Dawn of the Industrial Age (1750-1850)• In 1750, most people made a living farming the land, and most goods were produced by hand in a domestic (home) setting. • Travel was limited, and few people knew the world outside their village.• By the 1850s, many small towns had become large industrial cities.• Food and clothing were made by machines in a factory and were bought in stores in exchange for wages earned at a job. • This is referred to as the rise of industry and the demise of “cottage industries”
The Agricultural Roots of the Industrial Revolution• 1st Agricultural Revolution occurred 11,000 years ago when man first changed from hunter gathering to domesticating animals and -Planting seeds and staying in one place farming. and open range herding._________________________ _________________________________• About 300 years ago, a 2nd Agricultural Revolution occurred that greatly improved the quality and quantity of agricultural products. -Seed culture, enclosure, fertilizer
The Agricultural Roots of the Industrial Revolution (continued)• The British (England) (1700s) – Enclosures-fencing in land- more productive methods used to improve yields- displaced small farmers – Crop rotation-replaced three field system – Jethro Tull- the seed drill (better than scattering and wasting seed) – Improved livestock breeding.
Population Explosion!!!• As food supplies increased and living conditions improved population grew.• Increased demand for food & goods.• Many farmers who lost their land to enclosure became factory workers.
Why England?• Large population and extensive natural resources!• Industrialization-the process of developing machine production of goods-requires such resources• Water power and coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors
Why England?• Economic Strength and Political Stability• Capital to invest in new inventions• Highly developed banking system-loans• Military & Political success=positive attitude• Laws passed to protect business and help them expand• Factors of Production=Land, Labor, and Capital!
New Technology Drives The Industrial Revolution• Energy Revolution – James Watt vastly improves the steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen) which was key to the industrial revolution.
New Technology Drives The Industrial Revolution• Textile industry first to be transformed• Flying shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water frame, spinning mule-ALL increased production• Factories-production moves from homes to large buildings• Cotton-Cotton gin increased cotton production
Why England? (continued)• Transportation – Turnpikes privately built roads that charged fees for use- “macadams” – Steam powered locomotive invented by George Stephenson, and the first major railroad was built in 1830. – The steamboat invented by Robert Fulton (USA) shipped goods on water at record speeds. – By the late 1800s, coal powered freighters with iron hulls were hauling 10 to 20 times the cargo of wooden ships.
The Rest of the World Catches Up• Many places such as the new nation of Germany (who united in 1871) and the US had greater amounts of natural resources than did England. -Nickolaus Otto- first car -Karl Benz – first patent for car (3 wheels) -Gottleib Daimler- first four wheeled auto -Sam Morse – telegraph -Alexander Graham Bell – the phone• They stole ideas from England and made them better
The New Technology (late 1800s- early 1900s)• Alfred Nobel- dynamite (1866)• Electricity- dynamo machine that generates electricity• Henry Ford- assembly line to make cars (Model T)• Wright Brothers –first airplane
New Economic Systems Flourish• The spread of industrialism to Europe and the US accelerated the spread of colonialism and imperialism.• New investors (capitalists and investors) invested money (and received stock) and time to build on the creative ideas (technology) of others (entrepreneurs) to make goods (supply) out of cheap goods (raw materials) obtained from overseas possessions (colonies in an empire) for those wage earners (labor) who had money to spend (demand) on goods they used (thus, they were consumers).
• continued demand for slaves in the U.S. – Eli Whitney’s cotton gin increased the need for people to pick cotton
The Haves =bourgeoisie• The entrepreneurs (Individuals who start a new business and risk their own $) who opened factories and shipping companies became very rich during the early industrial revolution.
The Have-Nots=Proletariat• The people who worked in the factories for the entrepreneurs (the working class), were soul-crushingly poor.
Urbanization• Urbanization: The movement of people to the cities• The Industrial revolution brought rapid urbanization.
Causes of Urbanization• Population explosion• High demand for workers
Don’t Forget!• The enclosure movement pushed people off the farms and into the cities
City Life• Cities grew around factories• These cities grew rapidly, without planning• Working people lived in tenements in hellish slums• The lack of planning meant that there was no sewage, running water, or sanitation system
No sanitation meant the streets were filled with trash
The crowded, filthy slums were a breeding ground for diseases such as cholera
Working Life in Factories• Factory work was difficult and dangerous• Typical shifts lasted 12 to 16 hours• If you complained, you were fired.• If you got sick, you were fired.• If you got hurt and could no longer work, you were fired.
Women at Work• Factory owners hired women because they could pay them less• Women with families worked 12 hours a day and were still expected to cook, clean, etc. when they finally got home.
Children at Work• Families needed the income working children could provide.• Children could be hired at very low wages• Children worked in the same dangerous factories, for the same long hours
Industrial pollution (London 1840s)Child labor in the textile mills Poverty in the tenements
Workers respond to the awful conditions of their lives• 1) Workers protested their conditions• These protests were put down violently by the British government
Worker Response…continued• 2) Luddites: skilled workers rejected the new machines that cost them their jobs by smashing them
Worker response…continued• 3) Methodism: a new religious movement founded by John Wesley. Working people tried to focus on a better life to come rather than their lives on earth
New Ways of Thinking• The industrial revolution changed the way people thought about everything from economics to the way governments should work.
“Iron law of wages”• English economist David Ricardo developed idea• Believed that workers should only be paid enough to survive• If they make more, they will only have more children and therefore become poor again or die off from starvation• Leads to the idea that poverty is caused by character flaws in an individual
Rise of Socialism• Critics of the Industrial Revolution began advocating for a more even distribution of the wealth and the benefits of industrialization• Many were labeled utopians because ideas were impractical and impossible to implement
Rise of Socialism• Robert Owen set up an utopian system in his factories, creating an ideal working community – workers worked less, children were taken care of while parents Robert Owen worked, productivity and profit increased
Socialism• Goals • Factors of production owned by the public-operate for the welfare of all. Protect workers from greedy employers• Government & Business: • Government should actively plan the economy. Equality and end of poverty.• Major Philosophers: • Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill• Big Downside: • More taxes and less freedom than capitalism
Communism and Capitalism• Karl Marx and Frederick Engels witness the horrors of industrialization• Together they write the Communist Manifesto, the following chart outlines the major differences between communism and capitalism Karl Marx
Communism• Major Philosophers: – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles (1848) write the Communist Manifesto and Das Capital• Vocabulary: – Bourgeoisie – upper middle class factory owners (abusers) – Proletariat – lower working class, factory workers (abused)• Government & Business: – Government controls all businesses and provides for everyone.• Note: – He believed that in the end the proletariat would rise up and take the means of production and set up a “classless” society.
Communism and Capitalism Capitalism CommunismFounders Adam Smith Karl Marx/Frederick EngelsBook Wealth of The Communist Nations Manifesto
Communism and CapitalismView on People become People shouldpeople wealthy because cooperate to they offer obtain success, something – a eliminating product or service, competition that others want Everyone should Everyone has the have an equal opportunity to share of the succeed available wealth/property
Communism and Capitalism Capitalism CommunismView of Government Everythinggovernment should not interfere owned by with economy – government laissez faire Government closely regulates economy (sets prices, etc.)
Communism and Capitalism Capitalism CommunismIndividual People are free to GovernmentFreedom choose their own determines job careers placement Freedom of Religion religion considered a Freedom is more burden important than Sacrifice freedom security for security
Communism and Capitalism Capitalism CommunismSocial Through hard GovernmentConditions work people can lift ownership of the themselves out of economy will end poverty unemployment, poverty, hunger, and slave-like working conditions
Communism and CapitalismFuture of the Capitalism is the Capitalism is self-World only efficient destructive economic system Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power The future of the world is communism
Legislation and Reform• Early attempts to regulate factories lacked any real enforcement• Unions-collective bargaining (negotiation between employers and employees)-strikes if demands not met.• Unions were outlawed by the government in the early stages of industrialization because they would interfere with the natural order of the factories. After 1825, unions were “unhappily” tolerated.
Legislation and Reform• Initial legislation only limited child labor• Kids could only work twelve-hour days and it only affected the textile mills (excluded the mines, shipyards, match factories, etc.)
Legislation and Reform• Factory Acts of 1833, 1842, and 1847 – limited child labor – prohibited women and children in the mines – set the maximum number of hours for women and children at ten
Benefits of Industrialism• Growing middle class – Investment – Higher education and standard of living• Health benefits – Longer life expectancy – Edward Jenner- discovers smallpox vaccination – Louis Pasteur- discovers bacteria, and how to eliminate it in food• Population increase• Britain and US outlaw slave trade, and eventually slavery• Women’s movement (suffrage) begins to gain momentum
Advances in MedicineAbove: smallpox victimTop Right: Edward Jenner- the man whofound a vaccine for smallpox (1796)Bottom Right: Louis Pasteur- microbiologistwho found a vaccine for rabies, anddeveloped the pasteurization process (1865)