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Fuel types


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Chapter5 : Coal and petroleum Class VIII

Published in: Science
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Fuel types

  1. 1. 1Archana Singh
  3. 3. 3 On the basis of occurrence FUEL PRIMARY OR NATURAL FUEL SECONDARY OR ARTIFICIAL FUEL Archana Singh
  4. 4. 4 CLASSIFICATION OF FUEL Fuels are classified as • Primary fuels – Fuels which occur naturally such as coal, crude petroleum and natural gas. Coal and crude petroleum, formed from organic matter many millions of years ago, are referred to as fossil fuels. • Secondary fuels – Fuels which are derived from naturally occurring ones by a treatment process such as coke, gasoline, coal gas etc. Archana Singh
  5. 5. 5 On basis of physical state FUEL SOLID LIQUID GAS Archana Singh
  6. 6. 6 FUEL Primary Fuels Solid Eg. Wood,peat Liquid Eg.crude oil Gas Eg.Natural gas Secondary fuels Solid EgCoke,charcoal Liquid Eg. Petrol ,LPG Gas Eg.coal gas ,water gas Archana Singh
  7. 7. What are fossil fuels? Solid = _________ Liquid = ___________ Gas = _____________ Fossil fuels took millions of years to form. Once they are used, we cannot replace them. Therefore, we call them _________________ _____________ ________________. 7Archana Singh
  8. 8. Most coal was formed from plants which grew 300 million years ago. The time period is called CARBONIFEROUS ERA 8Archana Singh
  9. 9. 9Archana Singh
  10. 10. 10Archana Singh
  11. 11. 11 • The ranking sequence is: Wood Peat Lignite (brown coal) Bituminous Coal Anthracite • In general, deposits close to the surface which can be worked by strip mining produce a more economical fuel than deep mined coal. Archana Singh
  12. 12. OIL (PETROLEUM) Buried organic matter rich in hydrocarbons 12Archana Singh
  13. 13. How oil and gas were formed 1. In the ocean - Plants use sun’s energy to survive and animals get their energy by eating plants 2. Plants and animals in ocean die. The one’s that are not eaten fall to the bottom of the sea. 3. A few millions of years later - layers of mud forms on top of the dead animals and plants 4. Another few millions of years later - layers of sand builds up on top of the mud 5. Pressure of all these layers of mud and sand squashes and turns in to mud stone 6. Pressure of all these layers of mud and sand squashes and turns plants and animals to oil and natural gas 7. Now, scientist burn oil and gas in power stations but this releases harmful gases 13Archana Singh
  14. 14. FOSSIL FUELS 85% of the world’s commercial energy COAL OILNATURAL GAS 14Archana Singh
  15. 15. OIL and NATURAL GAS (Methane) Even though it was not made from dead plants or animals, nuclear fuel is considered to be a fossil fuel because it comes from the ground and is running out. Made from the decayed remains of sea creatures which died millions of years ago 15Archana Singh
  16. 16. 16Archana Singh
  17. 17. 17Archana Singh
  18. 18. NATURAL GAS Methane, other Gases in bedrock 18Archana Singh
  19. 19. 19Archana Singh
  20. 20. Advantages of natural gas • Cleaner to burn – Half as much CO2 as coal • More efficient – 10% energy lost • 60-year supply at current rates 20Archana Singh
  21. 21. Disadvantages of natural gas • Difficult to transport – Pipelines – Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) tankers • Can be polluting, dangerous when extracted • Methane bed drilling pollutes 21Archana Singh