The dissemination and use of modern
information and communication technologies
(ICT) are considered to be preconditions today
for dynamic economic growth and future
viability in global competition.
Enormous change produced by the latest
Digital information and services are going
An emerging trend towards pervasive
computing- ubiquitous and invisible use,
creation, processing, transmission and storage of
Everyday objects are becoming “smart objects”,
which are linked together into networks, react to
their environment, and interact with their users.
Includes the central trends in pervasive
computing, its relationship with distributed and
mobile computing, its issues and what
challenges are posed to computer systems
research by pervasive computing
What is Pervasive Computing
“The most profound technologies are those
that disappear. They weave themselves into
the fabric of everyday life until they are
indistinguishable from it” , mentioned by
Mark Weiser in his seminal paper of 1991.
The growing trend towards embedding
microprocessors in everyday objects so they
can communicate information.
The word pervasive means "existing
The goal is to create ambient intelligence
where network devices embedded in the
environment provide unobtrusive
connectivity and services all the time, thus
improving human experience and quality of
life without explicit awareness of the
underlying communications and computing
In this environment, the world around us is
interconnected as pervasive network of
intelligent devices that cooperatively and
autonomously collect, process and transport
information in order to adapt to the
associated context and activity
Miniaturization: ICT components are
becoming smaller and more mobile.
Embedding: Components are integrated
into everyday objects, they transform
them into smart objects.
Networking: Components are linked to
each other and communicate generally via
Ubiquity: Components are ubiquitous,
which makes them less noticeable.
Context awareness : Components use
sensors and communication to collect
information about their users and
environment and adjust their behavior
Pervasive Computing is complementary to
virtual reality. It turns all objects in the
real world into part of an information and
With the arrival of networking, personal
computing evolved to distributed computing.
As computers became connected, they began
to share capabilities over the network.
Seamless access to remote information
resources and communication with fault
tolerance, high availability and security.
Many users now routinely refer to their point
of presence within the digital world—
typically, their homepages, portals, or e-mail
addresses. The computer they use to access
these “places” has become largely irrelevant.
Mobile computing emerged from the integration
of cellular technology with the Web. Both the size
and price of mobile devices are falling everyday
and could eventually support Weiser’s vision of
pervasive inch-scale computing devices readily
available to users in any human environment.
The “anytime anywhere” goal of mobile
computing is essentially a reactive approach to
information access, but it prepares the way for
pervasive computing proactive “all the time
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
As environmental smartness grows so will
the number of devices connected to the
environment and the intensity of human-
Traditional development requires recreating
the application for each new device.
Writing a single application logic for once,
that is independent of devices would solve
the scalability problem
Conversion from one domain to another is integral
to computing and communication. Assuming that
uniform and compatible implementations of smart
environments are not achievable, pervasive
computing must find ways to mask this
heterogeneity or uneven conditioning
Applications are typically developed for specific
device classes or system platforms, leading to
separate versions of the same application for
handhelds, desktops, and cluster-based servers. As
heterogeneity increases, developing applications
that run across all platforms will become
Though pervasive computing components
are already deployed in many
environments, integrating them into a
single platform is still a research problem.
The problem is similar to what researchers
in distributed computing face, but the
scale is bigger.
As the number of devices and applications
increases, integration becomes more
It focuses on minimal user distraction
The environment should meet user’s
expectations and rarely presents him with
surprises, allowing the user to interact at a
inadequate trust and lack of acceptance on
the part of the user
lack of personal advantages
technical obstacles (availability and
lack of commercial concepts/business
customer unwillingness to paying for
pervasive computing services
negative environmental impact/high
lack of legal regulation
lack of standardization
inadequate human-machine interface
an MIT initiative, envisions a future in
which computation will be freely
available everywhere, like oxygen in the
air we breathe.
The project rests on an infrastructure of
mobile and stationary devices connected
by a self configuring network.
“distraction free ubiquitous computing.”
The project aims to design, implement,
deploy, and evaluate a large scale
computing system demonstrating a
“personal information aura” that spans
wearable, handheld, desktop, and
Hewlett-Packard’s pervasive computing
initiative, focuses on extending Web
technology, wireless networks, and
portable devices to create a virtual bridge
between mobile users and physical entities
and electronic services.
Pervasive computing is about making our
lives simpler through digital environments
that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive
to human needs.
Pervasive computing will be a fertile
source of challenging research problems
in computer systems for many years to
Research challenges in areas outside
computer systems need to be addressed.
These areas include human-computer
interaction , software agents and expert
systems and artificial intelligence.
Pervasive computing will thus be the
crucible in which many disjoint areas of
research are fused.