Pervasive Computing


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Pervasive Computing

  1. 1. A Seminar Presentation On PERVASIVE COMPUTING
  2. 2. ABSTRACT  The dissemination and use of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) are considered to be preconditions today for dynamic economic growth and future viability in global competition.  Enormous change produced by the latest technologies.  Digital information and services are going mobile.
  3. 3.  An emerging trend towards pervasive computing- ubiquitous and invisible use, creation, processing, transmission and storage of information.  Everyday objects are becoming “smart objects”, which are linked together into networks, react to their environment, and interact with their users.  Includes the central trends in pervasive computing, its relationship with distributed and mobile computing, its issues and what challenges are posed to computer systems research by pervasive computing
  4. 4. What is Pervasive Computing  “The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it” , mentioned by Mark Weiser in his seminal paper of 1991.  The growing trend towards embedding microprocessors in everyday objects so they can communicate information.  The word pervasive means "existing everywhere."
  5. 5.  The goal is to create ambient intelligence where network devices embedded in the environment provide unobtrusive connectivity and services all the time, thus improving human experience and quality of life without explicit awareness of the underlying communications and computing technologies.  In this environment, the world around us is interconnected as pervasive network of intelligent devices that cooperatively and autonomously collect, process and transport information in order to adapt to the associated context and activity
  6. 6. Characteristics  Miniaturization: ICT components are becoming smaller and more mobile.  Embedding: Components are integrated into everyday objects, they transform them into smart objects.  Networking: Components are linked to each other and communicate generally via radio.
  7. 7.  Ubiquity: Components are ubiquitous, which makes them less noticeable.  Context awareness : Components use sensors and communication to collect information about their users and environment and adjust their behavior accordingly. Pervasive Computing is complementary to virtual reality. It turns all objects in the real world into part of an information and communications system.
  8. 8. Distributed Computing  With the arrival of networking, personal computing evolved to distributed computing. As computers became connected, they began to share capabilities over the network.  Seamless access to remote information resources and communication with fault tolerance, high availability and security.  Many users now routinely refer to their point of presence within the digital world— typically, their homepages, portals, or e-mail addresses. The computer they use to access these “places” has become largely irrelevant.
  9. 9. Mobile Computing  Mobile computing emerged from the integration of cellular technology with the Web. Both the size and price of mobile devices are falling everyday and could eventually support Weiser’s vision of pervasive inch-scale computing devices readily available to users in any human environment.  The “anytime anywhere” goal of mobile computing is essentially a reactive approach to information access, but it prepares the way for pervasive computing proactive “all the time everywhere” goal.
  10. 10. System view of Pervasive Computing
  11. 11. ISSUES & CHALLENGES  Scalability: As environmental smartness grows so will the number of devices connected to the environment and the intensity of human- machine interactions. Traditional development requires recreating the application for each new device. Writing a single application logic for once, that is independent of devices would solve the scalability problem
  12. 12.  Heterogeneity:  Conversion from one domain to another is integral to computing and communication. Assuming that uniform and compatible implementations of smart environments are not achievable, pervasive computing must find ways to mask this heterogeneity or uneven conditioning  Applications are typically developed for specific device classes or system platforms, leading to separate versions of the same application for handhelds, desktops, and cluster-based servers. As heterogeneity increases, developing applications that run across all platforms will become exceedingly difficult.
  13. 13.  Integration: Though pervasive computing components are already deployed in many environments, integrating them into a single platform is still a research problem. The problem is similar to what researchers in distributed computing face, but the scale is bigger. As the number of devices and applications increases, integration becomes more complex.
  14. 14.  Invisibility: It focuses on minimal user distraction The environment should meet user’s expectations and rarely presents him with surprises, allowing the user to interact at a subconscious level
  15. 15. Limiting Factors  inadequate trust and lack of acceptance on the part of the user  lack of personal advantages  privacy  security issues  high costs  technical obstacles (availability and reliability)
  16. 16.  lack of commercial concepts/business models  customer unwillingness to paying for pervasive computing services  negative environmental impact/high resource consumption  lack of legal regulation  lack of standardization  inadequate human-machine interface
  17. 17. Pervasive Initiatives  Oxygen: an MIT initiative, envisions a future in which computation will be freely available everywhere, like oxygen in the air we breathe. The project rests on an infrastructure of mobile and stationary devices connected by a self configuring network.
  18. 18.  Aura: “distraction free ubiquitous computing.” The project aims to design, implement, deploy, and evaluate a large scale computing system demonstrating a “personal information aura” that spans wearable, handheld, desktop, and infrastructure computers.
  19. 19.  Cooltown: Hewlett-Packard’s pervasive computing initiative, focuses on extending Web technology, wireless networks, and portable devices to create a virtual bridge between mobile users and physical entities and electronic services.
  20. 20. CONCLUSION  Pervasive computing is about making our lives simpler through digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs.  Pervasive computing will be a fertile source of challenging research problems in computer systems for many years to come.  Research challenges in areas outside computer systems need to be addressed.
  21. 21.  These areas include human-computer interaction , software agents and expert systems and artificial intelligence.  Pervasive computing will thus be the crucible in which many disjoint areas of research are fused.
  22. 22. THANK YOU