. These changes will be of huge importance, for studios, radio stations, newspapers and magazines. Proviewers they are designed around the consumer, not the producer. generate content and are an entirely new source of creativity Whoever anticipates and meets the needs of the consumer and competition. There are many examples: youTube, CNN best will win. iReports and other forms of citizen journalism, six million blogs, currenttv.com, Apple’s Garage Band and cell phone This starts with recognizing that “consumer” has become novels. These new media put the individual in charge of creating an anachronism. yesterday’s consumer has become today’s content, at once personalizing, diversifying and enlarging “proviewer,” a producer and a proactive viewer. The proviewer the content mix. Some call this mass social media, depicted has become a new source of content and a potential threat in Figure 1. 4
  7. 7. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS Figure 1 T HE E ME R GE N C E A N D R I S E oF MASS S o CIAL ME DIA view time and most popular clips. Video can more readily be part of a mixed- media marketing campaign. Traditional Media When DuPont wanted to educate a Institutional Television Control younger audience about DuPont science and innovation and encourage conversa- observe Movies tion, it turned to video storytelling and Media Outlets used Brightcove to deliver the message. centralized Does Old Media Radio mediation Matter? DuPont hired advertising agency Denuo, a unit of Publicis Group, to create short- Print sh form videos describing the relevance of publi DuPont’s science innovations to every- distributed mediation push Shift day life. Denuo worked with Brightcove Social Media con to place these “Science Stories” on blogs tribu Syndication te Podcasts such as BoingBoing and SEED Network’s ne tw ScienceBlogs, streaming the stories in Us blog blog blog or Vlogs k Social dedicated players. In this way, viewers ed ge blog blog Consumption Forums could easily spread the videos in a viral network via commments, Blogosphere effects trackbacks, IM, empty center manner. (See Figure 2.) feedback, etc. blog blog Wikis blog blog blog Enterprise 2.0 Consumer pull Though DuPont has a long-established Platforms Control brand, with this effort Denuo helped DuPont connect with a new audience in a very targeted, different and relevant Source: Dion Hinchcliffe’s Web 2.0 Blog, Social Computing Magazine. Licensed way. The program generated tremendous under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. http://web2.socialcomputingmagazine.com word of mouth, with 25 percent of views generated from word of mouth and 75 percent of those aged 18-24 (60 percent of those aged 18-44) indicating they In the enterprise, companies are enjoying similar freedom to would tell an average of five people about the videos. (For become content creators. Enterprises can build and launch more on word of mouth, see Social Power.) DuPont made a their own TV channels, and get corporate messages to large positive impact on its target audience — 90 percent indicated audiences through video, audio and imagery rather than the videos were interesting and informative — using new media standard text. Brightcove provides an Internet TV platform to reach that audience directly. for enterprises to publish on-demand video and other digital media assets online. Whereas in the past it was cost-prohibitive “The emergence of new digital media channels has created for enterprises to communicate extensively, if at all, in video opportunities for any marketer to reach audiences in new, (it involved broadcasting or DVD manufacturing), Brightcove’s exciting ways and enable these audiences to share the content platform, delivered as a hosted turnkey service, makes the they view easily with others, amplifying the marketer’s voice,” video proposition cost-effective, especially for those serving notes Gary Spangler, e-business leader, DuPont Electronic and niche markets. Communication Technologies. Brightcove’s technology enables further distribution through If enterprises can bypass big studios, artists can too. Professional, syndication and viral video sharing; video content can be acclaimed talent can create their own material uninhibited e-mailed, embedded in a blog or put in an RSS feed, so the by producers and release it to a global audience, as with message gets out much further. Content can include advertising, Funnyordie.com, a comedy video site that combines proviewer and metrics can be analyzed such as number of views, average content with original exclusive content from professionals. 5
  8. 8. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M Figure 2 BRI GH TCoV E ’S P L Ay E R E NAB LE S VIE WE RS To S PRE AD T H E Wo RD A Bo UT D UP o NT ’S S C I E NC E STo R I E S Start of video features “freeze screen” that encourages users to initiate video play. oTHER oPTIoNS ACCESSIBLE VIA PLAyER MENU E-mail to a Access Direct Add to Blogger or Access Embed Code to Friend Link to Player Typepad Blog Post Player to Any Site Source: Brightcove NEw KId oN ThE BLoCK: VIdEo There is a new kid on the block, video, IT. Employees will bring video into the extends to the enterprise as well, where that IT needs to befriend. Traditionally, enterprise without CIO consent. For video will become more popular for little if any video has been allowed on example, an engineer might use a home such activities as training, marketing corporate networks because it slows laptop with a built-in camera to take and internal messaging. Hewlett- the network down and consumes so footage for a project and post that video Packard has a YouTube-like site, HP much storage. However, with video on an internal blog. Uncut, where employees post self- becoming a prevalent and preferred made videos about best practices and mode of communication on the Internet, Enterprises need alignment between IT experiences at HP — so you can see IT’s unfriendly attitude must change. and new media like video, just as IT had and learn from the engineers them- to ready itself for IM and the browser. selves.3 Video is becoming a first class Just like instant messaging (IM) and Although video had many false starts citizen, and IT needs to help this new browsers, video is poised to infiltrate with video e-mail, the ascent of YouTube citizen feel at home and prosper. the enterprise and do an end-run around signals that video is here to stay. This 6
  9. 9. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS Similarly, independent musicians can be heard and gain a Making It Mine following without a studio at sites like strayform.com. Aspiring In addition to creating original content from scratch, proviewers producers and actors can release short-form Web videos that are manipulating and modifying once-untouchable content. attract big audiences; one low-budget mini-series, “We Need Content is being served up more like raw data to alter for one’s Girlfriends,” which was released on its own Web site, promoted personal consumption. on MySpace, and later released on MySpace and youTube, has been picked up by CBS to develop as a pilot TV series.4 For instance, proviewers can create their own TV experience. Microsoft’s Mediaroom, an Internet TV platform that telcos The notion of citizen journalism and “microjournalism” is can sell, works with TNT and Showtime to let proviewers alive and well in an age of youTube, Twitter, digital cameras, choose which TV camera angle they want when viewing sports. camera phones and blogs. Minute-by-minute details that would This is a major departure from having the network decide, not make the 6 o’clock news are now on full view in video, though the network is still in charge of much of the action, pictures, text or a mix; for better or worse, no one’s actions like which angles are available to choose from. This idea puts are private. For instance, the nitty gritty of a political campaign forth the notion of informed media, where a program such can be captured for all to see, from pushing and shoving 5 as a sports telecast can be enhanced by statistics, online to controversial remarks by political candidates.6 Though this chatting with friends, stopping the action, and controlling type of reporting might seem superficial, it can spread like replays. Microsoft had a chance to put its viewer control on kudzu and have real impact. (See “Microblogging Makes Its full display during the 2008 olympics in Beijing, when MSN, Mark” in Social Power.) in an exclusive partnership with NBC, provided over 3,000 hours of live on-demand coverage of the games. Blogging in the enterprise, a form of citizen journalism, uncorks information and ideas as employees are given a voice to Proviewers can also create their own TV and radio channels. communicate their views and expertise directly, and customers Joost, Move Networks and others deliver TV over the Internet and strategic partners can comment back (or create their own so proviewers can slice-and-dice programs to create their own blogs). Blogging encourages a reciprocal exchange of ideas, channels, like a music playlist. BlogTalkRadio lets you broadcast fosters innovation through these frank conversations, builds your own radio station. (See Social Power.) loyalty and interest in the enterprise, and chronicles corporate history in a lasting, searchable fashion. Boeing and General Motors Another area where proviewers are being given a voice, literally, are two major corporations that have leveraged blogging is in televised political debates. In the U.S. presidential debates to build customer ties and even influence product direction. in 2007 sponsored by CNN and youTube, CNN took questions “Businesses can be bloggers too; this is not just a tool for the people submitted via youTube and made them the basis of the media,” says Anil Dash, vice president of Six Apart, vendor of two-hour televised debates. This was a new form of questioning: blogging software Moveable Type, TypePad and Vox. “It’s still by the general public, in their own words, with their emotions early stage for enterprise blogs, but they will become important and faces on full display for the candidates. These were not business tools.” prepared questions read by a professional moderator but per- sonal questions coming from ordinary citizens, uncontrolled by Then there is the cell phone novelist, who does an end-run the TV broadcaster or the candidates. around traditional publishing houses and authors by banging out short, clipped novels on a cell phone and publishing them With this new format the public becomes part of the national on a Web site. In many cases cell phone novels, popular in political dialogue, inserting itself directly into the discussion. Japan, are by first-time authors. These new authors are creating Internet technologies and new media improve the ability to a new genre — stories that are created a few lines at a time, reach out to constituents and hear first hand what people are often thin on plot and character development but appealing saying. Democracy does scale. to a younger audience raised on cell phones, the Internet and comic books. In 2007, five of the 10 best-selling novels Indeed, all the presidential candidates were pumping the in Japan were originally cell phone novels, which were later Internet and social network sites like never before (most of these published as books. 7 sites didn’t even exist in the last election). This is giving rise to a new grass roots voice and an audience the candidates 7
  10. 10. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M delivering low-budget films to a college audience wrapped in Internet technologies and new media a social experience. young adults are invited to meet online before, during and after a showing, to send comments to improve the ability to reach out to friends and producers about what they like or don’t like about constituents and hear first hand what a particular film.8 This highly targeted audience “will help to create, influence and ‘blowtorch’ content made just for them.”9 people are saying. democracy does scale. This is a completely new movie-going experience. Sites like LastFM are changing the radio listening experience. cannot ignore. It is safe to say the arrival of youTube, MySpace, Listeners on LastFM can build their own radio station, connect Facebook and other video and social network sites is changing with others also listening to their station, and create commu- the face and voice of politics. The fun has just begun. nities around an artist. These activities are impossible to do on a traditional radio station. LastFM turns the radio industry on Redefining the Experience its head, from a top-down broadcast model to a bottom-up New media is about not only making it mine but also extending community model. and redefining the experience. In the movie world, proviewers are gaining a bit of control over the most sacred of untouchable media, the movie. Technology one of the most powerful aspects by ClearPlay lets you filter out objectionable content while of new media is that it is a social playing a DVD without altering the actual content. So, you could turn an R-rated movie into a PG13 version for your kids. experience — the audience shares This is a powerful new capability that studios oppose, as it its opinion of a work readily and can changes the finished product that is viewed. However, this attitude fails to recognize that one-size-fits-all will no longer easily invite others to view or listen. do. Home is where people can express their personal values, and the more flexible the movie industry is in addressing a variety of values, the higher the viewership. In fact, studios could increase their revenues by offering different versions on LastFM people come together united by similar tastes themselves (rather than consumers or third parties doing it); in music. The individual chooses what to listen to and uses this business decision requires a significant change in mind that to connect to other fans as well as discover similar music set and artistic values. based on what the community has recommended. When an artist adds a new title, listeners can find it via similar music, Another sign of extending media content to others is the giving artists a new channel for having their work discovered. ability to add subtitles to a work. Technology from DotSUB LastFM is like a portal into music and artists that provides lets anyone add subtitles to movies and video clips in any a shared experience built on opinion, context and relation- language, making the content more shareable globally. This is ships. Social power redefines the media experience. (See another area of opportunity for the studios, which typically offer Social Power.) a few translations for a few movies but not many translations for all movies. I DEMAND oN-DEMAND As for redefining the experience, one of the most powerful Having media on my terms includes not only content but also aspects of new media is that it is a social experience — the distribution. Having a better on-demand distribution model is audience shares its opinion of a work readily and can easily imperative because proviewers decide not only what to watch invite others to view or listen. Microsoft’s shared TV experience or listen to but when and where. TiVo and Sling were pioneers lets proviewers in different locations chat online while watching in opening up TV access so that proviewers had more control. the same show. Blowtorch Entertainment, a new company, is Today there are many signs of media distribution opening up 8
  11. 11. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS PICTurE ThIs: FINdINg IT As more content is rendered in video, video content. Pluggd Inc. (now Delve through better analysis of CCTV footage. audio and photographs, search tech- Networks) and Digitalsmiths are two of IntelliVid’s intelligent video analysis niques originally designed for text need to many companies working on contextual software uses object-based searching keep pace. New technologies are making ad placement using advanced video to enable store personnel to “camera it easier to search images and sounds to and audio search techniques. Pluggd’s surf” to track a suspect or an object in find what you need, match ads to content, search technology, SeeHere and real time. The software also enables the and even cut down on shoplifting. HearHere, enables people to quickly user to assemble critical video evidence find the content they want within a in minutes to manage an investigation For years, digital cameras have given video or audio clip using a special and share critical information — video pictures time stamps, making it possible concept-search technique. Its contextual clips, still images and case notes all to search by date; in the future it may ad placement technology is based on integrated in a single electronic file — be possible to search by who is in matching ads to consumer searches, with store personnel and law enforce- the picture, where they are, and even including specific keyword searches. ment. The act of shoplifting becomes their expression, as advances in facial Digitalsmith’s technology, VideoSense, more transparent, and thus preventable. detection, geo tagging and expression digitizes video content so it is easily (See Information Transparency.) That is detection become commercialized.10 searchable “inside” and matches that the beauty of better search and analysis: You’ll be able to find Aunt Sally or search content to context-appropriate ads. understanding processes and leveraging for someone who is smiling or crying. the data at hand. In the world of closed circuit television, On the Internet, advertisers long for technology from IntelliVid is helping an automatic way to match ads to store owners cut down on shoplifting over open networks like the Internet and alternative networks Getting Out of the Box like cellular, reaching broader audiences. Netflix, who moved DVD rentals from the store to our mail- boxes and then our computers, has now pledged to deliver Further, as distribution opens up, it is happening at near zero that content directly to our TV screens. Netflix is bringing cost to the distributor. you don’t have to press DVDs or CDs, some 6,000 movies and TV shows, available to paying sub- or have TV or radio broadcast infrastructure. Instead, as the scribers of its Web site, to the living room TV via the Internet. Brightcove-DuPont example showed, everyone can play. The The company’s first partnership is with LG Electronics, which new media vision is that TV, movies and radio be available plans to add the Netflix service to a new line of HDTVs with for anytime, anywhere consumption and interaction. wireless connections to the Internet.11 Netflix’s goal is to be seen as a movie channel that can be accessed from numerous devices.12 9
  12. 12. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M Another player in the movie rental shakeup is VUDU, whose VUDU Box makes over 6,000 movies accessible on the TV screen TV and video content is getting out via the Internet. VUDU’s appliance does not require a computer of its original box. or cable or satellite TV — just a broadband Internet connection. VUDU’s system stores the movies and TV shows you rent or buy in your own personal digital library. (See Figure 3.) by players like Amazon and Apple (iTunes) that are making The writing has long been on the wall for traditional video movies available for download to computers and iPods, and rental companies to digitize distribution, spurred further Sony, a movie maker itself, that is making movies and videos downloadable to the Sony Playstation 3 Figure 3 RENT MoVIES DIRECTLy FRoM yoUR TV SCREEN USING game console. VUDU AND THE INTERNET Also in the video content shuffle is youTube, who is bringing its Internet video content to TV via a partnership with TiVo.13 Viewers will be able to access youTube content through their TiVos; content will be streamed (rather than downloaded) via broadband con- nection.14 TiVo users will also be able to subscribe to Internet video feeds using RSS, expanding the role of RSS from text to video and providing flexibility for accessing Internet video. The youTube-TiVo partnership is the Source: CSC result of youTube opening its platform to outside developers. If Netflix, VUDU and youTube are about Figure 4 TVU NETWoRKS BRINGS LIVE TV oVER THE INTERNET getting movies and other video content FRoM ARoUND THE WoRLD, VIA ITS WEB SITE oR THE to TV, others are focused on getting DoWNLoADABLE TVUPLAyER (SHoWN HERE) TV content to the Internet. Either way, TV and video content is getting out of its original box. TVU networks lets you get foreign TV stations and other video content live over the Internet. From TVU’s Web site, people in Pakistan were able to watch CNNi when that station was banned there. Soccer fans around the world can watch the latest soccer on Indonesia’s StarTV channel, and immigrants in the United States can watch Taiwan TV, TV5 Telugu from India, or Arca from Brazil. Source: TVU networks (See Figure 4.) 10
  13. 13. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS The platform uses peer-to-peer real-time packet replication broadcasters, and can broadcast up to HDTV quality. Called so that, in contrast to traditional streaming, as the number of “the ultimate in multicast TV,” TVU provides global distribution viewers grows the transmission does not degrade, and there of TV programming at low cost. is no need to account for additional traffic or boost infrastruc- ture. TVU has sustained over 150,000 simultaneous viewers on Many others are working to get TV to the Internet. Joost and a single Internet connection. TVU manages the overall network Move Networks use peer-to-peer technology but with different performance, with broadcasters controlling the rights, coverage, strategies. Joost, from the founders of Skype, stores content and schedule for their content. on its central servers and releases it (once) into the peer-to- peer network, where it is shared among users. Move delivers “To broadcasters, we are another transmission medium,” explains video as a standard Web object that is cached in small bits Paul Shen, CEo of TVU. “The broadcaster determines what to for easier transmission. Both offer broadcast quality program- broadcast and whether or not to charge viewers.” TVU shares ming ranging from programs like “The Gadget Show,” a British profit with the broadcaster from revenue generated from adver- television series, to segments from well-known U.S. shows like tising on the TVU platform. “CSI: Ny,” “Grey’s Anatomy” and CNN. Both aim to make it easier and more cost-effective than traditional broadcasting As of May 2008, TVU had 4.5 million unique viewers per month for organizations to get their video to a large audience. who watched over 11 million hours of programming monthly; roughly 300 TV channels are broadcast daily. TVU is bundled Hulu is a joint venture between NBC and News Corp. to provide into Hewlett-Packard’s Pavilion laptops and expects to have prime time shows from NBC, Fox and other TV networks on a global viewer base of 40 million by the end of 2008. TVU the Internet. Here is Hollywood taking the bull by the horns to has content from over 200 countries, including amateur self- control online distribution of its content. The site is intended NEw MEdIA ChANgEs ThE FACE oF AdVErTIsINg New media is changing the face of online Connecting the Dots that you are probably in a certain income advertising, for as content takes on The more relevant the ad, the more it bracket, and that it is almost Valentine’s new forms, such as mobile and video, is perceived as content and welcomed Day. Through Placecast, advertisers so does advertising. Online advertising by the consumer. Targeting online ads can recommend a shop near the hotel is a nascent area, but one thing is sure: through location and context is growing. for purchasing a gift and send that ad, advertising will continue to grow and Placecast combines location informa- called a PlaceAd, to your mobile phone evolve online, where the audience is and tion with contextual information to “put or laptop. Placecast gives anonymous the metrics are better. There is much audience in place,” as its slogan says. location information context that can experimentation and creativity taking If you are at a hotel in Manhattan, be converted into a revenue stream. place as companies seek to optimize Placecast’s software can let advertisers It connects the dots to help advertisers advertising in a world of new media. know that you are attending a conference, target their audience. Continued on the following page > 11
  14. 14. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M NEw MEdIA ChANgEs ThE FACE oF AdVErTIsINg (continued) Mobile ads, another form of targeting, Mobile is testing cell phone advertising mobile ads on an opt-in basis will no are ads sent to you on a mobile device, in a partnership with the social network doubt be required. Still, location-based customized to your location. If you are service Loopt, which lets families and mobile ads put advertisers a huge step walking down the street past a depart- friends keep track of each other on their closer to the customer purchase. ment store, you might get an ad on cell phones.15 Members of Loopt who your cell phone that jackets are on sale. have GPS-equipped cell phones and online ads go video Advertisers are salivating at this form have chosen to participate might receive Like content on the Web, advertisements of advertising because they get much an ad for a nearby restaurant or movie are evolving from text to images (banners) closer to the customer and the point theater. There are privacy issues, of to video. Video ads take on a new look of sale than if using mass advertising course, as people may find this form of and feel as they are incorporated into outlets like TV and newspapers. CBS advertising highly intrusive, so offering video content in different ways: • viral ads, which are appended to video BUy THE JACKET yoUR FAVoRITE TV CHARACTER IS content that is e-mailed around WEARING WHILE yoU WATCH THE SHoW • geo-targeted overlays, which are additions to video ads that reflect your location (for example, what stores are nearby in your state) • interactive overlays, which let you click to a Web site or video for more information • branded video players, which frame the content on your screen with an advertiser’s logo YuMe is one company offering these kinds of ad services;16 its ad platform will also power NBC Direct, the first site to offer free downloads of prime time TV shows. Source: ICE Innovative Technologies Continued on the following page > 12
  15. 15. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS NEw MEdIA ChANgEs ThE FACE oF AdVErTIsINg (continued) As downloadable video content increases clicking and shopping is a major distrac- spots and breaks, if any. Internet content — whether TV shows, short clips or movies, tion from watching the show, it’s sure is flexible and interactive, and advertising and whether to laptops, cell phones or to satisfy impulse buying — and the must follow suit. other mobile devices — dynamic video product company is selling direct to the ads can be part of the downloaded consumer at retail, not wholesale, prices. Key questions are: Who is in charge of content. On the belief that most people The ICE technology works on standard IPTV channel programming, and thus would rather have ad-supported content TV (cable, satellite) and IPTV, and will be advertising? Will there be a bidding than pay for content, advertisers are available for TV content on the Web. system for ad time, or will advertising gearing up for this and for being able follow an entirely different business to track these offline views for their ad Further, producers can change the model? How do we get IPTV, the Web metrics. Poddadies helps advertisers do products in the show based on its and television to accept and display that and has a system to change ads on sponsors. Technology from i3media, each other’s ads when proprietary, the desktop once the video file has been a consortium of media companies in incompatible video players and formats downloaded. Adobe also has a system 17 Spain, lets you manipulate individual make integration — and therefore an to change ads in its new Media Player.18 objects in a video frame. For instance, effective overall ad strategy — difficult? you could change a bottle of wine Stay tuned as industry, audience and shop the show from a Monte Rosso Vineyard label technology work out these and other There may be ads aplenty, but there still to a Seven Springs Vineyard label if online ad issues. lurks the age-old question: How effective that grower is sponsoring the show.19 is the ad? Especially in a world of time The proviewer can click on the wine shifting and ad skipping? If advertisers bottle to obtain more information and fear their ads are being ignored, they can purchase it. try an ad-less approach. New technology lets people “shop the show” and buy new ad age products they see on a TV program right Though online advertising is in its from their TV screen. If you like the shoes infancy, it is clear that advertisers are the actress is wearing, using technology moving from a scattershot approach from ICE Innovative Technologies, you to, ultimately, 1-to-1 marketing and can buy them instantly with a few clicks buying direct from the ad itself (no of your TV remote. The ICE technology more Web page redirects). The traditional provides a standard format for listing (TV) ad network, with neatly delineated products, presented as a menu next to spots and breaks, has given way to a the show, that you navigate through to new ad network supporting Internet make a purchase. While it’s not clear if content that features wildly irregular 13
  16. 16. DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M to be used for marketing purposes and revenue generation, cellular networks. The producers argued that the digital arena making money from ads on the site and in the videos. Before is not mature enough to make a compensation decision. In Hulu, NBC had removed its shows from iTunes in a pricing dispute February 2008 a three-year deal was struck giving writers a with Apple; if Hulu, which launched in october 2007, succeeds, percentage of the gross from digital distribution, though this it will give networks more leverage in negotiating distribution could be mostly “symbolic” if revenue from digital distribution deals with Apple and others.20 is relatively low.21 VeohTV comes at Internet TV from a different angle, serving as The growing pains of new media are being felt by content a video browser that captures, stores and sorts free online video creators and producers alike as media industries continue to content. VeohTV has been described as TiVo for the Internet, calibrate against an increasingly digital future. with a similar DVR-style interface that lets you find video you want and watch it when you want (save video streams as downloads to watch later if desired). VeohTV integrates video sources across the Internet, so you can watch full-length on-demand is a powerful model episodes from CBS, NBC, youTube, MySpace, Google, yahoo and thousands of other sources. As you use VeohTV, it learns that is pressuring old thinking about what you like and makes video recommendations to you. ownership and rights to change. Challenging Old Thinking The new media vision for on-demand content will be in the making for some time. on-demand is a powerful model that LoSE To WIN is pressuring old thinking about ownership and rights to change. Digital distribution was a major factor in the 2007-2008 Writers Enterprises need to recognize that new media shifts power to Guild of America strike. The 12,000 writers from film, TV and proviewers. The business models that will flourish are those radio, who went on strike for three months and forced many that invite participation and give individuals more control. shows off the air, wanted stronger compensation for their works ownership is not the way to win. openness, customization in digital, Internet and other non-traditional formats, whether and personalization are the way of the future. DVD, streamed to a Web site, downloaded, or transmitted over 14
  17. 17. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE| FoRU M DIGTAL TRUST VoL. 8 living in a neW reality We will blend physical and virtual reality, improving both. According to philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), people Virtual worlds and blended-reality worlds are powerful but can never know reality directly. We are, by design, one layer not yet fully understood. However, virtual worlds and virtual removed from reality, with our brains synthesizing external reality will play an increasingly significant role in our personal stimuli — sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touches — and and professional lives. How this story plays out is still unknown, creating a coherent experience. In other words, we experience but with more people populating virtual worlds and experiencing the world through a layer of perception. Today’s virtual worlds virtual reality in everyday situations, progress is being made as magnify this layering we do, pre-digesting data (stimuli) and the story unfolds. feeding it to us as a new layer of perception that helps us understand the world in new ways. We can detect and analyze In this chapter we explore virtual worlds and other expressions more, and ultimately make better decisions, because virtual of virtual reality including simulations, augmented worlds and worlds present data on our terms: visual, life-like, interactive telepresence. The new reality is that we live in a blended reality and 3D. This is far more compelling and comprehensible than that combines physical reality and virtual reality, improving if data was rendered simply as text. If a picture is worth 1,000 both. To probe this, we examine how virtual reality is taking on words, a virtual world is worth 1,000 pictures and more. properties of the physical word, and how the physical world is being enhanced with virtual reality. Put another way, virtual worlds offer the promise of “all media, all the time,” says Jan C.J. Jones, co-executive producer of Forest Rose Productions, LLC. The new reality is that we live in Virtual worlds, with their origins in online games, are not a blended reality that combines new. However, what’s different today is that virtual worlds are making their way into the mainstream, being applied to business physical reality and virtual reality, and personal uses that go far beyond games. We are seeing improving both. real markets for virtual worlds, new levels of sophistication in virtual worlds, and more real-world data being incorporated that delivers new experiences or addresses previously unsolvable problems. VIRTUAL REALITIES INCoRPoRATE PHySICAL REALITIES As virtual worlds approach commercialization — some estimate there will be over 50 million participants in virtual worlds by Second Life, the poster child of virtual worlds, mimics the real 201122 — they leverage their “game DNA.” Many virtual world world in that people (avatars) meet in Second Life, interact, acquire environments resemble and operate similar to a game, involving land, build houses and use currency (Linden dollars). Although rich visualization — 3D settings, avatars, objects — and collabo- it started as a social site, Second Life is fast being adopted for ration. This helps lay the groundwork for mass participation in business use as organizations explore its potential, particularly virtual worlds, where the notion of a game per se may be subtle what can be done in a virtual world that was never before pos- or nonexistent, but people familiar with games will know right sible. For example, experience the weather as a weather balloon away how to participate. as your avatar flies over a weather map. The world becomes a 15
  18. 18. L E A D IN G E D G E| Fo RU M DIGTAL TRUST VoL. 8 LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS science fiction playground where we are now in the simulation. in the future. Engineers could put a CAD model of a part on What if we were a tile on the space shuttle? Through virtual worlds Explorer Island, make changes jointly, and save the new model we can experience the rarely possible and the impossible. on Explorer Island. The engineers could see the model in the context of the larger system it fits in. For example, they could see where the controls of a spacecraft would be and open up a control panel to see where the part ultimately belongs. Through virtual worlds we can experience the rarely possible Elsewhere, Second Life is being used to simulate disaster preparedness and response activities by the Idaho Bioterrorism and the impossible. Awareness and Preparedness Program. What’s different about this versus other virtual reality simulations is the ability to construct objects and environments with others, build collabora- At NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the impossible tive networks on the fly, and provide context for the exercises, includes providing a real-time experience of the Phoenix space- complete with buildings, hospitals, helicopters and people. craft landing on Mars. For the Phoenix landing on May 25, 2008, Coordination activities can be simulated, involving people, JPL streamed realtime video from NASA TV to Explorer Island, material, facilities, movement and routes. If you need to attend its property in Second Life, and had a replica of the spacecraft a meeting or view a presentation, you do so in the context of in Second Life. (See Figure 5.) People watched the landing the environment and with others, increasing your awareness in Second Life while engineers watched at JPL, the California of peer activities. Institute of Technology and the University of Arizona. “one person on Explorer Island cried because they were so happy Another Second Life project, by the University of Denver, incor- to be part of a NASA event,” said Tom Soderstrom, IT chief porates real weather data from the U.S. National oceanic and technology officer at JPL. Virtual worlds remove obstacles Atmospheric Administration (NoAA) into a large map of the to participation — you can now experience a Mars landing United States, where students can learn about weather in first hand — and give JPL a personal connection to the public a wholly new way: by flying their avatars through weather it never had before. patterns as they unfold across the country.23 organizations can also leverage learning by hosting a conference in a virtual As JPL experiments with Explorer Island for public outreach, con- world, as MIT did during its Emerging Technologies Conference ferences, training and collaboration, it has its eye on engineering in September 2007. MIT broadcast a portion of the conference live to Second Life, where it was watched by over 120 people on a virtual screen.24 MIT used software from Veodia to deliver TV-quality streaming video to Second Life. In a virtual world, people can navigate a conference or other live event through a 3D experience that enables them to interact with others via avatars. This is very different from watching a video of the event after-the-fact and alone (or attending the event in person). Figure 6 shows a virtual trade show hosted by the Everything Channel, where attendees could participate and interact in four Figure 5 The Phoenix spacecraft landed on Mars in Second Life, coinciding with the actual different venues. landing on May 25, 2008. Several members of Second Life sat on the lander after it touched down. (That’s a second lander in the background, hovering.) The Second Life audience watched the lander go through its entry, descent and landing maneuvers in real time, seeing video In addition to being a testing ground for from Mission Control, information directly from the Mission Controller’s blog, and pictures as learning and training, Second Life is being they came in. Source: NASA 16
  19. 19. L E A D IN G E D G E Fo RU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE| FoRU M DIGTAL TRUST VoL. 8 Figure 6 Welcome to this virtual trade show. Each building in the middleground represents an area of interest (from left): conference center, exhibits, media center and the CopaCabana. By visiting each area, you can hear presentations and gather conference materials (documents) in your virtual briefcase. When you need a break, hang out at the CopaCabana, where you can chat with attendees. The trade show environment was created using InXpo, an open source toolkit for building collaborative 3D virtual worlds. Source: Everything Channel used for other real-world activities such as recruiting, orienta- to be started by dragging and dropping files onto the walls, which tion, marketing, co-designing products with customers, test- can then be collaboratively viewed and updated. Qwaq Forums ing floor layouts and designing dream kitchens. 25 Reuters has runs a version of openoffice.org and the Mozilla Firefox browser reporters in Second Life reporting on Second Life to the real and allows desktop sharing, meaning easy viewing and editing world, and reporting on the real world to Second Life. Also of Microsoft office documents and other formats such as PDFs. seizing on the interplay between virtual and real for news, the Being able to edit documents in real time, working together, is British police used Second Life in the highly-publicized case of a core feature. Madeleine McCann to help search for the missing four-year-old by posting virtual pictures of her.26 (This virtual-real detective Users can drag and drop documents from their local desktops work was taken to a whole new level on a TV show; see “Blended- to the applications running on the room walls, and vice versa, Reality Entertainment” later in this chapter.) and can review files in 2D and 3D, all while discussing topics using built-in text and voice chat. By linking rooms, users can To expand virtual worlds for business use, Second Life’s creator, move between them, like going from one meeting to another. Linden Lab, is working with IBM to create open standards for Importantly, the rooms persist, so the current state of a project virtual worlds that help advance the vision of a 3D Internet for remains intact. This allows users to adopt different working commerce. This work includes having protocols and standards styles; for example, they can leave work for each other to review for such things as universal avatars that can traverse different or meet interactively to review together. virtual worlds (instead of having to create a separate avatar for each world), and interoperable worlds that can be linked and CSC developed a proof-of-concept with Qwaq Forums, focusing traversed as easily as moving from one Web page to another.27 on solution selling (how to sell and what to sell), that was tested with 80 CSCers representing a variety of roles within the sales and Whereas Second Life is an open platform inviting anyone’s partic- business development community. Qwaq Forums was chosen for its ipation, another virtual environment, Qwaq Forums, is designed security, minimal hardware requirements, and business orientation. specifically for secure business collaboration. With Qwaq Forums, overall reaction was positive, with 90 percent agreeing that Qwaq users can quickly create a virtual room — team room, conference Forums is a viable technology for learning and business purposes. room, media room — from a template and customize it for meet- ings or projects. Each room comes with smart walls, allowing “We are opening the door to a new way for teams to collabo- applications — document editor, spreadsheet, whiteboard, etc. — rate and learn virtually by providing a highly contextual 17
  20. 20. DIGTAL TRUST E Fo RU8 L E A D IN G E D G | VoL. M LEA DI NG EDGE FoRU M DIGITAL DISRUPTIoNS Virtual worlds are an important way to engage the new generation entering the workforce and help global, matrixed teams ramp up quickly to increase their productivity. environment,” says Holly Huntley, CSC’s global chief learning officer who sponsored the project. “Virtual worlds are an important way to engage the new generation entering the Figure 7 A Qwaq Forums virtual auditorium is used to present a workforce and help global, matrixed teams ramp up quickly surgical procedure. Left display: Miramar by Intel Corp. Right display: to increase their productivity.” Video feed by Clarity Creative Group LLC. Cleft patient model by BioDigital Systems LLC in collaboration with NyU Medical Center. CSC is exploring roll-out options for Qwaq Forums as a new Virtual auditorium design by E-spaces, n.v. Source: Qwaq platform for learning to support key communities and other enterprise development programs. Qwaq Forums is not an “either/or” but an addition to e-mail, phone, wikis, IM and tele- IBM Labs has created a 3D Data Center using openSim, an presence, providing hands-on collaboration (e.g., jointly editing open source virtual worlds platform. IBM provides the 3D Data documents) that the others, with the exception of wikis, do Center application as part of its virtual worlds services. “It’s a not. Qwaq Forum’s presence (feeling like you are in the same practical entree into virtual worlds, especially if the company is place with someone) is stronger than IM but not as strong as IT oriented,” says Michael osias, architect of the 3D Data Center. telepresence; it can be delivered through simplistic avatars that “There’s a real shock value when people first see it because connote a “get the job done” environment, meaning you don’t it’s such a compelling use of virtual worlds technology.” need to spend a lot of time on your avatar’s appearance. A neat feature of Qwaq Forums is its distance-sensitive voice capability. Users don head sets and speak through them as if their avatar is talking; a person can sound near or far away depending on where his avatar is in relation to yours. (Second Life does this also, but conference calls do not.) Intel is partnering with Qwaq to integrate Intel’s Miramar 3D information space technology with Qwaq’s technology. The result will be a new desktop visualization edition of Qwaq Forums that integrates 2D desktop applications and shared 3D information work spaces for large numbers of users across the enterprise. According to Intel chief technology officer Justin Rattner, “Intel envisions using the desktop visualization edition of Qwaq Forums to dramatically enhance the productivity of our Figure 8 Manage real data centers using IBM Labs’ virtual 3D global distributed workforce.”28 (See Figure 7.) Data Center. Use your avatar to roam server rooms in different cities, check equipment and distribute workloads. you can also run If the enterprise is looking for a focused application for getting simulations of space, power and cooling planning as well as disaster started in virtual worlds, a virtual data center might be the way recovery scenarios. Source: IBM to go. 18
  21. 21. DIGITAL G E D G E Fo RU M L E A D IN DISRUPTIoNS LEA DI NG EDGE| FoRU M DIGTAL TRUST VoL. 8 Through sophisticated visualization, the 3D Data Center simplifies creativity among Shell employees. The islands have a learning complex processes and data, including hardware data, monitor- center, laboratory, ideation area, 3D project mapping arena and ing data and financial data. By rendering computer equipment other business facilities. Unfrozenmind designed and developed in 3D and combining it with monitoring information like the the islands as part of its BrandNewPlanet 2.0 collaborative temperature of a CPU rack, the 3D Data Center presents a offering, working with concepts jointly developed by Shell’s hybrid visualization that is easy to understand. (See Figure 8.) GameChanger group. For example, you can identify hot spots (represented by a Tapping Location, Movement and Expression flame) and take action: move virtual machines to other machines Virtual realities about places are improving with an influx of that have available capacity, move machines to a cooler spot, real-world data. Google Earth gives a 3D rendering of the planet or even move workloads to another geographic site. All this can that can be manipulated, mashed up and drilled into as the user be done without being physically present. IBM’s Dallas Global searches for driving directions, restaurants, shops, parks, tourist Solutions Center was the first production user of the 3D sites and geographic features of a particular place. EveryScape, Data Center; the Swiss firm Implenia, which manages Figure 9 V I RTUAL Wo RLD PLAT Fo RMS — A SAMPLE commercial real estate, is also an early user. Both are P LATFo RM TA R GET USE HoSTED By oP EN SoU RCE running their data centers more efficiently as a result. S ECo ND LIFE Entertainment/Multipurpose Vendor No Collaboration in the 3D Data o P ENS IM (BE TA ) Entertainment/Multipurpose Self yes Center is done via avatars Wo NDERLAND Enterprise/Multipurpose Vendor/Self yes and instant messaging; IBM (BE TA) intends to add voice in the future. QWAQ Fo RU M S Enterprise/Collaboration Vendor/Self No P RoToS P H E RE Enterprise/Training Vendor/Self No Longer term, IBM is target- ing enterprise architecture M U LTIVE RS E Multipurpose Development Platform Self yes for virtual worlds; that is, 3DVIA Multipurpose Development Platform Self No build an enterprise architec- VIRTo o LS ture (e.g., operating system, middleware) in a 3D environ- CRo QUET Multipurpose Development Platform Self yes (BE TA) ment and hook it to a real system. TH E RE Entertainment Vendor No IBM started the 3D Data TW INITy (BETA ) Entertainment Vendor No Source: CSC Center in Second Life and switched to openSim for security and control purposes (i.e., for use behind the firewall). which believes being there is more important than getting Many enterprises dabble in Second Life and then progress to there, provides virtual streetscapes that give a photorealistic a platform that addresses their specific needs. A sample of view of a city at ground level, including monuments, stores and virtual world platforms is shown in Figure 9. buildings you can walk into. (See Figure 10.) other companies, like energy giant Shell, are focusing on col- The city of Barcelona, working with Barcelona Media, has laboration to drive innovation across the organization. Shell’s incorporated city data — waterworks, electrical data, tele- GameChanger innovation group teamed with Unfrozenmind communications wiring and building data — into an accurate, to create an archipelago of 3D virtual islands in Second Life large-scale, virtual city that you traverse by moving your arm in to stimulate internal and external collaboration, learning and front of a large projected display of the 3D city, your avatar zipping 19

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