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The world system and
colonialısm
SOC 111
Introduction to Anthropology
Focus questıons
• When and why did the world system develop
and what is it like today?
• When and how did European colonialism
develop and how is its legacy expressed in
postcolonial studies?
• How do colonialism, communism,
neoliberalism, development and
industrialization creates examples for
intervention philosophies?
The world system
• The world system and the relations among the
countries within it are shaped by the capitalist
world economy.
• Capitalist world economy is a single world system
committed to production for sale or exchange with
the object of maximizing profits rather than
supplying domestic needs.
• Capital refers to wealth or resources invested in
business with the intent of using the means of
production to make a profit.
The world system
• World-system theory – by Fernand Braudel
• The key claim of the world system theory is that an
identifiable social system, based on wealth and power
differentials, extends beyond individual countries.
• Wallerstein countries within the world system
occupy 3 different positions of economic and political
power; core, periphery and semiperiphery.
• Core countries: the strongest and most powerful
nations. For ex: USA, Germany, France, UK
• Semiperiphery countries: less power, wealth and
influence. Intermediate countries between the core and
periphery countries. For ex: Brazil
• Periphery countries: the world’s least powerful
countries. For ex: Nigeria, Turkey.
The world system
EMERGENCE OF The
world system
• In the 15th century, Europe established regular
contact with Asia, Africa and eventually the New
World. (The Caribbean and America)
• Christopher Columbus’s first voyage from Spain to
the Bahamas and the Caribbean in 1492 was soon
followed by additional voyages.
• These journeys opened the way for a major
exchange of people, products, ideas and diseases
and the old and new worlds were forever linked.
EMERGENCE OF The
world system
• Sugar – one of the earliest and most popular of
imported goods. Colombus had carried it to the new
world and they raised it in Brazil and Caribbean.
This led to the development of a plantation
economy.
• The demand for sugar in a growing international
market spurred the development of the transatlantic
slave trade and new world plantation economies
based on slave labor.
• Raw Cotton – another key trade item. The
emergence of another slave-based monocrop
production system in southeastern America.
The ındustrıal revolutıon
• The historical transformation in Europe of traditional
societies into modern societies through industrialization
of the economy. (after 1750)
• The search for new sources of wind and water power
characterized the Industrial Revolution.
• Industrialization increased production in both farming and
manufacturing.
• Capital and scientific innovation fueled invention.
• It began with cotton products, iron and pottery.
• Industrialization fueled urban growth and created a new
kind of city, with factories crowded together in places
where coral and labor were cheap.
The ındustrıal revolutıon
• Industrial Revolution started in England.
• After industrialization proceeded with new innovations,
the population of England increased dramatically.
• With the increase of population, consumption also
increased a lot.
• This motivated experimentation, innovation and rapid
technological change to meet the demand.
• Natural resources ( coal, iron ore) and geographic
location of England favored it for new innovations.
The socıoeconomıc effects of
ındustrıalızatıon
• At first, high wages for factory workers.
• Later, owners of factories started recruiting labor in
places where living standards were low and labor
was cheap.
• Big factory towns, industrial cities.
• Filth and smoke polluted the cities.
• Crowded houses, low life quality for workers.
• Insufficient water and sewage disposal facilities.
• The diseases, high death rates.
The socıoeconomıc effects of
ındustrıalızatıon
• Karl Marx and Max Weber the stratification
systems associated with industrialism.
• Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp
and simple division between 2 opposed classes: the
bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proleteriat
(workers)
The socıoeconomıc effects of
ındustrıalızatıon
• Marx saw bourgeoisie and proleteriat as
socioeconomic divisions with radically opposed interests.
• In England, workers developed organizations, unions, to
protect their interests and increase their share of
industrial profits.
• During the 19th century, trade unions and socialist parties
emerged to express a rising anticapitalist spirit.
• Capitalists controlled production, but labor was
organizing for better wages and working conditions.
• By 1900, many governments had factory legislation and
social welfare programs.
colonıalısm
• During the 19th century, European business interests
initiated a concerted search for markets. This
process led to European Imperialism in Africa, Asia
and Oceania.
• Imperialism a policy of extending the rule
of a country or empire over foreign nations and
taking and holding foreign colonies.
• Two phases of European Colonialism:
1st phase – the exploration and exploitation of the
Americas and the Caribbean after Columbus (1490-
1875)
2nd phase – European nations competing for colonies
(1875-1914)
colonıalısm
• Colonialism is the political, social, economic and
cultural domination of a territory and its people by a
foreign power for an extended time.
• 1st phase of colonialism – major powers were
Spain and Portugal.
• 2nd phase of colonialism – major powers were
Britain and France.
• The racist and oppressive foreign policy of
European nations on colonies.
colonıalısm
• French colonialism also had 2 phases.
1) Began with the explorations of the early 1600s.
Canada, some Caribbean islands and parts of
India.
2) Between 1830-1870. Algeria, Cambodia, Laos,
Vietnem, Tunisia, Marocco.
• French Empire was also implanting its own culture,
language and religion throughout the colonies.
• French used 2 forms of colonial rule: Indirect rule
and Direct rule.
• Disintegration after WWII.
The world system and colonialism
The world system and colonialism
The world system and colonialism

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The world system and colonialism

  • 1. The world system and colonialısm SOC 111 Introduction to Anthropology
  • 2. Focus questıons • When and why did the world system develop and what is it like today? • When and how did European colonialism develop and how is its legacy expressed in postcolonial studies? • How do colonialism, communism, neoliberalism, development and industrialization creates examples for intervention philosophies?
  • 3. The world system • The world system and the relations among the countries within it are shaped by the capitalist world economy. • Capitalist world economy is a single world system committed to production for sale or exchange with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs. • Capital refers to wealth or resources invested in business with the intent of using the means of production to make a profit.
  • 4. The world system • World-system theory – by Fernand Braudel • The key claim of the world system theory is that an identifiable social system, based on wealth and power differentials, extends beyond individual countries. • Wallerstein countries within the world system occupy 3 different positions of economic and political power; core, periphery and semiperiphery. • Core countries: the strongest and most powerful nations. For ex: USA, Germany, France, UK • Semiperiphery countries: less power, wealth and influence. Intermediate countries between the core and periphery countries. For ex: Brazil • Periphery countries: the world’s least powerful countries. For ex: Nigeria, Turkey.
  • 6. EMERGENCE OF The world system • In the 15th century, Europe established regular contact with Asia, Africa and eventually the New World. (The Caribbean and America) • Christopher Columbus’s first voyage from Spain to the Bahamas and the Caribbean in 1492 was soon followed by additional voyages. • These journeys opened the way for a major exchange of people, products, ideas and diseases and the old and new worlds were forever linked.
  • 7. EMERGENCE OF The world system • Sugar – one of the earliest and most popular of imported goods. Colombus had carried it to the new world and they raised it in Brazil and Caribbean. This led to the development of a plantation economy. • The demand for sugar in a growing international market spurred the development of the transatlantic slave trade and new world plantation economies based on slave labor. • Raw Cotton – another key trade item. The emergence of another slave-based monocrop production system in southeastern America.
  • 8. The ındustrıal revolutıon • The historical transformation in Europe of traditional societies into modern societies through industrialization of the economy. (after 1750) • The search for new sources of wind and water power characterized the Industrial Revolution. • Industrialization increased production in both farming and manufacturing. • Capital and scientific innovation fueled invention. • It began with cotton products, iron and pottery. • Industrialization fueled urban growth and created a new kind of city, with factories crowded together in places where coral and labor were cheap.
  • 9. The ındustrıal revolutıon • Industrial Revolution started in England. • After industrialization proceeded with new innovations, the population of England increased dramatically. • With the increase of population, consumption also increased a lot. • This motivated experimentation, innovation and rapid technological change to meet the demand. • Natural resources ( coal, iron ore) and geographic location of England favored it for new innovations.
  • 10. The socıoeconomıc effects of ındustrıalızatıon • At first, high wages for factory workers. • Later, owners of factories started recruiting labor in places where living standards were low and labor was cheap. • Big factory towns, industrial cities. • Filth and smoke polluted the cities. • Crowded houses, low life quality for workers. • Insufficient water and sewage disposal facilities. • The diseases, high death rates.
  • 11. The socıoeconomıc effects of ındustrıalızatıon • Karl Marx and Max Weber the stratification systems associated with industrialism. • Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between 2 opposed classes: the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proleteriat (workers)
  • 12. The socıoeconomıc effects of ındustrıalızatıon • Marx saw bourgeoisie and proleteriat as socioeconomic divisions with radically opposed interests. • In England, workers developed organizations, unions, to protect their interests and increase their share of industrial profits. • During the 19th century, trade unions and socialist parties emerged to express a rising anticapitalist spirit. • Capitalists controlled production, but labor was organizing for better wages and working conditions. • By 1900, many governments had factory legislation and social welfare programs.
  • 13. colonıalısm • During the 19th century, European business interests initiated a concerted search for markets. This process led to European Imperialism in Africa, Asia and Oceania. • Imperialism a policy of extending the rule of a country or empire over foreign nations and taking and holding foreign colonies. • Two phases of European Colonialism: 1st phase – the exploration and exploitation of the Americas and the Caribbean after Columbus (1490- 1875) 2nd phase – European nations competing for colonies (1875-1914)
  • 14. colonıalısm • Colonialism is the political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time. • 1st phase of colonialism – major powers were Spain and Portugal. • 2nd phase of colonialism – major powers were Britain and France. • The racist and oppressive foreign policy of European nations on colonies.
  • 15. colonıalısm • French colonialism also had 2 phases. 1) Began with the explorations of the early 1600s. Canada, some Caribbean islands and parts of India. 2) Between 1830-1870. Algeria, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnem, Tunisia, Marocco. • French Empire was also implanting its own culture, language and religion throughout the colonies. • French used 2 forms of colonial rule: Indirect rule and Direct rule. • Disintegration after WWII.