3. What is Imperialism?
• It is a process of extending control or
influence over weaker nations
• It involves direct or indirect control over the
economy, government, and culture
4. Colonialism is the building and
maintaining of colonies in one
territory by people from another
Sovereignty over the colony is
claimed by the metropole. Social
structure, government and
economics within the territory of
the colony are changed by the
is not satisfied merely with holding ais not satisfied merely with holding a
people in its grippeople in its grip
and emptying the native’s brain of all formand emptying the native’s brain of all form
& content.& content.
By a kind of perverted logicBy a kind of perverted logic
it turns to the past of the peopleit turns to the past of the people,,
and distorts, disfigures,and distorts, disfigures,
and destroys it…and destroys it…
Frantz Fanon, Wretched of the Earth
Quoted by Felino S Garcia, Jr’s article –
“THE MOST INSIDIOUS AND DANGEROUS”:
The Pathogenic Body in
Selected scientific papers published in the Philippine Journal of Science
During the First Decade of American Colonial Rule in the Philippines.
6. The reasons for the practice of colonialism at
this time include:
• The profits to be made.
• To expand the power of the metropole.
• To escape persecution in the metropole.
• To convert the indigenous population to the
• Some colonists also felt they were helping the
indigenous population by bringing them
Christianity and civilization. However, the reality
was often subjugation, displacement or death.
• A colony is part of an empire and so colonialism is
closely related to imperialism.
7. What is imperialism?
• It is a process of extending control or
influence over weaker nations
• It involves direct or indirect control over
the economy, government, and culture
8. The Foundations of Western ImperialismThe Foundations of Western Imperialism
Why did the people of the West set out toWhy did the people of the West set out to
build empires in the first place?build empires in the first place?
1. to ensure cheap supply of
consumer goods and raw
2. to establish new markets
for their own goods
3. and to create a
hegemony of the West over
the rest of the world
10. Development of TechnologyDevelopment of Technology
and techniques of
navigation and naval
Discovery of world wind
most contributions in this
field came from the
15. What is the direct effect of
Imperialism and colonialism?
Impact on healthImpact on health
Food securityFood security
Slave tradeSlave trade
unequal social relationsunequal social relationsexploitationexploitation
medical advancesmedical advancesnew institutionsnew institutionstechnological advancementstechnological advancements
16. The NEW IMPERIALISM
• INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
• Invention of machineries which revolutionized
• Improvement of transportation and
• Industrialized countries needed colonies for
source of raw materials and markets for
• was a period from the 18th to the 19th century
where major changes in agriculture,
manufacturing, mining, and transport had a
profound effect on the socioeconomic and
cultural conditions in the United Kingdom. The
changes subsequently spread throughout Europe,
North America, and eventually the world.
19. FOUR SETS OF CHANGES
The Introduction of
The Use of the New
Mineral Resources of
A Concentration of
New Workers in
New Methods of
20. I. INTRODUCTION OF NEW
• Industrial Revolution introduced machines to
textile manufacturing, iron, printing,
papermaking, and engineering industries.
• The most significant machines were steam
engines and the machines used to make cloth.
21. A. TEXTILE MACHINERY
• In 1765, James Hargreaves invented the
Spinning Jenny, automating weaving the warp
in the weaving of cloth.
• In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the
Water powered – Frame which automated the
• In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the
Spinning Mule, a combination of Hargreaves’
and Arkwright’s inventions, which automated the
total weaving process.
23. B. STEAM ENGINE
• In 1775, James Watt invented the Steam
Engine which was used to raise minerals
from mines, provide heat for smelting iron
ore, and drive machines in textile mills.
24. II. NEW MINERAL SOURCES OF ENERGY
• Beginning in the eighteenth century,
the Industrial Revolution began to rely
on coal to produce the high
temperatures needed to smelt iron.
Eventually it also became a source of
heat for the steam engine.
25. III. GROWTH OF
• Domestic System
• In the sixteenth century, businessmen began employing
families in the countryside to spin and weave.
• All members of the family participated in the
• Businessmen provided the materials and were
responsible for manufacturing.
26. DEVELOPMENTS IN
• Large factories were more cost effective
because it allowed the concentration of
workers and machines in one work place
• Reduced transportation costs
• Allowed greater quality control
• The factory owner had greater control over
27. DEVELOPMENT IN FACTORIES
• It also made possible what the economist
Adam Smith called the "division of labor“,
whereby each person was responsible for
one stage of production, allowing for great
increase in total production. The workers
needed no special skills to operate the
28. IV. NEW METHODS OF
• Thousands of miles of canals and all-weather roads
were built in the eighteenth century.
• 1692, Languedoc Canal connects the Mediterranean
with the Bay of Biscay. 240 miles long, with 100 locks,
3 major aqueducts, 1 tunnel, and a summit reservoir.
• Canals were the first technology to allow bulk
materials to be easily transported across country.
29. NEW METHODS OF
• The railroads were driven by coal-
burning, steam-power locomotives and
provided quick, cheap transportation to
places inaccessible by water.
• The construction of railroads created a
30. FACTORS FAVOURING THE
• Population Growth
• The population increase provided the large
supply of cheap labor needed by the
factories. It also provided an increase in
demand for manufactured goods.
31. FACTORS FAVOURING THE
• Agricultural Productivity
• The process of enclosure allowed farmers and landlords to
fence in their fields and control production. They
introduced crop rotations that restored nutrients to the soil,
allowing for greater yield. They also began scientific
breeding to improve the quality of their herds. The result
was an increase in productivity with fewer agricultural
32. FACTORS FAVOURING THE
• Capital Formation and Accumulation
• came mostly from merchants engaged in
domestic and foreign trade, from landowners
who profited from their estates in Britain and
plantations in the colonies, and from banks.
33. FACTORS FAVOURING THE
• Technological Knowledge and
• Plenty of people had scientific knowledge to
mechanize the industry.
• A merchant capitalist class organized the
34. EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL
• Demand from Consumers and Producers
• The demand for goods was created by
advertising, as well as by the increasing
ability of the working class to buy goods as
their purchasing power increased.
35. EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL
• Population and Economic Growth
• The population had consistently expanded as the
greater agricultural productivity permitted
maintaining an adequate food supply. The
industrial economy had been able to employ
large numbers of workers.
36. EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL
• Women, Children and Industry
• The Industrial Revolution did not improve
the status of women. Their pay was too little
to give them financial independence or
prestige, and they frequently were under the
control of the male workers or foremen.
• British Factory Act of 1833 enforced
37. EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL
• Class and Class Consciousness
• The Industrial Society was divided into three (3)
•The aristocracy owned the land.
•The bourgeoisie owned capital
enterprises and gained their wealth from