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UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2016
Understanding the Importance
of Air and Water Field Testing
of Installe...
Underwriters Laboratories
404108319
Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field
Testing of Installed Fenestration ...
Credit(s) earned on completion of
this course will be reported to AIA
CES for AIA members.
Certificates of Completion for ...
This presentation is protected by US and International
Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and
use of the ...
Air and water field testing is conducted on installed fenestration systems to
ensure the quality of installation, the perf...
Learning Objectives
Understanding the importance of air and water field testing of
installed fenestration products
Upon co...
Agenda for Course
Understanding the importance of air and water field testing of
installed fenestration products
 Purpose...
Project Specifications Require Testing
1. Windows, Doors, Curtain Walls, Glazing Specifications
 Specifications to which ...
Windows, Doors and Curtain Wall Specifications
Products are required to be tested and certified prior to use:
1. Air infil...
Window Requirements in Job Specifications
10
Standard:
North American Fenestration Standard (NAFS)
AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/...
Thermal Performance Requirements
Performance Requirements:
•U-Factor
•SHGC – Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
•VT – Visible Tra...
Windstorm Resistance Requirements
Performance Requirements:
 Structural integrity from impact and high velocity
wind pres...
13
Mock-up Testing Requirements
• Prior to installing glazed aluminum curtain wall system, construct mockups for each form...
14
Exterior Wall System Mock-Up
Sample
A pre-construction exterior
wall system constructed
too evaluate air and water
resi...
15
Mock-Up Testing Procedures
Mock-up testing sequence typically required:
• Air Infiltration as per ASTM E283
• Water Pen...
16
Mock-Up Testing Results
Typical issues or challenges identified in Mock-up
samples:
• Incompatibility of materials
• Ma...
Field Testing Requirements
SECTION 084413 - GLAZED ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALL
Section 3.4
D. Field Testing and Performance Requ...
Test Standards for Field Testing
18
• AAMA 502 Field Testing
• Required for newly installed products to verify installed p...
Field Testing Prevents & Identifies Problems
19
Water Leakage through the window
or wall cavity results in mold, mildew
an...
Test Methods for Field Testing
ASTM E1105
“Standard Test Method for Field
Determination of Water Penetration of
Installed ...
21
Pressures for Field Testing
Prior to testing, the pressures for field testing:
• Determined by the owner, architect, or...
AAMA 502 and AAMA 503 Specifications
• Test 3 of the fenestration product
specimens after the products have been
completel...
AAMA 502
Test Chamber Arrangement
AAMA 503
Test Chamber Arrangement
25
AAMA 501.2-15 – “Quality Assurance and Diagnostic
Water Leakage Field Check of Installed Storefronts,
Curtain Walls and...
26
AAMA 501.1 – “Standard Test Method For Water
Penetration of Windows, Curtain Walls And Doors
Using Dynamic Pressure”
Sc...
Considerations for Field Testing Readiness
27
Readiness Considerations:
Know:
• Your standards, specifications, and
buildi...
Considerations for Field Testing Readiness
Time saves money – Discuss
with your team ahead of time
• Keep in contact with ...
29
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
Why is Field testing conducted?
• Eliminate the potential for building damage ...
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
1. Italian window system for commercial high-rise, New
York City
Testing: AAMA 10...
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
2. Scott Air Force Base, Scott AFB, IL
Testing: AAMA 501.1 wind driven rain testi...
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
3. Elementary School
Issue: Installation procedures were not followed resulting i...
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
4. Ambulatory Health Care Center, Libertyville, IL
Testing: AAMA 503
Issues: Test...
Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies
5. Hospital
Testing: AAMA 503
Issue: Employs a unitized system with an interior p...
Preserving National Landmarks through Testing
35
These landmarks were Field tested for air and water resistance to
preserv...
Knowledge Check
 Why is air and water field testing conducted on buildings today?
 What type of testing do project speci...
Summary of Objectives
You should now be able to:
• Describe the purpose of air and water field testing
• Identify the corr...
Contacts
Dan Daugherty
Daniel.Daugherty@ul.com
224.279.7857
Wayne Breighner
Wayne.Breighner@ul.com
224.803.1823
45
This co...
Thank you!
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UL Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field Testing of Installed Fenestration Products

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Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field Testing of Installed Fenestration Products

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UL Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field Testing of Installed Fenestration Products

  1. 1. UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2016 Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field Testing of Installed Fenestration Products 2016 UL LLC Building Materials & Suppression
  2. 2. Underwriters Laboratories 404108319 Understanding the Importance of Air and Water Field Testing of Installed Fenestration Products ul557747 Dan Daugherty 9/22/2016
  3. 3. Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. _______________________________________ Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  4. 4. This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © Underwriters Laboratories 2016 Copyright Materials UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2016
  5. 5. Air and water field testing is conducted on installed fenestration systems to ensure the quality of installation, the performance of installed products, verify compliance with architect and industry specifications and for forensics investigations to identify the source of problems in the field. This course explores the value and importance of air and water field testing of installed fenestration systems. Participants will learn and understand why building project specifications often require field testing after installation of windows and other fenestration products, the value it provides to the participants, what the typical project specifications mean, how field testing is conducted, the information it reveals and the positive impact it provides to the building project. Course Description
  6. 6. Learning Objectives Understanding the importance of air and water field testing of installed fenestration products Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:  Describe the purpose of air and water field testing  Identify the correct test standards and methods to be used to conduct field testing for specific information and situations  Detail how to prepare for air and water field testing to achieve greatest value, efficiency and success  Describe the test results that are obtained and how that information can be used to positively impact a building project 6
  7. 7. Agenda for Course Understanding the importance of air and water field testing of installed fenestration products  Purpose of conducting air and water field testing  Standards and methods used to conduct air and water field testing  Considerations for field testing readiness  Exploring case studies to understand the value, importance, and findings from conducting air and water field testing 7
  8. 8. Project Specifications Require Testing 1. Windows, Doors, Curtain Walls, Glazing Specifications  Specifications to which windows, doors, curtain walls and glazing must comply when ordered and received from the supplier:  Air, water and structural performance requirements (IBC and IRC)  Thermal performance requirements (IECC)  Windstorm Resistance requirements (FBC, Miami-Dade County, Texas & ICC-500, and FEMA)  Acoustical performance requirements (IBC) 2. Exterior Wall System Mock-up Testing Requirements  Pre-construction testing of a mock-up of the exterior wall system (including windows, doors, curtain walls and glazing) to evaluate performance of the exterior wall system prior to beginning construction 3. Air and Water Field Testing Requirements  Field testing of the windows, doors, curtain walls and glazing after installation to verify proper installation and air and water tightness. 8 Building project specifications typically contain a “Windows”, “Doors”, “Curtain Walls” or “Glazing” section that requires testing: Testing Required Prior to Purchasing Testing Required Prior to Construction Testing Required After Installation
  9. 9. Windows, Doors and Curtain Wall Specifications Products are required to be tested and certified prior to use: 1. Air infiltration, water penetration and structural performance – IBC and IRC requires testing to assure resistance to normal weather conditions 2. Thermal performance – IECC requires testing to assure resistance to thermal transmission under normal weather conditions 3. Windstorm (Impact and pressure cycling) Resistance –  Florida building code, Miami-Dade Building code and other codes require testing to assure resistance to high velocity hurricane winds and wind-borne debris.  ICC-500 requires testing to assure resistance to high velocity winds and wind- borne debris when used in storm shelters  FEMA 361 requires testing to assure resistance to high velocity winds and wind-borne debris when used in safe rooms 9
  10. 10. Window Requirements in Job Specifications 10 Standard: North American Fenestration Standard (NAFS) AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440-(02,05,08 or11) Testing required: • Air infiltration - ASTM E283 • Water penetration – ASTM E331 • Structural performance – ASTM E330 • Forced entry – ASTM F588 • Operational force testing – ASTM E2068 • Operational cycling performance • Many other tests dependent on Class Typical Label on windows: Job specifications require windows to be tested and labeled to the NAFS standard under laboratory conditions as required by the IBC and IRC.
  11. 11. Thermal Performance Requirements Performance Requirements: •U-Factor •SHGC – Solar Heat Gain Coefficient •VT – Visible Transmittance •Condensation (optional) Standards: •NFRC 100 •NFRC 102 •NFRC 500 Testing required: •Thermal simulation testing •Thermal Performance testing to validate simulation results Typical Label on windows: 11 The IECC requires windows, doors and curtain walls to meet thermal performance requirements established by the NFRC (National Fenestration Rating Council)
  12. 12. Windstorm Resistance Requirements Performance Requirements:  Structural integrity from impact and high velocity wind pressures Standards:  ASTM E330  ASTM E1886  ASTM E1996  TAS 201/202/203 (Miami-Dade)  FEMA Publication 320 and 361 (safe rooms)  ICC 500 (storm shelters) Testing required: • Large & small missile impact testing • Cyclic Pressure testing Typical UL Label : 12 The FBC, Miami-Dade, Texas (TDI), ICC, FEMA and others require windstorm rated products and assemblies
  13. 13. 13 Mock-up Testing Requirements • Prior to installing glazed aluminum curtain wall system, construct mockups for each form of construction and finish • Notify Architect 7 days in advance and obtain Architect's approval of mockups before start of Work. • Provide materials and related accessories to construct testing mock-up(s) that represent the identical elements which will be used in the final work. • Provide personnel to install wall mock-up(s) who will be performing the actual Work. • Simulate actual construction conditions as accurately as possible in every way. • Where mock-up specimens are constructed with corner sections (either inward or outward), both elevations shall be tested simultaneously wherever possible, with all surfaces exposed to air, water and structural test requirements. • Provide extra materials as may be required to replace materials which fail during tests • Pre-Test Meeting: Prior to the start of construction of mock-up assembly meet to review methods and sequence of the mock-up construction. • Testing Laboratory: Recognized independent AAMA approved testing agency which is equipped and experienced in conducting the required tests and approved by the Owner. • Submit three (3) copies of test report, prepared by the testing agency, for each specified test showing required performance criteria and test results Pre-construction Mock-up testing of the exterior wall system (including glazing, windows and curtain walls) is often required to evaluate air and water resistance & structural integrity to validate that the design and installation are workable and materials were properly selected for the application prior to job site construction Typical Job Specifications
  14. 14. 14 Exterior Wall System Mock-Up Sample A pre-construction exterior wall system constructed too evaluate air and water resistance, structural, thermal & seismic performance
  15. 15. 15 Mock-Up Testing Procedures Mock-up testing sequence typically required: • Air Infiltration as per ASTM E283 • Water Penetration under Static Pressure as per ASTM E331 • Dynamic Resistance Test as per AAMA 501.1 • Inter-story Vertical Displacement as per AAMA 501.7 • Structural Performance as per ASTM E330 • Inter-story Horizontal Displacement as per AAMA 501.4 • Thermal Cycling as per AAMA 501.5 • Condensation Resistance Testing • Seismic Displacement Testing • Anchor Bolt Testing • Washer Bolt Testing Exterior wall system mock-ups are evaluated for air and water resistance & structural integrity to validate design, workmanship & material selection and workability prior to job site construction
  16. 16. 16 Mock-Up Testing Results Typical issues or challenges identified in Mock-up samples: • Incompatibility of materials • Materials don’t meet the performance requirements of the project • Sealants or gaskets missing or needed • Sealants or gaskets incompatible with substrates • Lack of installation instructions • Incomplete installation instructions • Materials difficult or time consuming to install in the field Mock-up testing often identifies a variety of issues or challenges that can be resolved at the time of testing, thereby saving time and costs on the job site
  17. 17. Field Testing Requirements SECTION 084413 - GLAZED ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALL Section 3.4 D. Field Testing and Performance Requirements 1. Test Units to Test Procedures and Performance a. Air Infiltration Test 1) Test unit in accordance with AAMA 502 for field testing. The unit shall be conducted at a min uniform static test pressure differential of at least 1.57 psf, but at a pressure differential not to exceed 6.24 psf (300 PA) 2) The maximum allowable rates of air leakage for field testing shall not exceed 1.5 times the project specification rate or .09 cfm/SF whichever is greater. b. Water Resistance Test 1)Test Unit in accordance with AAMA 502 2) The field water penetration resistance tests shall be conducted at a static test pressure of 2/3 of the specified project water penetration test pressure. 17 Example Field testing is required to verify proper installation of windows, doors, curtain walls and glazing for new installations and to identify the cause of leakage issues of existing installed fenestration products. Typical Job Specification
  18. 18. Test Standards for Field Testing 18 • AAMA 502 Field Testing • Required for newly installed products to verify installed performance of the product and the installation (ASTM E783 & ASTM E1105) • AAMA 503 Field Testing • Required for newly installed storefronts, curtain walls and sloped glazing systems (ASTM E783 & ASTM E1105) • AAMA 501.2 Nozzle Testing • Required to evaluate joints, gaskets, and sealant details in the glazing designed to remain permanently closed and water tight. • AAMA 511 Forensic Testing • Required to evaluate wall assemblies with known water control problems to accurately identify suspect wall construction components and details. • AAMA XXX (add the standard #) • Required to evaluate newly installed products to verify installed performance when exposed to wind driven rain Job specifications require field testing to many different standards dependent on the type of fenestration products installed and the intent of testing
  19. 19. Field Testing Prevents & Identifies Problems 19 Water Leakage through the window or wall cavity results in mold, mildew and air quality concerns Field testing identifies water and air leakage issues which leads to mitigation and prevention of future issues Water Leakage into the wall cavity results in electrical shorting and fire concerns Water damage on the exterior façade caused by water leakage results in deterioration of the facade
  20. 20. Test Methods for Field Testing ASTM E1105 “Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference” 20 Most of the test standards reference the following test methods that include the detailed methodology for testing ASTM E783 “Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors”
  21. 21. 21 Pressures for Field Testing Prior to testing, the pressures for field testing: • Determined by the owner, architect, or contractor: • The default air leakage for field testing: • 1.5 times the applicable laboratory standard for the product type and performance class. • When determining the proper field water test pressure: • Default field test conditions are not the same as NAFS requirements for lab testing • The water test pressure shall not be less than 91 pascals (1.9 psf) • Tests shall be conducted at a static test pressure equal to 2/3 of the test and rated laboratory performance per AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440
  22. 22. AAMA 502 and AAMA 503 Specifications • Test 3 of the fenestration product specimens after the products have been completely installed for air leakage resistance and water penetration resistance. 22 • Air leakage resistance tests shall be conducted at a uniform static test pressure of __Pa (__psf). The maximum allowable rate of air leakage shall not exceed L/s●m² (__cfm/ft²) • Water penetration resistance tests shall be conducted at a static test pressure of __Pa (__psf). No water penetration shall occur as defined by the standard used.
  23. 23. AAMA 502 Test Chamber Arrangement
  24. 24. AAMA 503 Test Chamber Arrangement
  25. 25. 25 AAMA 501.2-15 – “Quality Assurance and Diagnostic Water Leakage Field Check of Installed Storefronts, Curtain Walls and Sloped Glazing Systems” Scope This document: • Provides a quality assurance and diagnostic field water penetration check method for installed storefronts, curtain walls, and sloped glazing systems. • Not intended to test the rated or specified water performance representative of wind driven rain or operable windows. • Intended to aid in evaluating joints, gaskets, and sealant details in the glazing which are designated be water tight. Changes Updated referenced documents and added Section 3.0 terminology Background This spec was developed: • To aid in Quality Assurance and Diagnostic circumstances. • Not intended to replace the AAMA 502 or the AAMA 503 field testing standards.
  26. 26. 26 AAMA 501.1 – “Standard Test Method For Water Penetration of Windows, Curtain Walls And Doors Using Dynamic Pressure” Scope This test method: • Establishes the equipment procedures for testing exterior windows, curtain walls, and doors for water penetration using dynamic pressure. Changes coming Field standard is being developed - to be published shortly. Background This standard was developed: • To simulate wind driven rains. • Expanded to include dynamic water testing for the field.
  27. 27. Considerations for Field Testing Readiness 27 Readiness Considerations: Know: • Your standards, specifications, and building codes • Pressure requirements and allowable pressures Verify: • Sufficient water and electrical supply available on site • Scaffolding or lift apparatus available and placed near specimens • If booster pump is needed • Curtain wall systems have end caps • Caulk has been cured and applied • Curtain wall systems to be tested Weather conditions can affect testing - rain & ice
  28. 28. Considerations for Field Testing Readiness Time saves money – Discuss with your team ahead of time • Keep in contact with your lab • Ask your testing agent questions • Reach out to those whom have experience • Know what areas are best for testing 28
  29. 29. 29 Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies Why is Field testing conducted? • Eliminate the potential for building damage caused by air and water compliance with architect and industry specifications • Forensics investigations leakage • Ensure the quality of installation & performance of installed products • Verify to identify the source of problems in the field
  30. 30. Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies 1. Italian window system for commercial high-rise, New York City Testing: AAMA 101 Issues: • Lack of coordination between architect, consultant, window system supplier, window broker, and window manufacturer. • Lack of detailed installation instructions • Window system installed out of square resulting in primary seal not performing its function 30
  31. 31. Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies 2. Scott Air Force Base, Scott AFB, IL Testing: AAMA 501.1 wind driven rain testing modified for field conditions Issues: Glass thickness not installed to specification resulting in water leakage 31
  32. 32. Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies 3. Elementary School Issue: Installation procedures were not followed resulting in excessive air and water leakage problems around the unit. Testing: AAMA 503 modified so as not to include perimeter sealant due to the incorrect installation procedures and only tested the unit without the perimeter sealant. 32
  33. 33. Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies 4. Ambulatory Health Care Center, Libertyville, IL Testing: AAMA 503 Issues: Testing revealed that water barrier sealant was not installed on sill of curtain wall in accordance with the specifications resulting in water leakage 33
  34. 34. Air and Water Field Testing Case Studies 5. Hospital Testing: AAMA 503 Issue: Employs a unitized system with an interior primary seal that is difficult to access and determine if seal is sufficiently installed 34
  35. 35. Preserving National Landmarks through Testing 35 These landmarks were Field tested for air and water resistance to preserve their integrity
  36. 36. Knowledge Check  Why is air and water field testing conducted on buildings today?  What type of testing do project specifications frequently require related to windows, curtain walls, and glazing?  What are the test standards and methods used to conduct field testing of installed windows and curtain walls?  What are some of the steps to prepare for air and water field testing to achieve greatest value, efficiency, and success?  What test data is obtained when conducting air infiltration testing and water penetration testing and how is that data used to positively impact a building project? 36
  37. 37. Summary of Objectives You should now be able to: • Describe the purpose of air and water field testing • Identify the correct test standards and methods to be used to conduct field testing for specific information and situations • Detail how to prepare for air and water field testing to achieve greatest value, efficiency and success • Describe the test results that are obtained and how that information can be used to positively impact a building project 37
  38. 38. Contacts Dan Daugherty Daniel.Daugherty@ul.com 224.279.7857 Wayne Breighner Wayne.Breighner@ul.com 224.803.1823 45 This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course UL Website: www.ul.com Underwriters Laboratories LLC
  39. 39. Thank you!

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