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“Business Research Methods”
MBA 504 (Section-1)
Group-6
“Brand Advocacyof Online Shopping in Bangladesh”
Submitted To:
Mohammed Sohel Islam
Senior Lecturer
Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB)
Submitted By
Name ID
Md. Mehraj Hossain 1630785
Sadia Raisa 1620965
Amena Akter 1621171
Khadizatull Kobra 1610756
A H M Aman 1630822
Date of Submission: 20th
November, 2016
2
Serial
No
Items Page
Number
Executive Summary 3
1 Introduction 3-5
2 Statement of the problem 6
3 Purpose of the study 6
4 Review of Literature 7-11
Diagram 12
5 Questions and Hypotheses 13
6 The Research Design – Methods and Procedures 14-15
6.1 Sampling 15
6.2 Instruments 16
6.3 Data collection 16-17
6.4 Data analysis 17-25
7 Limitations 26
8 Significance of Study 26
9 References 27-29
10 Appendixes 30-58
3
Executive Summary
Online shopping -The act of purchasing products or services over the Internet. Online shopping
has grown in popularity over the years, mainly because people find it convenient and easy to
bargain shop from the comfort of their home or office. One of the most enticing factor about
online shopping, particularly during a holiday season, is it alleviates the need to wait in long
lines or search from store to store for a particular item.
Our target area is about the perception of consumer of online shopping in Bangladesh. After
collecting the information, we start our analyzing procedure to make our survey more reliable. At
first we do descriptive analysis like different age, income, gender try to find out their buying
behavior considering the following issues, and then we do reliability analysis to collect multiple
measures of the same construct. In reliability analysis to collect multiples measures of the same
construct. Then we analyze our all variables and compare alpha value (should be between 0.5-.6
which is sufficient, .7 above is desirable)
Next we do our hypothesis testing the statistical relationship between the data sets and this is
compared as an alternative to an idealize null hypothesis and identifying conceptual types of
error and by specifying parameter limit types of error and by specifying parametric limits on how
much error will be permitted.
Finally, we do regression analysis. In statistic, the co-efficient of determination, donated R2, in
an analysis model, the estimation helps us predict the future outcomes.
4
1. Introduction
Online shopping is one of the important part of internet, which helps customers to order product,
view product range, compare price and it also saves customers time. Bangladesh is a fast
growing country in South East Asia due to impact of globalization internet users are increasing
rapidly which consists of online shoppers as well. Online shopping is a part of E-commerce
which is known as electronic commerce, any transaction that has been done through internet.
Online shopping grabs a huge market in western countries like USA, UK, Germany, Japan and
E.T.C; Most of the well-known companies have online stores to full fill the demand of online
shoppers. In Bangladesh sources of online shopping are Facebook.com and various famous
website like Daraaz.com, Bikroy.com, Lamudi.com, Cellbazar.com, Foodpanda.com and many
more. These are the website which sales varieties of product starting from foods, clothes,
electronics, apartments, lands, etc. In the business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce cycle activity,
consumers use Internet for many reasons and purposes such as: Searching for product features,
prices or reviews, selecting products and services through Internet, placing the order, making
payments, or any other means which is then followed by delivery of the required products
through Internet, or other means and last is sales service through Internet or other mean. There
has been a shift towards online shopping due to ease, comfort, convenience, cost saving,
timesaving and quick delivery as compared to conventional or traditional shopping.
Brand advocacy is more than just a strategy — it’s a philosophy that permeates every aspect of
your business. People who love your brand will introduce you to new customers, efficiently
driving new revenue, business intelligence and scale in ways that advertising and traditional
marketing simply cannot. The key is identifying your true advocates and then building programs
to nurture and capture brand advocacy as it happens. (ciceron.com). for startups and small
businesses, when it comes to allocating money, value is the most important word. We all seek to
gain maximum value and exposure with limited budgets. Cultivating brand advocacy can be a
low-cost, high-return marketing strategy. Brand advocacy, done right, means building a
community. Ensure that we are monitoring the conduct of our community; we are engaging with
the community so they know the company is listening and carefully analyze how the community
is helping to drive customer acquisition, reduce product issues, grow sales, and drive traffic.
5
The consumer is currently facing the Brand choice ability, brand similarity problems and Brand
satisfaction issues influencing and changing the consumption patterns of human life and
activities on Bangladesh market. As there are so many similar types of brands increasing in the
market so people can search the entire product and compare them easily. And if the consumer
can find a product of better quality with reasonable price they easily shift to the other brand.
Some Brands are making so many commitments about consumer satisfaction but sometimes they
don’t fulfill their commitment to the customer and that’s why brand image creates a negative
impact on the entire market. Customer commitment that has been applied in many businesses-to-
business and consumer services contexts also seems to apply in the context of a consumer brand
relationship. (Bansal et al., 2004; Gilliland & Bello, 2002; Fullerton, 2003; Gruen et al., 2000).
Sometimes Brand purchasing depends on the consumer personality then these consumer to
continue to buy this particular retail brand. Continuance commitment weakly positive effect on
customer repurchase, it had a negative impact on advocacy intentions towards the retail brand.
When consumers feel a state of dependence on a brand, they will respond to this felt state by
withholding positive word of mouth communications. Brand satisfaction is an important driver
of loyalty toward a product or a brand. Consumers who are more satisfied with a brand will be
more likely to continue purchasing the brand. If any brand creates brand loyalty and brand trust
to the customer then they have already fulfill brand satisfaction in customer mind and it also
reduced the negative impact on brand satisfaction by using repurchase on this brand. By taking
insights from available media, we analyzed to predict the brand advocacy by accessing the
customer journey – both consumer and commercial. We are able to signify the brand advocacy in
terms through the multi-point sentiment scoring technique, which has the capability to score over
a pin-point magnitude measurement. The successful results support that the proposed algorithms
effectively work in this task. The study examines the consumers' attitude towards the brands in
Bangladesh. The results of the study show that brand satisfaction is central independent variable
for brand loyalty in the industry and all other factors are dependent variable. Consumers who are
more satisfied with a brand will be more likely to continue purchasing the brand
6
2. Statement of the problem:
Now a day’s growing number of consumers shop online, to purchase goods and services, gather
information about different products. Even browse to keep them updated with the latest trends
and fashions. (Catherine, Amenda, 2006). Online shopping environments are therefore playing
an increasing vital role in the overall relationship between marketers and their consumers.
Consumers can shop online in several different ways, thus some may perceive online shopping
as an online market place(Bikroy.com,E–bay.com,Carmudi.com,Shohoz.com,Akhoni.com,Ajker
deal,com), while others view it as something else([e.g online auction] [e.g eBay, Lelong], online
retailing [e.g. Zappos], Online group buying [e.g Groupon, Living Social]), leading to analysis of
incorrect measurement ( Weng Lim, 2014).
There is plenty of statistical and economic study about customer for brand advocacy of physical
store shopping, but there is not enough research on measuring the brand advocacy of customers
on online shoppers in Bangladesh. There are lots of differences in strategy formulation between
online line shopping and traditional shopping. There are lots of differences in communication
strategy between online and traditional shopping system. There needs lots of adaptation when a
person go online from traditional shopping system. Strategic change of online shopping system is
faster. Now a day, there are rapid and fast developments in information technologies industry
and competition increases day by day due to increase attention of consumers towards online
shopping. So online marketers should concern about this. The best retailer is based on their
experiences on web. Online consumers also increase their expectations and they are set by their
experience with online retailers across the Web. It is very important to know that what kind of
things and strategies help to increase sales in this fierce competition in market with high
expectation of online consumers. In our research, we mainly focus on “Why consumers give
special emphasis to a particular brand on online shopping based on different attributes”.
3. Purpose of the Study:
1. To understand the effect of online flow of elements on online shopping experiences.
2. To illustrate the relationship between marketing science and information technology.
3. To provide a fit between online consumers and the online interface with which they
interact.
4. To create interactive medium between consumer and seller.
5. To change the traditional buying nature of consumers.
6. To develop product variation as it is quite impossible to access all those products at the
same time.
7
4. Review of Literature:
A brand is generally a name and a symbol. It is an important means which
helps creating a positive image on consumers and being different from rival products
(Kotler, 2004). It provides significant contributions to enterprises to make them create their loyal
customer group and retain their market shares. Loyal customers are loyal consumers of the brand
and perform repeat purchases and recommend the brand to those around.
Brand Experience:
Customer experience arises from a set of interactions between the customer, product and/or the
company. Experience is something that is formed in the mind of the customer and therefore it is
personal and different for each individual. The way an experience is perceived is based on
customer’s own beliefs and perceptions (Klaus &Maklan, 2007; Gentile et al., 2007). Brand
experience is therefore conceptualized as sensations, feeling, cognition's and behavioral
responses that are evoked by brand related stimuli such as a brands design, identity, packaging,
communication, as well as the brand environment (Brakus et al., 2009). When someone uses a
brand the experience he has got from it is usually called the brand experience. The senses
included are sight, sound, smell, touch and taste (Hultén, 2011). Sight however, is the most
prominent of the senses since it is most likely to discover changes in the environment and create
value for the customer (Hultén, 2011; Parsons, 2011). The goal with sensory marketing is to
create a value-process for the customer as well as engaging them in the brand. It is a tool used to
differentiate a product from the competitors on the market (Hultén, 2011). Parsons (2011) agrees
with Hultén (2011) stating that, sensory marketing is important for retailers to consider for the
reason that nowadays sensory stimuli is a way of differentiating the retail environment from
competitors and to create an experience. Brand experience can be defined as customer’s
perception of the interaction with the brand such as the brand image shown in advertising,
personal contact or the level of quality concerning the personal treatment that the customers
receive (Alloza, 2008). An experience is created when customers use the brand such talking
about the brand, seek for brand information, promotions and events (Ambler et al., 2002).
Furthermore, brand experience is a process that includes several parts of the shopping
experience, starting when the customer begin the search for information about the product and
then continues the shopping decision has been made and finally consumed (Hong-Youl& Perks,
2005; Brakus et al., 2009). Experience is also concerned with familiarity and knowledge within a
certain area, which is derived from brand exposure and previous encounters with the brand
(Braunsberger& Munch, 1998). Therefore, brand experience can be looked upon as an encounter
between the customer and the brand (Şahin et al., 2011). In order to be able to provide customers
with the best brand 8 experience as possible, it is importance to establish a close relationship
with the customers. This since, a strong relationship is built on customer’s positive experiences
with the brand (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). The brand must also deliver the brand promise and
be consistent in all actions (Dall'Olmo Riley & De Chernatony, 2000; Brodie et al., 2009) since,
8
a positive experience is more likely to drive customers to repeat that experience in the future
(Şahin et al., 2011).
Experiences have a tendency to influence memories, more than the actual features and benefits
of a product (Westbrook & Oliver 1991; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). Hence, a brand experience
has to be able to capture customers’ emotions during the consumption process. For that reason,
brand experience is perceived as a marketing tool in order to deepen the relationship and
connection to the brand, since experiences are memorized (Westbrook & Oliver, 1991).
Including attributes to the brand experience such as something vivid making the brand
differentiate in the market, it is more likely to be memorable than product itself as well as gain
competitive advantage (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Iglesias et al., 2011). One-way of making the
brand more vivid and memorable is as stated earlier by sensory marketing (Hultén, 2011).
Brand Satisfaction:
Brand satisfaction can be described as an affective, emotional, response to a purchase situation
and the positive reaction from previous experience with a brand (Anderson &Narus, 1990; Dick
&Basu, 1994; Bennet et al., 2005; White & Yu, 2005). It can be perceived as the outcome and
fulfillment response from pleasure related to the consumption, which leads to a long-term
relationship (Oliver, 1999). This relationship is what Algesheimer et al., (2005) claims to be the
brand satisfaction with the degree to which the customer views the brand as satisfactory partner
in an ongoing relationship.
Customer satisfaction is closely related to expectation and the spreading of word-of-mouth. It
can be perceived as an ongoing cycle, since expectations are created before the actual purchase
and based on word-of-mouth, which impacts the experience either positively or negatively.
Expectations put a lot of pressure on the brand since, the more expectations customers may have
can affect the degree to which the customer is satisfied and therefore the customer loyalty.
For a company, having satisfied customers often means positive word-of-mouth and higher
expectations, however can also be the other way around (Dick &Basu, 1994; Athanassopoulos et
al., 2001; Wangenheim&Bayón, 2006). Satisfaction can be looked upon as a source of brand
loyalty (Bennett et al., 2005; Punniyamoorthy et al., 2007)
Customer loyalty is the outcome of having satisfied customers and perceived as cognitive and
emotional component (Mano & Oliver 1993; Hong-Youl& Perks 2005). It is an affective
reaction to the consumption experience (Mano & Oliver, 1993), while the cognitive component
consists of the standard expectations created in the mind of the customer (Hong-Youl& Perks
2005). These standards are based upon customers’ expectations, previous experiences and/or
word-of-mouth. This is met if the brand manages to deliver what the customer expect or even
exceed factors needs to be considered, being emotional and functional (Liljander&Strandvik,
1997; Mosley, 2007). Therefore, it is essential to investigate customer’s demands in order to
keep them satisfied in an ongoing relationship (Algesheimer et al., 2005).
9
Brand Trust:
Brand trust refers to the willingness of the average customer to rely on the ability of a brand to
deliver its stated function (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). A brand is perceived to be a trust mark for
all intangible trust-generating activities such as a symbol of quality (Keller, 2003; Bart et al.,
2005). This is important to create a sustainable customer brand relationship. Therefore, trust
itself can be defined as customers’ beliefs that they can rely that the seller to deliver what they
promised and connecting to rational values. These rational values are believed to be customer
perceptions of benefits gained versus the cost of having a relationship with the brand (Agustin &
Singh, 2005).
Brand trust can be divided into two dimensions. The first dimension is reliability, which is
referred to having the ability and willingness to keep promises and satisfying customers’ needs.
The second dimension is referred to the attribution of good intentions to the brand in relation to
the customers’ interest and welfare (Şahin et al., 2011). Having a trustworthy image will provide
a long-term relationship. However, it is a process that is built up over time, since customers are
more likely to trust what they are familiar with and can associate with (Agustin 10 & Singh,
2005; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Bowden, 2009). Therefore, brand trust can also be seen as a
part of the customers’ evaluation test, which is based upon their own beliefs and assumptions
(Bowden, 2009). Since trust is essential in the building of customer brand relationship and
positively connected to brand loyalty adding familiarity will improve customers’ trust (Bowden,
2009; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Chiou& Chang, 2006; Şahin et al., 2011). Moreover, customers
build their trust for a brand based upon their expectations and experience. If these are met it will
be reflected in brand loyalty (Horppu et al., 2008).
Brand Loyalty:
Brand loyalty is defined as a deeply held commitment to a preferred product or service
consistently in the future, repeated purchase and commitment despite the situational influences
and marketing efforts which have the potential to cause switching behavior (Algesheimer et al.,
2005; Şahin et al., 2011). In the process of building brand loyalty, customer brand relationship is
a crucial factor (Chiou& Chang, 2006). This since, brand experience leads to brand loyalty by
creating emotional connections by engaging compelling and a consistent context, where the
context is the environment the encounter occurs (Şahin et al., 2011). Including emotional aspect
to the building of brand loyalty is also valuable since emotions are memorable increasing loyalty
(Mano & Oliver, 1993).
Some researchers argue that brand loyalty is the outcome of brand experience, brand satisfaction
and brand trust. Since a positive brand experience affects brand satisfaction from customer
trusting the brand, will provide a bigger loyalty (Şahin et al., 2011). Hong-Youl and Perks (2005)
claim that, a positive relationship between the variables exists and therefore important to be able
to provide customers a security with the brand. A security is based on the beliefs that the brand is
10
reliable and concerned with the welfare of the customer. This is a factor that aids the building of
brand trusts and brand loyalty (Delgado- Ballester&MunueraAlemán, 2001).
According to Dick and Basu (1994) there are four different types of loyalty. These are no loyalty,
spurious loyalty, latent loyalty and loyalty. No loyalty states that there is no existing loyalty
towards a specific brand. Spurious loyalty is characterized by non-attitudinal influences on
behavior, meaning that the customer sees a little difference between brands. Latent loyalty, states
that there is a high level of relative attitude and lastly loyalty in which a customer shows 11
preference towards a brand and communicates this attitude towards others. The goal is of course
to gain loyalty (Dick &Basu, 1994).
Moreover, brand loyalty is also a part of the communication and relationship building process
(Rowley, 2009; Şahin et al., 2011). This since having a well-established communication with the
customers is the main step in creating a strong customer relationship (Rowley, 2009).
Furthermore, the ability to create a strong brand loyalty is reflected in the company’s values that
might provide entry barriers for new competitors and increase the ability to respond to emerging
threats on the market, increase sales and revenues and a customer base that is less sensitive to the
marketing efforts by competing brands (Delgado- Ballester&MunueraAlemán, 2001). What
needs to be noted is that customer loyalty is an important part of brand loyalty, since it is the
customers that are loyal to the brand. Customer loyalty has been described as both attitudinal and
behavioral. This indicates that it is not only how the customers behave that determines their
loyalty, but also how they portray the brand outwards to others that determine their loyalty.
Loyalty is multidimensional and includes both repeated purchases as well as support for a
provider and resistance towards price increases (Dick &Basu, 1994). Punniyamoorthy et al.,
(2007) further states that loyalty is affected by perceived value, trust, satisfaction and
commitment.
Affective Commitment:
Commitment refers to an enduring desire to continue the relationship with a brand
(Suh and Han, 2003).Consumers are willing to improve and sustain an affective bond with
the brand that makes consumers feel warm and enjoyable. At the same time, consumers with
high brand commitment would have stronger affective attachment for the brand (Keh et al.,
2007). Commitment is divided into two as affective and continuance commitment. Affective
commitment is the emotional connection with the brand which represents strong sense of
personal identifications. Affective brand commitment is based on identification and shared
values with the brand (Pring, 2007). In evaluating affective commitment for some important
brands, Mc Alexander, Schouten and Koenig (2002) found affective
commitment explains the deep attachment to the focused brands. A study by
Verhoef (2003) in the banking services found the direct result of affective
commitment on repurchases intention. At the same time brand satisfaction, brand equity and
perceived brand behavior.
Bran (Aaker, 2004). Customers with high brand loyalty are defined as customers who
repeatedly buy a brand and feel strong commitment to the brand (Baldinger and
Rubinson, 1996). Customers who are committed to the brand become loyal customers of that
11
brand and exhibit the behavior of repeat purchases. Repurchase intentions are usually
identified with brand commitment. However, there is an important difference between
them. Brand commitment means a relationship similar to a friendship a consumer develops
for the brand. Repeat purchase is explained as the purchase of the brand because it
is cheaper or there is no other brand ( 1997).
Continuance Commitment:
Continuance commitment is also an increasingly well-studied construct in relationship marketing
(Anderson &Weitz, 1992; Bansal et al., 2004; Fullerton, 2003;Gilliland& Bello, 2002; Gruen et
al., 2000; Harrison-Walker, 2001), with its roots in scarcity of alternatives,side-bets, and
switching costs. When consumers experience continuance commitment they are bound to their
relational partner because it is difficult to get out of the relationship or they perceive few
alternatives outside the existing relationship. In business-to-business environments, contractual
arrangements are one of the main mechanisms of maintaining relationships (Anderson &
Weitz, 1992). The effect of contracts is that they both limit the alternatives available to partners
and they also impose switching costs on partners in the event they decide to exit the relationship.
In consumer services, continuance commitment exists in a relationship when a
service agreement is in force, as in the case of many communications services or when a
customer's membership in a loyalty program creates a side-bet in the focal
service relationship (Fullerton, 2003).
12
Diagram of the Research Model:
Brand
Knowledge
Brand
Experience
Repurchase
Intention
Brand
Trust
Affective
Commitment
Brand
Satisfaction
Advocacy
Intention
Brand
Loyalty
Continuance
Commitment
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5. Questions and Hypotheses
1) Is there any relationship between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction?
Ho1 There is no relation between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction
Ha1 There is a relation between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction.
2) Is there any relationship between Brand experience and Brand satisfaction?
Ho2 There is no relation between Brand experience and Brand satisfactions.
Ha2 There is a relation between Brand experience and Brand satisfaction.
3) Is there any relationship between Brand trust and Brand satisfaction?
Ho3 There is no relation between Brand trust and Brand satisfaction.
Ha3 There is a relation between Brand trust and Brand satisfactions.
4) Is there any relationship between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty?
Ho4 There is no relation between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty.
Ha4 There is a relation between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty.
5) Is there any relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment?
Ho5 There is no relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment.
Ha5 There is a relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment.
6) Is there any relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment?
Ho6 There is no relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment.
Ha6 There is a relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment.
7) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty?
Ho7 There is no relation between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty.
Ha7 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty.
8) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention?
Ho8 There is no relationship between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention.
Ha8 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention.
9) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention?
H09 There is no relation between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention.
Ha9 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention.
10) Is there any relationship between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention?
Ho10 There is no relation between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention.
Ha10 There is a relation between Affective Commitment and Repurchase
Intention.
11) Is there any relationship between Affective Commitment and Advocacy
Intention?
Ho11 There is no relation between Utilitarian value and Advocacy Intention.
Ho11 There is a relation between Utilitarian value and Advocacy Intention.
14
6. The ResearchDesign-Methods and Procedures
1) The degree to which the research question has been crystallized:
Formal Study: We select formal study because it is a well-organized research approach where
hypotheses or research questions are clearly described. This approach also ensures standard
procedure and specifies the data sources.
2) The method of data collection:
Communication Study: We, the group members, select communication study because it is a
direct way to communicate with people and collect information and response by personal or
interpersonal means. This method is very much effective for the researchers.
3) The power of the research to produce effects in the variables under study:
Ex post facto: In our research, we have no control over the variables in the sense of being able
to manipulate them. This can only evaluate the facts based on measured variables and what has
happened or happening. Here we are going to report the effects in the variable under our study.
4) The Purpose of the study:
Causal study: In causal study one variable produces another variable or forces to occur. As the
statement of the probability of our research will be based on what we observe, our research will
be a causal study. In casual explanatory study, we try to explain relationship between dependent
and independent variables which one variable produces changes in another variable. In our
article, dependent variable is related in independent variable.
5) The Time Dimension study:
Cross sectional study: This study will be carried out only once and it will represent a snapshot
of one point in time. So, our research is considered to be a cross sectional study.
6) The tropical scope-breadth and depth-of the study:
Statistical study: Statistical methods and analyses are often using to communicate research
findings and to support hypotheses and give credibility to research methodology and
conclusions. We are doing our research based on the statistical study because all the data and
information are depending on quantitative data and the finding can be generalized. We have to
understand not just the number but the meaning behind those numbers. Statistics is a tool to
gather all the data which is required in the research. It should supplement our knowledge of the
area that we researching. It is important for us to understand statistics so that they can be
informed, evaluate the credibility and usefulness of information, and make appropriate
decisions.
15
7) The Researchenvironment:
Field condition: Our research is based on field condition because the survey is done with some
samples. We can observe the current market, customers, and their preferences about the brand
from the field study. We have collected some samples based on our area of our research. And by
observing the samples we can assume the current scenario of the market and the brand and also
the loyalty of the customer about any particular brand.
8) The participants’ perceptions of research activity:
Actual routine: We have selected the actual routine method for our research because this
research will not be modified or used by other researchers, therefore it will be not performed
again.
6.1 Sampling:
Unique:
Online shopping has been a growing phenomenon in the world, in particular amongst countries
possessing highly developed infrastructure available for marketing activities through the internet.
Today, internet is not only a networking media, but also a global means of transaction for
consumers. In Bangladesh, online shopping is emerging rapidly because of this user friendly. As
this is the most convenient way to shop, the customer of this sector is also increasing day by day
specially the age between 25-35 are eager to shop in online. Majority of them are students, job
holders and housewives. While doing the research, we found the data from Google & Facebook
that in Bangladesh, around 80% of the customers belong to Dhaka and rest of them are from
Chittagong and Sylhet.
Sample size:
Sample size relates to how many people to pick for the study. According to the law of large
numbers, the larger the sample size, the better the estimates, or the larger the sample the closer
the "true" value of the population is approached.
To collect the data for the study, a total of 50 questionnaires are distributed to the online
marketer’s customers.
Procedure:
There are many sampling procedures that have been developed to ensure that a sample
adequately represents the target population. As our research is “Qualitative research”, it involves
non-probability convenient sampling. We have selected this because the information and data are
available and easy to conduct. We will ensure that all the retrieved questionnaires are able to
represent the population of the whole sample so that this study tests the representativeness of
data for the sample and for the population.
16
6.2 Instrument:
In our research questionnaires, we have used 4 demographic questions, like - gender, age,
monthly income, occupation. Then we have set our questions based on the variables. Without
demographic questions, we have 33 questions. All the items were measured using a five-point
Likert scale with anchors ranging from ‘Totally disagree (1)’ to ‘Totally agree (5)’ without the
33 number question under the Brand knowledge variable. Only 33 number question was
measured using a four-point Likert scale with anchors ranging from ‘Positive – Negative (1)’,
‘Favorable - Unfavorable (2)’, ‘Good – Bad (3)’, and ‘Like – Dislike (4)’.
In our research we have 09 variables. The variables are Brand Satisfaction, Affective
Commitment, Continuance Commitment, Repurchase Intention, Brand Advocacy, Brand
Loyalty, Brand Trust, Brand Experience, and Brand Knowledge.
For Brand Satisfaction we have 6 questions, Affective Commitment- 3 questions, Continuance
Commitment- 3 questions, Repurchase Intention- 3 questions, Brand Advocacy- 3 questions,
Brand Loyalty- 3 questions, Brand Trust- 3 questions, Brand Experience- 5 questions, Brand
Knowledge- 4 questions.
6.3 Data Collection:
There are two types of data collection process. They are Primary Data & Secondary Data.
Primary Data are those collected for the first time. Secondary Data are those which have already
been collected and analyzed by someone else.
Primary Data:
Online marketer’s Product is our research topic. For that we are going to collect the data through
questionnaire. So, our primary data collection method is Questionnaire. Primary Data collection
procedures deduced from the questionnaire of 33 questions. It was then evaluated and approved
by our lecturer. The questions were incorporated into the quantitative study of questionnaire for
measuring brand advocacy of online marketer’s product scores were obtained for each variable. .
All data was entered into SPSS software program.
For this research study, Non-probability convenience sampling was chosen because we selected
the samples randomly.
Interviews lasting about ten minutes were conducted with the respondents as well. The aim of the
interviews was to give them the opportunity to express their feelings, beliefs and attitudes
regarding the research questions of online marketers’ products.
1 = TotallyDisagree (TD) 2= Moderately Disagree (MD)
3= Neither Disagree nor Agree (NDorA)
4 = Disagree (D) 5= TotallyAgree (TA)
17
The study of the data was to determine how the variables measured and how the constructs are
interrelated to one another.
Secondary Data:
We collect secondary data from different source of websites, books and journals as well as
previously conducted surveys and findings on the Internet. We use internet to collect secondary
data.
6.4 Data Analysis:
1. Descriptive Analysis:
Frequency test:
 From Table 1 we can see the sample consists of 31 males and 19 females. 62.0%
of male and 38% of female participates in this survey.
 Among the survey 17 respondents age were between 15-25 years, 27 respondents
age were between 26-35, 5 respondents age were between 36-45 and 1
respondents age were 46 &Above from table 2.
 There are five income ranges. 7 respondents which is 14% were in 0-5,000 tk. 14
respondents which is 28% were in 5,000-16,000tk., 16 respondents which is 32%
were in 16,000-26,000tk., 4 respondents which is 8% were in 26,000-36,000tk., 9
respondents which is 18% were in above 36,000tk from Table 3.
2. Reliability Analysis:
Cronbach’s alpha:
Cronbach’s is a function of the number of items in a test, the average covariance between item-
pairs, and the variance of the total score.
It was first named alpha by Lee Cronbach in 1951, as he had intended to continue with further
coefficients. The measure can be viewed as an extension of the Kuder–Richardson Formula 20
(KR-20), which is an equivalent measure for dichotomous items. Alpha is not robust against
missing data. Several other Greek letters have been used by later researchers to designate other
measures used in a similar context. Somewhat related is the average variance extracted (AVE).
Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency.
Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items
are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of scale reliability. A "high" value for alpha
does not imply that the measure is one-dimensional. If, in addition to measuring internal
consistency, you wish to provide evidence that the scale in question is one-dimensional,
additional analyses can be performed. Exploratory factor analysis is one method of checking
18
dimensionality. Technically speaking, Cronbach's alpha is not a statistical test - it is a coefficient
of reliability (or consistency).
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. However, there is
actually no lower limit to the coefficient. George and Mallery (2003) provide the following rules
of thumb:
Cronbach's alpha Internal consistency
C ≥ 0.9 Excellent
0.9 > α ≥ 0.8 Good
0.8 > α ≥ 0.7 Acceptableor Desirable
0.7 > α ≥ 0.6 Questionable
0.6 > α ≥ 0.5 Poor or Sufficient
0.5 > α Unacceptable
Source:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronbach%27s_alpha
2. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html)
Brand Satisfaction
Table: 7
The six (6) Questions (Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q5,Q6) about Brand Satisfaction where Cronbach's Alpha
is .881 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these six questions are reliable to
measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha.881 is good.
Affective Commitment
Table: 8
The three (3) Questions (Q7,Q8,Q9) about Affective Commitment whereCronbach's Alpha is
.497 which is notsufficient. From the table, we can say that three questions are notreliable to
measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .497 is unacceptable, researcher should
use different item in the future to make it acceptable.
Continuous Commitment
Table: 9
The three (3) Questions (Q10,Q11,Q12) about Continuous CommitmentCronbach's where Alpha
is .848 which is desirable. From the table, we can say that these three questions are reliable to
measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .848 is good.
19
Repurchase Intention
Table: 10
The three (3) Questions (Q13,Q14,Q15)about Repurchase Intention whereCronbach's Alpha is
.714 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to
measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .714 is acceptable.
Advocacy
Table: 11
The three (3) Questions (Q16,Q17,Q18) about Advocacy whereCronbach's Alpha is .866 which
is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the
variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .866 is good.
Brand Loyalty
Table: 12
The three (3) Questions (Q19,Q20,Q21)about Brand Loyalty whereCronbach's Alpha is .765
which is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure
the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .765 is acceptable.
Brand Trust
Table: 13
The three (3) Questions (Q22,Q23,Q24)about Brand Trust where Cronbach's Alpha is .814 which is
desirable. From the table, we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable.
According to Cronbach’s Alpha .814 is good.
Brand Experience
Table: 14
The three (3) Questions (Q25,Q26,Q27,Q28,Q29) about Brand Experience whereCronbach's Alpha is
.789 which is desirable. From the table, we can say that these five questions are reliable to measure the
variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .789 is acceptable.
Brand Knowledge
Table: 15
The four (4) Questions (Q30,Q31,Q32,Q33)about Brand knowledge whereCronbach's Alpha is .498
which is not sufficient. From the table, we can say that these three questions are not t reliable to measure
the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .498 is unacceptable,researcher should use different item in
the future to make it acceptable.
20
3. Hypothesis Testing:
Hypothesis testing is performed to check the relationships between the variables; it gives a clear
out put about the research which is conducted. It is one of the most important parts of the
research. In this research, we have basically 11 hypotheses which we have analyzed using
spearman’s correlation, accordingly under the condition if the correlation coefficient ƿ(rho)≠0
and significance α (alpha) < 0.05, the obtained result will be either we reject null hypothesis or
we failed to reject null hypothesis. Spearman’s Correlation is the easiest way to find the
relationships but the best way to obtain hypothesis is using Pearson’s Correlation as it shows the
strength and weakness of the relationship. We have also conducted the Pearson’s Correlation to
test the strength and weakness of the relationship.
Spearman’s correlation:
The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s correlation, for short) is a
nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two
variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. It is denoted by the symbol (or the Greek letter ρ,
pronounced rho). The test is used for either ordinal variables or for continuous data that has
failed the assumptions necessary for conducting the Pearson's product-moment correlation. The
Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s correlation, for short) is a
nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two
variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. It is denoted by the symbol (or the Greek letter ρ,
pronounced rho). The test is used for either ordinal variables or for continuous data that has
failed the assumptions necessary for conducting the Pearson's product-moment correlation.
The ‘+’ sign indicates a positive correlation (the scores on one variable increase as the scores on
the other variable increase). The ‘-’ sign indicates a negative correlation (the scores on one
variable increase, the scores on the other variable decrease)
• HØ (Null hypothesis): There is no relationship between the variables.
• Ha (Alternative hypothesis): There is a relationship between the variables.
• IF correlation coefficient ρ (Rho) ≠ 0 and significance α(alpha) < 0.05
That accepts alternative hypothesis Ha, which means there is a relationship between the two
variables
• If don’t fulfill the above conditions that accept alternative hypothesis Ha. This means
there is no relationship.
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1-0.05) = .95
or 95% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is a better
relationship between variables.
21
• **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1-0.01) =
.99or 99% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is a good
relationship between variables.
• ***. Correlation is significant at the 0.001 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1-
0.001) = .999 or 99.9% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is the
best relationship between variables.
(https://statistics.laerd.com/spss-tutorials/spearmans-rank-order-correlation-using-spss-
statistics.php
Spearman correlation summary:
Brand knowledge & Brand Satisfaction:
From Table: 16
In the relationship ρ= .396** which is ≠0 and α= .004 which is less than 0.05. So Ha1 is
accepted. That means there is a relationship between brand satisfaction and brand knowledge.
Brand Experience & Brand satisfaction:
From Table: 17
In the relationship ρ= .488** which is ≠0 and α= 0 which is less than 0.05. So Ha2 is accepted.
That means there is relationship between brand satisfaction and brand experience.
Brand Experience & Brand Trust:
From Table: 18
In the relationship ρ= .410** which is ≠0 and α= 0.003 which is less than 0.05. Ha3 is accepted.
That means there is relationship between brand trust and brand experience.
Brand Trust & Brand Loyalty:
From Table: 19
In the relationship ρ= .381** which is ≠0 and α= 0.006 which is less than 0.05. Ha4 is accepted.
That means there is relationship between brand trust and brand loyalty.
22
Brand Satisfaction& Affective Communication:
From Table: 20
In the relationship ρ= .164** which is ≠0 and α= 0.256 which is not less than 0.05. Ho5 is
accepted. This is null hypothesis that means there is no relationship between brand satisfaction
and affective communication.Brand Satisfaction& Continuous Commitment:
From Table: 21
In the relationship ρ= .347** which is ≠0 and α= 0.014 which is less than 0.05. Ha6 is accepted.
That means there is relationship between brand satisfaction and continuous commitment.
Continuous Commitment& Brand Loyalty:
From Table: 22
In the relationship ρ= .367** which is ≠0 and α= 0.009 which is less than 0.05. Ha7 is accepted.
That means there is relationship between continuous commitment and brand loyalty.
Continuous Commitment& Repurchase Intention:
From Table: 23
In the relationship ρ= .273** which is ≠0 and α= 0.055 which is not less than 0.05. Ho8 is
accepted. This is a null hypothesis that means there is no relation between continuous
commitment and repurchase intention.
Continuous Commitment& Advocacy:
From Table: 24
In the relationship ρ= .118** which is ≠0 and α= 0.473 which is not less than 0.05. Ho9 is
accepted. This is a null hypothesis that means there is no relation between continuous
commitment and advocacy.
Affective Commitment& Repurchase intention:
From Table: 25
In the relationship ρ= .338** which is ≠0 and α= 0.016 which is less than 0.05. Ha10 is accepted.
That means there is relation between affective commitment and repurchase intention.
Affective Commitment& Advocacy:
From Table: 26
23
In the relationship ρ= .263** which is ≠0 and α= 0.065 which is not less than 0.05. Ho11 is
accepted. That means there is no relationship between affective commitment and advocacy.
Pearson’s Correlations
Correlation is an effect size and so we can verbally describe the strength of the
correlation using the guide that Evans (1996) suggests for the absolute value of r:
-.19 “very weak”
-.39 “weak”
-.59 “moderate”
-.79 “strong”
-1.0 “very strong”
The obtained results of both the method of testing hypothesis are illustrated in the Appendix
section.
Pearson’s Correlations Summary:
Table: 27
H1 – The relationship between Brand Knowledge and Brand Satisfaction is moderate positive
because the value of r is .46
Table: 28
H2- The relationship between Brand Experience and Brand Satisfaction is strongpositivebecause
the value of r is .66
Table: 29
H3- The relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Satisfaction is moderate positive because
the value of r is .58
Table: 30
H4- The relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty is moderate positive because the
value of r is .53
Table: 31
H5- The relationship between Brand Satisfaction and Affective Commitment is moderate
positive because the value of r is .42
Table: 32
24
H6- The relationship between Brand Satisfaction and Continuous Commitment is moderate
positive because the value of r is .41
Table: 33
H7 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Brand Loyalty is weak positive
because the value of r is .35
Table: 34
H8 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Repurchase Intention is weak
positive because the value of r is .37
Table: 35
H9 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Advocacy is very weak positive
because the value of r is .16
Table: 36
H10- The relationship between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention is moderate
positive because the value of r is .51
Table: 37
H11- The relationship between Affective Commitment and Advocacy is moderate positive
because the value of r is .44
3. RegressionAnalysis:
Regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables. It
includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the
relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. R² (square)
values represent how much change of a dependent variable is explained by the change of
independent variable. The standard equation of regression is 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 where y is the
dependant variable, 𝑚𝑥 is the inter section point and c is the slope of the line where 𝑥 represents
independent variable. In this research, we have conduct six regression analysis and the detailed
information is enclosed in the appendix section.
25
R-squared is always between 0 and 100%:
 0% indicates that the model explains none of the variability of the response data around
its mean.
 100% indicates that the model explains all the variability of the response data around its
mean.
Source: Mathematics with Application in Management and Economics by PRICHETT and
SABER (7th Edition)
Here is a small summary of the regression analysis according to the equation
𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝐶
Table: 38
BRAND SATISFACTION is the dependent variable (y) and BRAND KNOWLEDGE, BRAND
TRUST, BRAND EXPERIENCE are independent variables (x), thus the result represents that y
changes explains only 50.9% by x.
Table: 39
AFFECTIVE COMITTMENT is the dependent variable(y) and BRAND SATISFACTION is
independent variables (x), thus y change explains only 18.1% by x.
Table: 40
CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT is the dependent variable(y) and BRAND SATISFACTION is
independent variables(x), therefore y change explains only 16.8% by x.
Table: 41
REPURCHASEINTENTION is the dependent variable (y) and CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT, AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT are independent variables (x), thus the result
represents that y changes explains only 28.6% by x.
Table: 42
ADVOCACY is the dependent variable(y) and CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT, AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT is independent variables (x), and thus y change explains only 20.1% by x.
Table: 43
BRANDLOYALITY is the dependent variable(y) and CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT,
BRAND TRUST, BRAND SATISFACTION are independent variables (x), thus y change
explains only 38.4% by x
26
7. Limitations:
There are certain limitation of conducting and analyzing consumer behavior towards
online shopping
1. Respondents may not feel encouraged to provide to accurate, honest answers.
2. Respondents may not feel comfortable providing answers, which preset themselves in an
unfavorable manner.
3. Respondents may not be fully aware of their reasons for any given answer because of
lack of knowledge about online shopping.
4. Data errors may happen at the time of data input.
5. We also don’t manage propose time and effort to survey our subject matter.
8. Significance ofthe study:
Business point of view: Research has its special significance in solving various operational and
planning problems in the business. Research is very important in the Business. In business, the
research is conduct to discover the changing trends, to measure the changing behavior of the
specific location, market, demand, policies, and strategies. So, research has become the need for
the business due to the tough competition. So many companies are doing different research for
their own development of the organization. Research often helps in discovering what people
want, need, or believe. It can also involve discovering how they act. Once that research is
completed, the outcome can be used to improve the business. So, there are different types of
research which is carried by the companies. The most common example is that the companies are
doing research for finding out that how many visitors pay attention to the bill boards during the
travel. So, in this way the companies measure the number of the times the visitor pay attention
during the traveling and how they get influence from that advertisement on the bill boards.
Similarly, many companies are doing their research on the consumer eating habits to check that
how the consumer likes to eat in a specific environment. So, the research is very important in the
business areas and it is significant in any business to aid decision making.
Academic point of view: Research is an important component of academic studies and
development. Research is not always a concept that practitioners, managers and policy makers
respect. Too often it is seen as an academic activity conducted by others and it should be
respected. In fact, the education professionals are always learning, finding out things, analyzing
information, adapting their behavior according to information received, looking to improve and
adapting to modern demands, all of which constitutes research. So, research plays a vital role in
academics for learning and adapting new knowledge, facts and information.
27
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10. Appendixes:
Descriptive Analysis:
Frequency Table:
Table: 1
GENDER
N Valid 50
Missing 0
GENDER
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid MALE 31 62.0 62.0 62.0
FEMALE 19 38.0 38.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
31
Table: 2
AGE
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid 15-25 17 34.0 34.0 34.0
26-35 27 54.0 54.0 88.0
36-45 5 10.0 10.0 98.0
46ANDABOV
E
1 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
32
Table: 3
INCOME
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid 0-5000 7 14.0 14.0 14.0
5000-16000 14 28.0 28.0 42.0
16000-26000 16 32.0 32.0 74.0
26000-36000 4 8.0 8.0 82.0
ABOVE36000 9 18.0 18.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
33
Cross tabulation Table:
Table: 4
34
Table: 5
Table: 6
2. Reliability Analysis:
Reliability Table:
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Table: 7
Case Processing Summary
N %
35
Cases Valid 50 100.0
Excludeda
0 .0
Total 50 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in
the procedure.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.881 6
Table: 8
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q7 Q8 Q9 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.497 3
Table: 9
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q10 Q11 Q12 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.848 3
36
Table: 10
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q13 Q14 Q15 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.714 3
Table: 11
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q16 Q17 Q18 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.866 3
Table:12
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q19 Q20 Q21 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
37
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.765 3
Table: 13
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q22 Q23 Q24 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.814 3
Table: 14
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28 Q29 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.789 5
Table: 15
RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q30 Q31 Q32 Q33 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.498 4
Hypothesis Analysis:
Spearson’s Tables:
38
Table: 16
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
KNOWLEDGE
Spearman's rho BRAND
SATISFACTION
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .396**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .004
N 50 50
BRAND
KNOWLEDGE
Correlation Coefficient .396**
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 17
.Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
EXPERIENCE
Spearman's rho BRAND
SATISFACTION
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .488**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 50 50
BRAND EXPERIENCE Correlation Coefficient .488**
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 18
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
TRUST
Spearman's rho BRAND
SATISFACTION
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .410**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .003
N 50 50
39
BRAND TRUST Correlation Coefficient .410**
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 19
Correlations
BRAND
TRUST
BRAND
LOYALITY
Spearman's rho BRAND TRUST Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .381**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .006
N 50 50
BRAND
LOYALITY
Correlation Coefficient .381**
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .006 .
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 20
Correlation
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
Spearman's rho BRAND
SATISFACTION
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .164
Sig. (2-tailed) . .256
N 50 50
40
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient .164 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .256 .
N 50 50
Table: 21
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
Spearman's rho BRAND
SATISFACTION
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .347*
Sig. (2-tailed) . .014
N 50 50
CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient .347*
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .014 .
N 50 50
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table: 22
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
BRAND
LOYALITY
Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .367**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .009
N 50 50
BRAND LOYALITY Correlation Coefficient .367**
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .009 .
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
41
Table: 23
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
REPURCHAS
E INTENTION
Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .273
Sig. (2-tailed) . .055
N 50 50
REPURCHASE
INTENTION
Correlation Coefficient .273 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .055 .
N 50 50
Table: 24
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
ADVOCAC
Y
Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .118
Sig. (2-tailed) . .413
N 50 50
ADVOCACY Correlation Coefficient .118 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .413 .
N 50 50
42
Table: 25
Correlations
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
REPURCHAS
E INTENTION
Spearman's rho AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .338*
Sig. (2-tailed) . .016
N 50 50
REPURCHASE
INTENTION
Correlation Coefficient .338*
1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .016 .
N 50 50
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table: 26
Correlations
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
ADVOCAC
Y
Spearman's rho AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .263
Sig. (2-tailed) . .065
N 50 50
ADVOCACY Correlation Coefficient .263 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .065 .
N 50 50
43
Pearson Tables:
Table: 27
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
KNOWLEDGE
BRAND
SATISFACTION
Pearson Correlation 1 .468**
Sig. (2-tailed) .001
N 50 50
BRAND
KNOWLEDGE
Pearson Correlation .468**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 28
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
EXPERIENCE
BRAND
SATISFACTION
Pearson Correlation 1 .667**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
BRAND EXPERIENCE Pearson Correlation .667**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
44
Table :29
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
BRAND
TRUST
BRAND
SATISFACTION
Pearson Correlation 1 .588**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
BRAND TRUST Pearson Correlation .588**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 30
Correlations
BRAND
TRUST
BRAND
LOYALITY
BRAND TRUST Pearson Correlation 1 .533**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
BRAND
LOYALITY
Pearson Correlation .533**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
45
Table: 31
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
BRAND
SATISFACTION
Pearson Correlation 1 .426**
Sig. (2-tailed) .002
N 50 50
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation .426**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .002
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table: 32
Correlations
BRAND
SATISFACTIO
N
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
BRAND
SATISFACTION
Pearson Correlation 1 .410**
Sig. (2-tailed) .003
N 50 50
CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation .410**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .003
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
46
Table: 33
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
BRAND
LOYALITY
CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation 1 .355*
Sig. (2-tailed) .011
N 50 50
BRAND LOYALITY Pearson Correlation .355*
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .011
N 50 50
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table: 34
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
REPURCHAS
E INTENTION
CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation 1 .376**
Sig. (2-tailed) .007
N 50 50
REPURCHASE
INTENTION
Pearson Correlation .376**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .007
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
47
Table: 35
Correlations
CONTINUOU
S
COMMITMEN
T
ADVOCAC
Y
CONTINUOUS
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation 1 .161
Sig. (2-tailed) .264
N 50 50
ADVOCACY Pearson Correlation .161 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .264
N 50 50
Table: 36
Correlations
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
REPURCHAS
E INTENTION
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation 1 .514**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
REPURCHASE
INTENTION
Pearson Correlation .514**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
48
Table: 37
Correlations
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMEN
T
ADVOCAC
Y
AFFECTIVE
COMMITMENT
Pearson Correlation 1 .445**
Sig. (2-tailed) .001
N 50 50
ADVOCACY Pearson Correlation .445**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001
N 50 50
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
4. RegressionAnalysis:
Table: 38
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
1 BRAND
KNOWLEDGE
, BRAND
TRUST,
BRAND
EXPERIENCEa
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
49
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .714a
.509 .477 .71596
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRAND KNOWLEDGE,BRAND
TRUST, BRAND EXPERIENCE
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 24.465 3 8.155 15.909 .000a
Residual 23.580 46 .513
Total 48.045 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRAND KNOWLEDGE,BRAND TRUST,BRAND
EXPERIENCE
b. Dependent Variable: BRAND SATISFACTION
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .805 .478 1.683 .099
BRANDTRUST .318 .131 .307 2.425 .019
BRANDEXPERIENC
E
.520 .161 .484 3.227 .002
BRANDKNOWLEDG
E
.016 .172 .013 .095 .925
a. Dependent Variable: BRANDSATISFACTION
Table: 39
50
Variables Entered/Removedb
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
1 BRANDSATIS
FACTIONa
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
b. Dependent Variable:
AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .426a
.181 .164 .77956
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 6.450 1 6.450 10.613 .002a
Residual 29.170 48 .608
Total 35.620 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION
b. Dependent Variable: AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.901 .432 4.404 .000
BRANDSATISFACTI
ON
.366 .112 .426 3.258 .002
a. Dependent Variable: AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
51
Table: 40
Variables Entered/Removedb
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
1 BRANDSATIS
FACTIONa
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
b. Dependent Variable:
CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .410a
.168 .151 1.06590
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 11.030 1 11.030 9.708 .003a
Residual 54.535 48 1.136
Total 65.564 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION
b. Dependent Variable: CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
52
1 (Constant) .982 .590 1.665 .102
BRANDSATISFACTI
ON
.479 .154 .410 3.116 .003
a. Dependent Variable: CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT
Table: 41
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
1 CONTINUOU
SCOMMITME
NT,
AFFECTIVEC
OMMITMENT
a
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .535a
.286 .256 .86039
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,
AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 13.965 2 6.982 9.432 .000a
Residual 34.793 47 .740
Total 48.758 49
53
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,
AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
b. Dependent Variable: REPURCHASEINTENTION
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.296 .492 2.635 .011
AFFECTIVECOMMITM
ENT
.506 .164 .433 3.093 .003
CONTINUOUSCOMMIT
MENT
.147 .121 .171 1.219 .229
a. Dependent Variable: REPURCHASEINTENTION
Table: 42
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
1 CONTINUOU
SCOMMITME
NT,
AFFECTIVEC
OMMITMENT
a
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
Model Summary
54
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .448a
.201 .167 1.07390
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,
AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 13.627 2 6.814 5.908 .005a
Residual 54.204 47 1.153
Total 67.831 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,
AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
b. Dependent Variable: ADVOCACY
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.883 .614 3.066 .004
AFFECTIVECOMMITM
ENT
.655 .204 .475 3.208 .002
CONTINUOUSCOMMIT
MENT
-.065 .151 -.064 -.432 .668
a. Dependent Variable: ADVOCACY
Table: 43
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
Variables
Entered
Variables
Removed Method
55
1 CONTINUOU
SCOMMITME
NT,
BRANDTRUS
T,
BRANDSATIS
FACTIONa
. Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 .620a
.384 .344 .82491
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,
BRANDTRUST,BRANDSATISFACTION
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 19.518 3 6.506 9.561 .000a
Residual 31.302 46 .680
Total 50.820 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,BRANDTRUST,
BRANDSATISFACTION
b. Dependent Variable: BRANDLOYALITY
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients t Sig.
56
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .695 .496 1.400 .168
BRANDSATISFACTION .346 .153 .336 2.263 .028
BRANDTRUST .315 .154 .295 2.040 .047
CONTINUOUSCOMMIT
MENT
.099 .113 .112 .875 .386
a. Dependent Variable: BRANDLOYALITY
Questionnaire
Personal Information:
1. Male Female
2. Age: 15-25
26-35
36-45
46 and above
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Please circle the number, which most closely responds to your thinking.
Seria
l No.
TD MD
ND
or A
D TA
Brand Satisfaction:
3. Income per month: 0 – 5,000 Taka
5,000 – 16,000 Taka
16,000 - 26,000 Taka
26,000 - 36,000 Taka
Above 36,000 Taka
1= Totally Disagree (TD) 2= Moderately Disagree (MD)
3 = Neither Disagree norAgree (NDorA)
4= Disagree (D) 5= TotallyAgree (TA)
57
1
I am satisfied with the online marketers’ (Bikroy.com, Akhoni.com,
Shohoz.com, Ajkerdeal.com, Priyoshop.com, iFeri.com,
buy24.com.bd, Carmudi.com) products. 1 2 3 4 5
2 I am satisfied with the online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
3 I am pleased with online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
4 If I could do it again, I would buy these online marketers’ Products. 1 2 3 4 5
5 I feel good about my decision to get online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5
6 I am happy with these online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5
Affective Commitment:
7 I feel emotionally attached to these online marketers’ Products. 1 2 3 4 5
8
These online marketers have a great deal of personal meaning for
me. 1 2 3 4 5
9 I feel a strong sense of identification with these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
Continuance Commitment:
10
It would be very hard for me to switch away from these online
marketers right now even if I wanted to. 1 2 3 4 5
11
My life would be disrupted if I switch away from these online
marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
12
It would be too costly for me to switch from these online marketers
right now. 1 2 3 4 5
Repurchase Intentions:
13 These online marketers are my first choice for online products. 1 2 3 4 5
14 The next time if I need any online product I will buy from this
online marketer.
1 2 3 4 5
15 I will continue to be a loyal customer to these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
Advocacy:
58
16 I will say positive things about these online marketers to other
people.
1 2 3 4 5
17 I will recommend these online marketers to someone who seeks my
advice.
1 2 3 4 5
18 I will encourage my friends and relatives to do business with these
online marketers.
1 2 3 4 5
Brand Loyalty:
19
I will buy these online marketers products next time when I buy a
product. 1 2 3 4 5
20 I intend to keep purchasing these online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5
21
The next time I buy a product for a gift, I will buy this online
marketers’ product. 1 2 3 4 5
Brand Trust:
22 These online marketers’ brands are safe. 1 2 3 4 5
23 I trust these online marketers’ brand. 1 2 3 4 5
24 This is the honest online shops. 1 2 3 4 5
Brand Experience:
25 I am very confident in choosing online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5
26
I have a great deal of experience in buying these online marketers’
products. 1 2 3 4 5
27 I frequently shop in online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5
28 I am familiar with many online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5
29
I have used or been exposed to online marketers’ products a lot in
the past. 1 2 3 4 5
Brand Knowledge:
30
I pay attention to online marketers’ ads or product
information in magazine or on TV. 1 2 3 4 5
31 My friends often ask for my advice about online marketers’ 1 2 3 4 5
59
products.
32 I know a lot of online marketers’ brand products 1 2 3 4 5
33
How do you rate your knowledge of online marketers’
products to your family and friends?
1 Positive Negative
2 Favorable Unfavorable
3 Good Bad
4 Like Dislike

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Brand Advocacy of Online Shopping in Bangladesh

  • 1. 1 “Business Research Methods” MBA 504 (Section-1) Group-6 “Brand Advocacyof Online Shopping in Bangladesh” Submitted To: Mohammed Sohel Islam Senior Lecturer Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Submitted By Name ID Md. Mehraj Hossain 1630785 Sadia Raisa 1620965 Amena Akter 1621171 Khadizatull Kobra 1610756 A H M Aman 1630822 Date of Submission: 20th November, 2016
  • 2. 2 Serial No Items Page Number Executive Summary 3 1 Introduction 3-5 2 Statement of the problem 6 3 Purpose of the study 6 4 Review of Literature 7-11 Diagram 12 5 Questions and Hypotheses 13 6 The Research Design – Methods and Procedures 14-15 6.1 Sampling 15 6.2 Instruments 16 6.3 Data collection 16-17 6.4 Data analysis 17-25 7 Limitations 26 8 Significance of Study 26 9 References 27-29 10 Appendixes 30-58
  • 3. 3 Executive Summary Online shopping -The act of purchasing products or services over the Internet. Online shopping has grown in popularity over the years, mainly because people find it convenient and easy to bargain shop from the comfort of their home or office. One of the most enticing factor about online shopping, particularly during a holiday season, is it alleviates the need to wait in long lines or search from store to store for a particular item. Our target area is about the perception of consumer of online shopping in Bangladesh. After collecting the information, we start our analyzing procedure to make our survey more reliable. At first we do descriptive analysis like different age, income, gender try to find out their buying behavior considering the following issues, and then we do reliability analysis to collect multiple measures of the same construct. In reliability analysis to collect multiples measures of the same construct. Then we analyze our all variables and compare alpha value (should be between 0.5-.6 which is sufficient, .7 above is desirable) Next we do our hypothesis testing the statistical relationship between the data sets and this is compared as an alternative to an idealize null hypothesis and identifying conceptual types of error and by specifying parameter limit types of error and by specifying parametric limits on how much error will be permitted. Finally, we do regression analysis. In statistic, the co-efficient of determination, donated R2, in an analysis model, the estimation helps us predict the future outcomes.
  • 4. 4 1. Introduction Online shopping is one of the important part of internet, which helps customers to order product, view product range, compare price and it also saves customers time. Bangladesh is a fast growing country in South East Asia due to impact of globalization internet users are increasing rapidly which consists of online shoppers as well. Online shopping is a part of E-commerce which is known as electronic commerce, any transaction that has been done through internet. Online shopping grabs a huge market in western countries like USA, UK, Germany, Japan and E.T.C; Most of the well-known companies have online stores to full fill the demand of online shoppers. In Bangladesh sources of online shopping are Facebook.com and various famous website like Daraaz.com, Bikroy.com, Lamudi.com, Cellbazar.com, Foodpanda.com and many more. These are the website which sales varieties of product starting from foods, clothes, electronics, apartments, lands, etc. In the business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce cycle activity, consumers use Internet for many reasons and purposes such as: Searching for product features, prices or reviews, selecting products and services through Internet, placing the order, making payments, or any other means which is then followed by delivery of the required products through Internet, or other means and last is sales service through Internet or other mean. There has been a shift towards online shopping due to ease, comfort, convenience, cost saving, timesaving and quick delivery as compared to conventional or traditional shopping. Brand advocacy is more than just a strategy — it’s a philosophy that permeates every aspect of your business. People who love your brand will introduce you to new customers, efficiently driving new revenue, business intelligence and scale in ways that advertising and traditional marketing simply cannot. The key is identifying your true advocates and then building programs to nurture and capture brand advocacy as it happens. (ciceron.com). for startups and small businesses, when it comes to allocating money, value is the most important word. We all seek to gain maximum value and exposure with limited budgets. Cultivating brand advocacy can be a low-cost, high-return marketing strategy. Brand advocacy, done right, means building a community. Ensure that we are monitoring the conduct of our community; we are engaging with the community so they know the company is listening and carefully analyze how the community is helping to drive customer acquisition, reduce product issues, grow sales, and drive traffic.
  • 5. 5 The consumer is currently facing the Brand choice ability, brand similarity problems and Brand satisfaction issues influencing and changing the consumption patterns of human life and activities on Bangladesh market. As there are so many similar types of brands increasing in the market so people can search the entire product and compare them easily. And if the consumer can find a product of better quality with reasonable price they easily shift to the other brand. Some Brands are making so many commitments about consumer satisfaction but sometimes they don’t fulfill their commitment to the customer and that’s why brand image creates a negative impact on the entire market. Customer commitment that has been applied in many businesses-to- business and consumer services contexts also seems to apply in the context of a consumer brand relationship. (Bansal et al., 2004; Gilliland & Bello, 2002; Fullerton, 2003; Gruen et al., 2000). Sometimes Brand purchasing depends on the consumer personality then these consumer to continue to buy this particular retail brand. Continuance commitment weakly positive effect on customer repurchase, it had a negative impact on advocacy intentions towards the retail brand. When consumers feel a state of dependence on a brand, they will respond to this felt state by withholding positive word of mouth communications. Brand satisfaction is an important driver of loyalty toward a product or a brand. Consumers who are more satisfied with a brand will be more likely to continue purchasing the brand. If any brand creates brand loyalty and brand trust to the customer then they have already fulfill brand satisfaction in customer mind and it also reduced the negative impact on brand satisfaction by using repurchase on this brand. By taking insights from available media, we analyzed to predict the brand advocacy by accessing the customer journey – both consumer and commercial. We are able to signify the brand advocacy in terms through the multi-point sentiment scoring technique, which has the capability to score over a pin-point magnitude measurement. The successful results support that the proposed algorithms effectively work in this task. The study examines the consumers' attitude towards the brands in Bangladesh. The results of the study show that brand satisfaction is central independent variable for brand loyalty in the industry and all other factors are dependent variable. Consumers who are more satisfied with a brand will be more likely to continue purchasing the brand
  • 6. 6 2. Statement of the problem: Now a day’s growing number of consumers shop online, to purchase goods and services, gather information about different products. Even browse to keep them updated with the latest trends and fashions. (Catherine, Amenda, 2006). Online shopping environments are therefore playing an increasing vital role in the overall relationship between marketers and their consumers. Consumers can shop online in several different ways, thus some may perceive online shopping as an online market place(Bikroy.com,E–bay.com,Carmudi.com,Shohoz.com,Akhoni.com,Ajker deal,com), while others view it as something else([e.g online auction] [e.g eBay, Lelong], online retailing [e.g. Zappos], Online group buying [e.g Groupon, Living Social]), leading to analysis of incorrect measurement ( Weng Lim, 2014). There is plenty of statistical and economic study about customer for brand advocacy of physical store shopping, but there is not enough research on measuring the brand advocacy of customers on online shoppers in Bangladesh. There are lots of differences in strategy formulation between online line shopping and traditional shopping. There are lots of differences in communication strategy between online and traditional shopping system. There needs lots of adaptation when a person go online from traditional shopping system. Strategic change of online shopping system is faster. Now a day, there are rapid and fast developments in information technologies industry and competition increases day by day due to increase attention of consumers towards online shopping. So online marketers should concern about this. The best retailer is based on their experiences on web. Online consumers also increase their expectations and they are set by their experience with online retailers across the Web. It is very important to know that what kind of things and strategies help to increase sales in this fierce competition in market with high expectation of online consumers. In our research, we mainly focus on “Why consumers give special emphasis to a particular brand on online shopping based on different attributes”. 3. Purpose of the Study: 1. To understand the effect of online flow of elements on online shopping experiences. 2. To illustrate the relationship between marketing science and information technology. 3. To provide a fit between online consumers and the online interface with which they interact. 4. To create interactive medium between consumer and seller. 5. To change the traditional buying nature of consumers. 6. To develop product variation as it is quite impossible to access all those products at the same time.
  • 7. 7 4. Review of Literature: A brand is generally a name and a symbol. It is an important means which helps creating a positive image on consumers and being different from rival products (Kotler, 2004). It provides significant contributions to enterprises to make them create their loyal customer group and retain their market shares. Loyal customers are loyal consumers of the brand and perform repeat purchases and recommend the brand to those around. Brand Experience: Customer experience arises from a set of interactions between the customer, product and/or the company. Experience is something that is formed in the mind of the customer and therefore it is personal and different for each individual. The way an experience is perceived is based on customer’s own beliefs and perceptions (Klaus &Maklan, 2007; Gentile et al., 2007). Brand experience is therefore conceptualized as sensations, feeling, cognition's and behavioral responses that are evoked by brand related stimuli such as a brands design, identity, packaging, communication, as well as the brand environment (Brakus et al., 2009). When someone uses a brand the experience he has got from it is usually called the brand experience. The senses included are sight, sound, smell, touch and taste (Hultén, 2011). Sight however, is the most prominent of the senses since it is most likely to discover changes in the environment and create value for the customer (Hultén, 2011; Parsons, 2011). The goal with sensory marketing is to create a value-process for the customer as well as engaging them in the brand. It is a tool used to differentiate a product from the competitors on the market (Hultén, 2011). Parsons (2011) agrees with Hultén (2011) stating that, sensory marketing is important for retailers to consider for the reason that nowadays sensory stimuli is a way of differentiating the retail environment from competitors and to create an experience. Brand experience can be defined as customer’s perception of the interaction with the brand such as the brand image shown in advertising, personal contact or the level of quality concerning the personal treatment that the customers receive (Alloza, 2008). An experience is created when customers use the brand such talking about the brand, seek for brand information, promotions and events (Ambler et al., 2002). Furthermore, brand experience is a process that includes several parts of the shopping experience, starting when the customer begin the search for information about the product and then continues the shopping decision has been made and finally consumed (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Brakus et al., 2009). Experience is also concerned with familiarity and knowledge within a certain area, which is derived from brand exposure and previous encounters with the brand (Braunsberger& Munch, 1998). Therefore, brand experience can be looked upon as an encounter between the customer and the brand (Şahin et al., 2011). In order to be able to provide customers with the best brand 8 experience as possible, it is importance to establish a close relationship with the customers. This since, a strong relationship is built on customer’s positive experiences with the brand (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). The brand must also deliver the brand promise and be consistent in all actions (Dall'Olmo Riley & De Chernatony, 2000; Brodie et al., 2009) since,
  • 8. 8 a positive experience is more likely to drive customers to repeat that experience in the future (Şahin et al., 2011). Experiences have a tendency to influence memories, more than the actual features and benefits of a product (Westbrook & Oliver 1991; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). Hence, a brand experience has to be able to capture customers’ emotions during the consumption process. For that reason, brand experience is perceived as a marketing tool in order to deepen the relationship and connection to the brand, since experiences are memorized (Westbrook & Oliver, 1991). Including attributes to the brand experience such as something vivid making the brand differentiate in the market, it is more likely to be memorable than product itself as well as gain competitive advantage (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Iglesias et al., 2011). One-way of making the brand more vivid and memorable is as stated earlier by sensory marketing (Hultén, 2011). Brand Satisfaction: Brand satisfaction can be described as an affective, emotional, response to a purchase situation and the positive reaction from previous experience with a brand (Anderson &Narus, 1990; Dick &Basu, 1994; Bennet et al., 2005; White & Yu, 2005). It can be perceived as the outcome and fulfillment response from pleasure related to the consumption, which leads to a long-term relationship (Oliver, 1999). This relationship is what Algesheimer et al., (2005) claims to be the brand satisfaction with the degree to which the customer views the brand as satisfactory partner in an ongoing relationship. Customer satisfaction is closely related to expectation and the spreading of word-of-mouth. It can be perceived as an ongoing cycle, since expectations are created before the actual purchase and based on word-of-mouth, which impacts the experience either positively or negatively. Expectations put a lot of pressure on the brand since, the more expectations customers may have can affect the degree to which the customer is satisfied and therefore the customer loyalty. For a company, having satisfied customers often means positive word-of-mouth and higher expectations, however can also be the other way around (Dick &Basu, 1994; Athanassopoulos et al., 2001; Wangenheim&Bayón, 2006). Satisfaction can be looked upon as a source of brand loyalty (Bennett et al., 2005; Punniyamoorthy et al., 2007) Customer loyalty is the outcome of having satisfied customers and perceived as cognitive and emotional component (Mano & Oliver 1993; Hong-Youl& Perks 2005). It is an affective reaction to the consumption experience (Mano & Oliver, 1993), while the cognitive component consists of the standard expectations created in the mind of the customer (Hong-Youl& Perks 2005). These standards are based upon customers’ expectations, previous experiences and/or word-of-mouth. This is met if the brand manages to deliver what the customer expect or even exceed factors needs to be considered, being emotional and functional (Liljander&Strandvik, 1997; Mosley, 2007). Therefore, it is essential to investigate customer’s demands in order to keep them satisfied in an ongoing relationship (Algesheimer et al., 2005).
  • 9. 9 Brand Trust: Brand trust refers to the willingness of the average customer to rely on the ability of a brand to deliver its stated function (Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005). A brand is perceived to be a trust mark for all intangible trust-generating activities such as a symbol of quality (Keller, 2003; Bart et al., 2005). This is important to create a sustainable customer brand relationship. Therefore, trust itself can be defined as customers’ beliefs that they can rely that the seller to deliver what they promised and connecting to rational values. These rational values are believed to be customer perceptions of benefits gained versus the cost of having a relationship with the brand (Agustin & Singh, 2005). Brand trust can be divided into two dimensions. The first dimension is reliability, which is referred to having the ability and willingness to keep promises and satisfying customers’ needs. The second dimension is referred to the attribution of good intentions to the brand in relation to the customers’ interest and welfare (Şahin et al., 2011). Having a trustworthy image will provide a long-term relationship. However, it is a process that is built up over time, since customers are more likely to trust what they are familiar with and can associate with (Agustin 10 & Singh, 2005; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Bowden, 2009). Therefore, brand trust can also be seen as a part of the customers’ evaluation test, which is based upon their own beliefs and assumptions (Bowden, 2009). Since trust is essential in the building of customer brand relationship and positively connected to brand loyalty adding familiarity will improve customers’ trust (Bowden, 2009; Hong-Youl& Perks, 2005; Chiou& Chang, 2006; Şahin et al., 2011). Moreover, customers build their trust for a brand based upon their expectations and experience. If these are met it will be reflected in brand loyalty (Horppu et al., 2008). Brand Loyalty: Brand loyalty is defined as a deeply held commitment to a preferred product or service consistently in the future, repeated purchase and commitment despite the situational influences and marketing efforts which have the potential to cause switching behavior (Algesheimer et al., 2005; Şahin et al., 2011). In the process of building brand loyalty, customer brand relationship is a crucial factor (Chiou& Chang, 2006). This since, brand experience leads to brand loyalty by creating emotional connections by engaging compelling and a consistent context, where the context is the environment the encounter occurs (Şahin et al., 2011). Including emotional aspect to the building of brand loyalty is also valuable since emotions are memorable increasing loyalty (Mano & Oliver, 1993). Some researchers argue that brand loyalty is the outcome of brand experience, brand satisfaction and brand trust. Since a positive brand experience affects brand satisfaction from customer trusting the brand, will provide a bigger loyalty (Şahin et al., 2011). Hong-Youl and Perks (2005) claim that, a positive relationship between the variables exists and therefore important to be able to provide customers a security with the brand. A security is based on the beliefs that the brand is
  • 10. 10 reliable and concerned with the welfare of the customer. This is a factor that aids the building of brand trusts and brand loyalty (Delgado- Ballester&MunueraAlemán, 2001). According to Dick and Basu (1994) there are four different types of loyalty. These are no loyalty, spurious loyalty, latent loyalty and loyalty. No loyalty states that there is no existing loyalty towards a specific brand. Spurious loyalty is characterized by non-attitudinal influences on behavior, meaning that the customer sees a little difference between brands. Latent loyalty, states that there is a high level of relative attitude and lastly loyalty in which a customer shows 11 preference towards a brand and communicates this attitude towards others. The goal is of course to gain loyalty (Dick &Basu, 1994). Moreover, brand loyalty is also a part of the communication and relationship building process (Rowley, 2009; Şahin et al., 2011). This since having a well-established communication with the customers is the main step in creating a strong customer relationship (Rowley, 2009). Furthermore, the ability to create a strong brand loyalty is reflected in the company’s values that might provide entry barriers for new competitors and increase the ability to respond to emerging threats on the market, increase sales and revenues and a customer base that is less sensitive to the marketing efforts by competing brands (Delgado- Ballester&MunueraAlemán, 2001). What needs to be noted is that customer loyalty is an important part of brand loyalty, since it is the customers that are loyal to the brand. Customer loyalty has been described as both attitudinal and behavioral. This indicates that it is not only how the customers behave that determines their loyalty, but also how they portray the brand outwards to others that determine their loyalty. Loyalty is multidimensional and includes both repeated purchases as well as support for a provider and resistance towards price increases (Dick &Basu, 1994). Punniyamoorthy et al., (2007) further states that loyalty is affected by perceived value, trust, satisfaction and commitment. Affective Commitment: Commitment refers to an enduring desire to continue the relationship with a brand (Suh and Han, 2003).Consumers are willing to improve and sustain an affective bond with the brand that makes consumers feel warm and enjoyable. At the same time, consumers with high brand commitment would have stronger affective attachment for the brand (Keh et al., 2007). Commitment is divided into two as affective and continuance commitment. Affective commitment is the emotional connection with the brand which represents strong sense of personal identifications. Affective brand commitment is based on identification and shared values with the brand (Pring, 2007). In evaluating affective commitment for some important brands, Mc Alexander, Schouten and Koenig (2002) found affective commitment explains the deep attachment to the focused brands. A study by Verhoef (2003) in the banking services found the direct result of affective commitment on repurchases intention. At the same time brand satisfaction, brand equity and perceived brand behavior. Bran (Aaker, 2004). Customers with high brand loyalty are defined as customers who repeatedly buy a brand and feel strong commitment to the brand (Baldinger and Rubinson, 1996). Customers who are committed to the brand become loyal customers of that
  • 11. 11 brand and exhibit the behavior of repeat purchases. Repurchase intentions are usually identified with brand commitment. However, there is an important difference between them. Brand commitment means a relationship similar to a friendship a consumer develops for the brand. Repeat purchase is explained as the purchase of the brand because it is cheaper or there is no other brand ( 1997). Continuance Commitment: Continuance commitment is also an increasingly well-studied construct in relationship marketing (Anderson &Weitz, 1992; Bansal et al., 2004; Fullerton, 2003;Gilliland& Bello, 2002; Gruen et al., 2000; Harrison-Walker, 2001), with its roots in scarcity of alternatives,side-bets, and switching costs. When consumers experience continuance commitment they are bound to their relational partner because it is difficult to get out of the relationship or they perceive few alternatives outside the existing relationship. In business-to-business environments, contractual arrangements are one of the main mechanisms of maintaining relationships (Anderson & Weitz, 1992). The effect of contracts is that they both limit the alternatives available to partners and they also impose switching costs on partners in the event they decide to exit the relationship. In consumer services, continuance commitment exists in a relationship when a service agreement is in force, as in the case of many communications services or when a customer's membership in a loyalty program creates a side-bet in the focal service relationship (Fullerton, 2003).
  • 12. 12 Diagram of the Research Model: Brand Knowledge Brand Experience Repurchase Intention Brand Trust Affective Commitment Brand Satisfaction Advocacy Intention Brand Loyalty Continuance Commitment
  • 13. 13 5. Questions and Hypotheses 1) Is there any relationship between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction? Ho1 There is no relation between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction Ha1 There is a relation between Brand Knowledge and Brand satisfaction. 2) Is there any relationship between Brand experience and Brand satisfaction? Ho2 There is no relation between Brand experience and Brand satisfactions. Ha2 There is a relation between Brand experience and Brand satisfaction. 3) Is there any relationship between Brand trust and Brand satisfaction? Ho3 There is no relation between Brand trust and Brand satisfaction. Ha3 There is a relation between Brand trust and Brand satisfactions. 4) Is there any relationship between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty? Ho4 There is no relation between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty. Ha4 There is a relation between Brand trust and Brand Loyalty. 5) Is there any relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment? Ho5 There is no relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment. Ha5 There is a relation between Brand Satisfaction and Affective commitment. 6) Is there any relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment? Ho6 There is no relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment. Ha6 There is a relation between Brand Satisfaction and continuance commitment. 7) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty? Ho7 There is no relation between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty. Ha7 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Brand Loyalty. 8) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention? Ho8 There is no relationship between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention. Ha8 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Repurchase Intention. 9) Is there any relationship between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention? H09 There is no relation between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention. Ha9 There is a relation between continuance commitment and Advocacy Intention. 10) Is there any relationship between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention? Ho10 There is no relation between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention. Ha10 There is a relation between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention. 11) Is there any relationship between Affective Commitment and Advocacy Intention? Ho11 There is no relation between Utilitarian value and Advocacy Intention. Ho11 There is a relation between Utilitarian value and Advocacy Intention.
  • 14. 14 6. The ResearchDesign-Methods and Procedures 1) The degree to which the research question has been crystallized: Formal Study: We select formal study because it is a well-organized research approach where hypotheses or research questions are clearly described. This approach also ensures standard procedure and specifies the data sources. 2) The method of data collection: Communication Study: We, the group members, select communication study because it is a direct way to communicate with people and collect information and response by personal or interpersonal means. This method is very much effective for the researchers. 3) The power of the research to produce effects in the variables under study: Ex post facto: In our research, we have no control over the variables in the sense of being able to manipulate them. This can only evaluate the facts based on measured variables and what has happened or happening. Here we are going to report the effects in the variable under our study. 4) The Purpose of the study: Causal study: In causal study one variable produces another variable or forces to occur. As the statement of the probability of our research will be based on what we observe, our research will be a causal study. In casual explanatory study, we try to explain relationship between dependent and independent variables which one variable produces changes in another variable. In our article, dependent variable is related in independent variable. 5) The Time Dimension study: Cross sectional study: This study will be carried out only once and it will represent a snapshot of one point in time. So, our research is considered to be a cross sectional study. 6) The tropical scope-breadth and depth-of the study: Statistical study: Statistical methods and analyses are often using to communicate research findings and to support hypotheses and give credibility to research methodology and conclusions. We are doing our research based on the statistical study because all the data and information are depending on quantitative data and the finding can be generalized. We have to understand not just the number but the meaning behind those numbers. Statistics is a tool to gather all the data which is required in the research. It should supplement our knowledge of the area that we researching. It is important for us to understand statistics so that they can be informed, evaluate the credibility and usefulness of information, and make appropriate decisions.
  • 15. 15 7) The Researchenvironment: Field condition: Our research is based on field condition because the survey is done with some samples. We can observe the current market, customers, and their preferences about the brand from the field study. We have collected some samples based on our area of our research. And by observing the samples we can assume the current scenario of the market and the brand and also the loyalty of the customer about any particular brand. 8) The participants’ perceptions of research activity: Actual routine: We have selected the actual routine method for our research because this research will not be modified or used by other researchers, therefore it will be not performed again. 6.1 Sampling: Unique: Online shopping has been a growing phenomenon in the world, in particular amongst countries possessing highly developed infrastructure available for marketing activities through the internet. Today, internet is not only a networking media, but also a global means of transaction for consumers. In Bangladesh, online shopping is emerging rapidly because of this user friendly. As this is the most convenient way to shop, the customer of this sector is also increasing day by day specially the age between 25-35 are eager to shop in online. Majority of them are students, job holders and housewives. While doing the research, we found the data from Google & Facebook that in Bangladesh, around 80% of the customers belong to Dhaka and rest of them are from Chittagong and Sylhet. Sample size: Sample size relates to how many people to pick for the study. According to the law of large numbers, the larger the sample size, the better the estimates, or the larger the sample the closer the "true" value of the population is approached. To collect the data for the study, a total of 50 questionnaires are distributed to the online marketer’s customers. Procedure: There are many sampling procedures that have been developed to ensure that a sample adequately represents the target population. As our research is “Qualitative research”, it involves non-probability convenient sampling. We have selected this because the information and data are available and easy to conduct. We will ensure that all the retrieved questionnaires are able to represent the population of the whole sample so that this study tests the representativeness of data for the sample and for the population.
  • 16. 16 6.2 Instrument: In our research questionnaires, we have used 4 demographic questions, like - gender, age, monthly income, occupation. Then we have set our questions based on the variables. Without demographic questions, we have 33 questions. All the items were measured using a five-point Likert scale with anchors ranging from ‘Totally disagree (1)’ to ‘Totally agree (5)’ without the 33 number question under the Brand knowledge variable. Only 33 number question was measured using a four-point Likert scale with anchors ranging from ‘Positive – Negative (1)’, ‘Favorable - Unfavorable (2)’, ‘Good – Bad (3)’, and ‘Like – Dislike (4)’. In our research we have 09 variables. The variables are Brand Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, Continuance Commitment, Repurchase Intention, Brand Advocacy, Brand Loyalty, Brand Trust, Brand Experience, and Brand Knowledge. For Brand Satisfaction we have 6 questions, Affective Commitment- 3 questions, Continuance Commitment- 3 questions, Repurchase Intention- 3 questions, Brand Advocacy- 3 questions, Brand Loyalty- 3 questions, Brand Trust- 3 questions, Brand Experience- 5 questions, Brand Knowledge- 4 questions. 6.3 Data Collection: There are two types of data collection process. They are Primary Data & Secondary Data. Primary Data are those collected for the first time. Secondary Data are those which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Primary Data: Online marketer’s Product is our research topic. For that we are going to collect the data through questionnaire. So, our primary data collection method is Questionnaire. Primary Data collection procedures deduced from the questionnaire of 33 questions. It was then evaluated and approved by our lecturer. The questions were incorporated into the quantitative study of questionnaire for measuring brand advocacy of online marketer’s product scores were obtained for each variable. . All data was entered into SPSS software program. For this research study, Non-probability convenience sampling was chosen because we selected the samples randomly. Interviews lasting about ten minutes were conducted with the respondents as well. The aim of the interviews was to give them the opportunity to express their feelings, beliefs and attitudes regarding the research questions of online marketers’ products. 1 = TotallyDisagree (TD) 2= Moderately Disagree (MD) 3= Neither Disagree nor Agree (NDorA) 4 = Disagree (D) 5= TotallyAgree (TA)
  • 17. 17 The study of the data was to determine how the variables measured and how the constructs are interrelated to one another. Secondary Data: We collect secondary data from different source of websites, books and journals as well as previously conducted surveys and findings on the Internet. We use internet to collect secondary data. 6.4 Data Analysis: 1. Descriptive Analysis: Frequency test:  From Table 1 we can see the sample consists of 31 males and 19 females. 62.0% of male and 38% of female participates in this survey.  Among the survey 17 respondents age were between 15-25 years, 27 respondents age were between 26-35, 5 respondents age were between 36-45 and 1 respondents age were 46 &Above from table 2.  There are five income ranges. 7 respondents which is 14% were in 0-5,000 tk. 14 respondents which is 28% were in 5,000-16,000tk., 16 respondents which is 32% were in 16,000-26,000tk., 4 respondents which is 8% were in 26,000-36,000tk., 9 respondents which is 18% were in above 36,000tk from Table 3. 2. Reliability Analysis: Cronbach’s alpha: Cronbach’s is a function of the number of items in a test, the average covariance between item- pairs, and the variance of the total score. It was first named alpha by Lee Cronbach in 1951, as he had intended to continue with further coefficients. The measure can be viewed as an extension of the Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20), which is an equivalent measure for dichotomous items. Alpha is not robust against missing data. Several other Greek letters have been used by later researchers to designate other measures used in a similar context. Somewhat related is the average variance extracted (AVE). Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of scale reliability. A "high" value for alpha does not imply that the measure is one-dimensional. If, in addition to measuring internal consistency, you wish to provide evidence that the scale in question is one-dimensional, additional analyses can be performed. Exploratory factor analysis is one method of checking
  • 18. 18 dimensionality. Technically speaking, Cronbach's alpha is not a statistical test - it is a coefficient of reliability (or consistency). Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. However, there is actually no lower limit to the coefficient. George and Mallery (2003) provide the following rules of thumb: Cronbach's alpha Internal consistency C ≥ 0.9 Excellent 0.9 > α ≥ 0.8 Good 0.8 > α ≥ 0.7 Acceptableor Desirable 0.7 > α ≥ 0.6 Questionable 0.6 > α ≥ 0.5 Poor or Sufficient 0.5 > α Unacceptable Source: 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronbach%27s_alpha 2. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html) Brand Satisfaction Table: 7 The six (6) Questions (Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q5,Q6) about Brand Satisfaction where Cronbach's Alpha is .881 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these six questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha.881 is good. Affective Commitment Table: 8 The three (3) Questions (Q7,Q8,Q9) about Affective Commitment whereCronbach's Alpha is .497 which is notsufficient. From the table, we can say that three questions are notreliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .497 is unacceptable, researcher should use different item in the future to make it acceptable. Continuous Commitment Table: 9 The three (3) Questions (Q10,Q11,Q12) about Continuous CommitmentCronbach's where Alpha is .848 which is desirable. From the table, we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .848 is good.
  • 19. 19 Repurchase Intention Table: 10 The three (3) Questions (Q13,Q14,Q15)about Repurchase Intention whereCronbach's Alpha is .714 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .714 is acceptable. Advocacy Table: 11 The three (3) Questions (Q16,Q17,Q18) about Advocacy whereCronbach's Alpha is .866 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .866 is good. Brand Loyalty Table: 12 The three (3) Questions (Q19,Q20,Q21)about Brand Loyalty whereCronbach's Alpha is .765 which is desirable. From the table we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .765 is acceptable. Brand Trust Table: 13 The three (3) Questions (Q22,Q23,Q24)about Brand Trust where Cronbach's Alpha is .814 which is desirable. From the table, we can say that these three questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .814 is good. Brand Experience Table: 14 The three (3) Questions (Q25,Q26,Q27,Q28,Q29) about Brand Experience whereCronbach's Alpha is .789 which is desirable. From the table, we can say that these five questions are reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .789 is acceptable. Brand Knowledge Table: 15 The four (4) Questions (Q30,Q31,Q32,Q33)about Brand knowledge whereCronbach's Alpha is .498 which is not sufficient. From the table, we can say that these three questions are not t reliable to measure the variable. According to Cronbach’s Alpha .498 is unacceptable,researcher should use different item in the future to make it acceptable.
  • 20. 20 3. Hypothesis Testing: Hypothesis testing is performed to check the relationships between the variables; it gives a clear out put about the research which is conducted. It is one of the most important parts of the research. In this research, we have basically 11 hypotheses which we have analyzed using spearman’s correlation, accordingly under the condition if the correlation coefficient ƿ(rho)≠0 and significance α (alpha) < 0.05, the obtained result will be either we reject null hypothesis or we failed to reject null hypothesis. Spearman’s Correlation is the easiest way to find the relationships but the best way to obtain hypothesis is using Pearson’s Correlation as it shows the strength and weakness of the relationship. We have also conducted the Pearson’s Correlation to test the strength and weakness of the relationship. Spearman’s correlation: The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s correlation, for short) is a nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. It is denoted by the symbol (or the Greek letter ρ, pronounced rho). The test is used for either ordinal variables or for continuous data that has failed the assumptions necessary for conducting the Pearson's product-moment correlation. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s correlation, for short) is a nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. It is denoted by the symbol (or the Greek letter ρ, pronounced rho). The test is used for either ordinal variables or for continuous data that has failed the assumptions necessary for conducting the Pearson's product-moment correlation. The ‘+’ sign indicates a positive correlation (the scores on one variable increase as the scores on the other variable increase). The ‘-’ sign indicates a negative correlation (the scores on one variable increase, the scores on the other variable decrease) • HØ (Null hypothesis): There is no relationship between the variables. • Ha (Alternative hypothesis): There is a relationship between the variables. • IF correlation coefficient ρ (Rho) ≠ 0 and significance α(alpha) < 0.05 That accepts alternative hypothesis Ha, which means there is a relationship between the two variables • If don’t fulfill the above conditions that accept alternative hypothesis Ha. This means there is no relationship. *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1-0.05) = .95 or 95% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is a better relationship between variables.
  • 21. 21 • **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1-0.01) = .99or 99% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is a good relationship between variables. • ***. Correlation is significant at the 0.001 level (2-tailed): That means there is (1- 0.001) = .999 or 99.9% probability of relationship between that variables. That means there is the best relationship between variables. (https://statistics.laerd.com/spss-tutorials/spearmans-rank-order-correlation-using-spss- statistics.php Spearman correlation summary: Brand knowledge & Brand Satisfaction: From Table: 16 In the relationship ρ= .396** which is ≠0 and α= .004 which is less than 0.05. So Ha1 is accepted. That means there is a relationship between brand satisfaction and brand knowledge. Brand Experience & Brand satisfaction: From Table: 17 In the relationship ρ= .488** which is ≠0 and α= 0 which is less than 0.05. So Ha2 is accepted. That means there is relationship between brand satisfaction and brand experience. Brand Experience & Brand Trust: From Table: 18 In the relationship ρ= .410** which is ≠0 and α= 0.003 which is less than 0.05. Ha3 is accepted. That means there is relationship between brand trust and brand experience. Brand Trust & Brand Loyalty: From Table: 19 In the relationship ρ= .381** which is ≠0 and α= 0.006 which is less than 0.05. Ha4 is accepted. That means there is relationship between brand trust and brand loyalty.
  • 22. 22 Brand Satisfaction& Affective Communication: From Table: 20 In the relationship ρ= .164** which is ≠0 and α= 0.256 which is not less than 0.05. Ho5 is accepted. This is null hypothesis that means there is no relationship between brand satisfaction and affective communication.Brand Satisfaction& Continuous Commitment: From Table: 21 In the relationship ρ= .347** which is ≠0 and α= 0.014 which is less than 0.05. Ha6 is accepted. That means there is relationship between brand satisfaction and continuous commitment. Continuous Commitment& Brand Loyalty: From Table: 22 In the relationship ρ= .367** which is ≠0 and α= 0.009 which is less than 0.05. Ha7 is accepted. That means there is relationship between continuous commitment and brand loyalty. Continuous Commitment& Repurchase Intention: From Table: 23 In the relationship ρ= .273** which is ≠0 and α= 0.055 which is not less than 0.05. Ho8 is accepted. This is a null hypothesis that means there is no relation between continuous commitment and repurchase intention. Continuous Commitment& Advocacy: From Table: 24 In the relationship ρ= .118** which is ≠0 and α= 0.473 which is not less than 0.05. Ho9 is accepted. This is a null hypothesis that means there is no relation between continuous commitment and advocacy. Affective Commitment& Repurchase intention: From Table: 25 In the relationship ρ= .338** which is ≠0 and α= 0.016 which is less than 0.05. Ha10 is accepted. That means there is relation between affective commitment and repurchase intention. Affective Commitment& Advocacy: From Table: 26
  • 23. 23 In the relationship ρ= .263** which is ≠0 and α= 0.065 which is not less than 0.05. Ho11 is accepted. That means there is no relationship between affective commitment and advocacy. Pearson’s Correlations Correlation is an effect size and so we can verbally describe the strength of the correlation using the guide that Evans (1996) suggests for the absolute value of r: -.19 “very weak” -.39 “weak” -.59 “moderate” -.79 “strong” -1.0 “very strong” The obtained results of both the method of testing hypothesis are illustrated in the Appendix section. Pearson’s Correlations Summary: Table: 27 H1 – The relationship between Brand Knowledge and Brand Satisfaction is moderate positive because the value of r is .46 Table: 28 H2- The relationship between Brand Experience and Brand Satisfaction is strongpositivebecause the value of r is .66 Table: 29 H3- The relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Satisfaction is moderate positive because the value of r is .58 Table: 30 H4- The relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty is moderate positive because the value of r is .53 Table: 31 H5- The relationship between Brand Satisfaction and Affective Commitment is moderate positive because the value of r is .42 Table: 32
  • 24. 24 H6- The relationship between Brand Satisfaction and Continuous Commitment is moderate positive because the value of r is .41 Table: 33 H7 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Brand Loyalty is weak positive because the value of r is .35 Table: 34 H8 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Repurchase Intention is weak positive because the value of r is .37 Table: 35 H9 – The relationship between Continuous Commitment and Advocacy is very weak positive because the value of r is .16 Table: 36 H10- The relationship between Affective Commitment and Repurchase Intention is moderate positive because the value of r is .51 Table: 37 H11- The relationship between Affective Commitment and Advocacy is moderate positive because the value of r is .44 3. RegressionAnalysis: Regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables. It includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. R² (square) values represent how much change of a dependent variable is explained by the change of independent variable. The standard equation of regression is 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 where y is the dependant variable, 𝑚𝑥 is the inter section point and c is the slope of the line where 𝑥 represents independent variable. In this research, we have conduct six regression analysis and the detailed information is enclosed in the appendix section.
  • 25. 25 R-squared is always between 0 and 100%:  0% indicates that the model explains none of the variability of the response data around its mean.  100% indicates that the model explains all the variability of the response data around its mean. Source: Mathematics with Application in Management and Economics by PRICHETT and SABER (7th Edition) Here is a small summary of the regression analysis according to the equation 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝐶 Table: 38 BRAND SATISFACTION is the dependent variable (y) and BRAND KNOWLEDGE, BRAND TRUST, BRAND EXPERIENCE are independent variables (x), thus the result represents that y changes explains only 50.9% by x. Table: 39 AFFECTIVE COMITTMENT is the dependent variable(y) and BRAND SATISFACTION is independent variables (x), thus y change explains only 18.1% by x. Table: 40 CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT is the dependent variable(y) and BRAND SATISFACTION is independent variables(x), therefore y change explains only 16.8% by x. Table: 41 REPURCHASEINTENTION is the dependent variable (y) and CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT, AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT are independent variables (x), thus the result represents that y changes explains only 28.6% by x. Table: 42 ADVOCACY is the dependent variable(y) and CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT, AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT is independent variables (x), and thus y change explains only 20.1% by x. Table: 43 BRANDLOYALITY is the dependent variable(y) and CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT, BRAND TRUST, BRAND SATISFACTION are independent variables (x), thus y change explains only 38.4% by x
  • 26. 26 7. Limitations: There are certain limitation of conducting and analyzing consumer behavior towards online shopping 1. Respondents may not feel encouraged to provide to accurate, honest answers. 2. Respondents may not feel comfortable providing answers, which preset themselves in an unfavorable manner. 3. Respondents may not be fully aware of their reasons for any given answer because of lack of knowledge about online shopping. 4. Data errors may happen at the time of data input. 5. We also don’t manage propose time and effort to survey our subject matter. 8. Significance ofthe study: Business point of view: Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems in the business. Research is very important in the Business. In business, the research is conduct to discover the changing trends, to measure the changing behavior of the specific location, market, demand, policies, and strategies. So, research has become the need for the business due to the tough competition. So many companies are doing different research for their own development of the organization. Research often helps in discovering what people want, need, or believe. It can also involve discovering how they act. Once that research is completed, the outcome can be used to improve the business. So, there are different types of research which is carried by the companies. The most common example is that the companies are doing research for finding out that how many visitors pay attention to the bill boards during the travel. So, in this way the companies measure the number of the times the visitor pay attention during the traveling and how they get influence from that advertisement on the bill boards. Similarly, many companies are doing their research on the consumer eating habits to check that how the consumer likes to eat in a specific environment. So, the research is very important in the business areas and it is significant in any business to aid decision making. Academic point of view: Research is an important component of academic studies and development. Research is not always a concept that practitioners, managers and policy makers respect. Too often it is seen as an academic activity conducted by others and it should be respected. In fact, the education professionals are always learning, finding out things, analyzing information, adapting their behavior according to information received, looking to improve and adapting to modern demands, all of which constitutes research. So, research plays a vital role in academics for learning and adapting new knowledge, facts and information.
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  • 30. 30 10. Appendixes: Descriptive Analysis: Frequency Table: Table: 1 GENDER N Valid 50 Missing 0 GENDER Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid MALE 31 62.0 62.0 62.0 FEMALE 19 38.0 38.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0
  • 31. 31 Table: 2 AGE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 15-25 17 34.0 34.0 34.0 26-35 27 54.0 54.0 88.0 36-45 5 10.0 10.0 98.0 46ANDABOV E 1 2.0 2.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0
  • 32. 32 Table: 3 INCOME Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 0-5000 7 14.0 14.0 14.0 5000-16000 14 28.0 28.0 42.0 16000-26000 16 32.0 32.0 74.0 26000-36000 4 8.0 8.0 82.0 ABOVE36000 9 18.0 18.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0
  • 34. 34 Table: 5 Table: 6 2. Reliability Analysis: Reliability Table: RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Table: 7 Case Processing Summary N %
  • 35. 35 Cases Valid 50 100.0 Excludeda 0 .0 Total 50 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .881 6 Table: 8 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q7 Q8 Q9 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .497 3 Table: 9 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q10 Q11 Q12 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .848 3
  • 36. 36 Table: 10 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q13 Q14 Q15 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .714 3 Table: 11 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q16 Q17 Q18 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .866 3 Table:12 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q19 Q20 Q21 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
  • 37. 37 Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .765 3 Table: 13 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q22 Q23 Q24 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .814 3 Table: 14 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28 Q29 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .789 5 Table: 15 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=Q30 Q31 Q32 Q33 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .498 4 Hypothesis Analysis: Spearson’s Tables:
  • 38. 38 Table: 16 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND KNOWLEDGE Spearman's rho BRAND SATISFACTION Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .396** Sig. (2-tailed) . .004 N 50 50 BRAND KNOWLEDGE Correlation Coefficient .396** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .004 . N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 17 .Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND EXPERIENCE Spearman's rho BRAND SATISFACTION Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .488** Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 N 50 50 BRAND EXPERIENCE Correlation Coefficient .488** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 18 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND TRUST Spearman's rho BRAND SATISFACTION Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .410** Sig. (2-tailed) . .003 N 50 50
  • 39. 39 BRAND TRUST Correlation Coefficient .410** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .003 . N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 19 Correlations BRAND TRUST BRAND LOYALITY Spearman's rho BRAND TRUST Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .381** Sig. (2-tailed) . .006 N 50 50 BRAND LOYALITY Correlation Coefficient .381** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .006 . N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 20 Correlation BRAND SATISFACTIO N AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T Spearman's rho BRAND SATISFACTION Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .164 Sig. (2-tailed) . .256 N 50 50
  • 40. 40 AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient .164 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .256 . N 50 50 Table: 21 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T Spearman's rho BRAND SATISFACTION Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .347* Sig. (2-tailed) . .014 N 50 50 CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient .347* 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .014 . N 50 50 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table: 22 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T BRAND LOYALITY Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .367** Sig. (2-tailed) . .009 N 50 50 BRAND LOYALITY Correlation Coefficient .367** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .009 . N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 41. 41 Table: 23 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T REPURCHAS E INTENTION Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .273 Sig. (2-tailed) . .055 N 50 50 REPURCHASE INTENTION Correlation Coefficient .273 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .055 . N 50 50 Table: 24 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T ADVOCAC Y Spearman's rho CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .118 Sig. (2-tailed) . .413 N 50 50 ADVOCACY Correlation Coefficient .118 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .413 . N 50 50
  • 42. 42 Table: 25 Correlations AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T REPURCHAS E INTENTION Spearman's rho AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .338* Sig. (2-tailed) . .016 N 50 50 REPURCHASE INTENTION Correlation Coefficient .338* 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .016 . N 50 50 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table: 26 Correlations AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T ADVOCAC Y Spearman's rho AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .263 Sig. (2-tailed) . .065 N 50 50 ADVOCACY Correlation Coefficient .263 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .065 . N 50 50
  • 43. 43 Pearson Tables: Table: 27 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND KNOWLEDGE BRAND SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation 1 .468** Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N 50 50 BRAND KNOWLEDGE Pearson Correlation .468** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 28 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND EXPERIENCE BRAND SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation 1 .667** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 BRAND EXPERIENCE Pearson Correlation .667** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 44. 44 Table :29 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N BRAND TRUST BRAND SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation 1 .588** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 BRAND TRUST Pearson Correlation .588** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 30 Correlations BRAND TRUST BRAND LOYALITY BRAND TRUST Pearson Correlation 1 .533** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 BRAND LOYALITY Pearson Correlation .533** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 45. 45 Table: 31 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T BRAND SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation 1 .426** Sig. (2-tailed) .002 N 50 50 AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation .426** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .002 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table: 32 Correlations BRAND SATISFACTIO N CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T BRAND SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation 1 .410** Sig. (2-tailed) .003 N 50 50 CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation .410** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .003 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 46. 46 Table: 33 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T BRAND LOYALITY CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation 1 .355* Sig. (2-tailed) .011 N 50 50 BRAND LOYALITY Pearson Correlation .355* 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .011 N 50 50 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table: 34 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T REPURCHAS E INTENTION CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation 1 .376** Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 50 50 REPURCHASE INTENTION Pearson Correlation .376** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 47. 47 Table: 35 Correlations CONTINUOU S COMMITMEN T ADVOCAC Y CONTINUOUS COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation 1 .161 Sig. (2-tailed) .264 N 50 50 ADVOCACY Pearson Correlation .161 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .264 N 50 50 Table: 36 Correlations AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T REPURCHAS E INTENTION AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation 1 .514** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 REPURCHASE INTENTION Pearson Correlation .514** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 48. 48 Table: 37 Correlations AFFECTIVE COMMITMEN T ADVOCAC Y AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Pearson Correlation 1 .445** Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N 50 50 ADVOCACY Pearson Correlation .445** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). 4. RegressionAnalysis: Table: 38 Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 BRAND KNOWLEDGE , BRAND TRUST, BRAND EXPERIENCEa . Enter a. All requested variables entered.
  • 49. 49 Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .714a .509 .477 .71596 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRAND KNOWLEDGE,BRAND TRUST, BRAND EXPERIENCE ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 24.465 3 8.155 15.909 .000a Residual 23.580 46 .513 Total 48.045 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRAND KNOWLEDGE,BRAND TRUST,BRAND EXPERIENCE b. Dependent Variable: BRAND SATISFACTION Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .805 .478 1.683 .099 BRANDTRUST .318 .131 .307 2.425 .019 BRANDEXPERIENC E .520 .161 .484 3.227 .002 BRANDKNOWLEDG E .016 .172 .013 .095 .925 a. Dependent Variable: BRANDSATISFACTION Table: 39
  • 50. 50 Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 BRANDSATIS FACTIONa . Enter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .426a .181 .164 .77956 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 6.450 1 6.450 10.613 .002a Residual 29.170 48 .608 Total 35.620 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION b. Dependent Variable: AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.901 .432 4.404 .000 BRANDSATISFACTI ON .366 .112 .426 3.258 .002 a. Dependent Variable: AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT
  • 51. 51 Table: 40 Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 BRANDSATIS FACTIONa . Enter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .410a .168 .151 1.06590 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 11.030 1 11.030 9.708 .003a Residual 54.535 48 1.136 Total 65.564 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), BRANDSATISFACTION b. Dependent Variable: CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
  • 52. 52 1 (Constant) .982 .590 1.665 .102 BRANDSATISFACTI ON .479 .154 .410 3.116 .003 a. Dependent Variable: CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT Table: 41 Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 CONTINUOU SCOMMITME NT, AFFECTIVEC OMMITMENT a . Enter a. All requested variables entered. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .535a .286 .256 .86039 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT, AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 13.965 2 6.982 9.432 .000a Residual 34.793 47 .740 Total 48.758 49
  • 53. 53 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT, AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT b. Dependent Variable: REPURCHASEINTENTION Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.296 .492 2.635 .011 AFFECTIVECOMMITM ENT .506 .164 .433 3.093 .003 CONTINUOUSCOMMIT MENT .147 .121 .171 1.219 .229 a. Dependent Variable: REPURCHASEINTENTION Table: 42 Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 CONTINUOU SCOMMITME NT, AFFECTIVEC OMMITMENT a . Enter a. All requested variables entered. Model Summary
  • 54. 54 Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .448a .201 .167 1.07390 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT, AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 13.627 2 6.814 5.908 .005a Residual 54.204 47 1.153 Total 67.831 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT, AFFECTIVECOMMITMENT b. Dependent Variable: ADVOCACY Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.883 .614 3.066 .004 AFFECTIVECOMMITM ENT .655 .204 .475 3.208 .002 CONTINUOUSCOMMIT MENT -.065 .151 -.064 -.432 .668 a. Dependent Variable: ADVOCACY Table: 43 Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
  • 55. 55 1 CONTINUOU SCOMMITME NT, BRANDTRUS T, BRANDSATIS FACTIONa . Enter a. All requested variables entered. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .620a .384 .344 .82491 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT, BRANDTRUST,BRANDSATISFACTION ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 19.518 3 6.506 9.561 .000a Residual 31.302 46 .680 Total 50.820 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), CONTINUOUSCOMMITMENT,BRANDTRUST, BRANDSATISFACTION b. Dependent Variable: BRANDLOYALITY Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
  • 56. 56 B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .695 .496 1.400 .168 BRANDSATISFACTION .346 .153 .336 2.263 .028 BRANDTRUST .315 .154 .295 2.040 .047 CONTINUOUSCOMMIT MENT .099 .113 .112 .875 .386 a. Dependent Variable: BRANDLOYALITY Questionnaire Personal Information: 1. Male Female 2. Age: 15-25 26-35 36-45 46 and above --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Please circle the number, which most closely responds to your thinking. Seria l No. TD MD ND or A D TA Brand Satisfaction: 3. Income per month: 0 – 5,000 Taka 5,000 – 16,000 Taka 16,000 - 26,000 Taka 26,000 - 36,000 Taka Above 36,000 Taka 1= Totally Disagree (TD) 2= Moderately Disagree (MD) 3 = Neither Disagree norAgree (NDorA) 4= Disagree (D) 5= TotallyAgree (TA)
  • 57. 57 1 I am satisfied with the online marketers’ (Bikroy.com, Akhoni.com, Shohoz.com, Ajkerdeal.com, Priyoshop.com, iFeri.com, buy24.com.bd, Carmudi.com) products. 1 2 3 4 5 2 I am satisfied with the online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 3 I am pleased with online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 4 If I could do it again, I would buy these online marketers’ Products. 1 2 3 4 5 5 I feel good about my decision to get online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am happy with these online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 Affective Commitment: 7 I feel emotionally attached to these online marketers’ Products. 1 2 3 4 5 8 These online marketers have a great deal of personal meaning for me. 1 2 3 4 5 9 I feel a strong sense of identification with these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 Continuance Commitment: 10 It would be very hard for me to switch away from these online marketers right now even if I wanted to. 1 2 3 4 5 11 My life would be disrupted if I switch away from these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 12 It would be too costly for me to switch from these online marketers right now. 1 2 3 4 5 Repurchase Intentions: 13 These online marketers are my first choice for online products. 1 2 3 4 5 14 The next time if I need any online product I will buy from this online marketer. 1 2 3 4 5 15 I will continue to be a loyal customer to these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 Advocacy:
  • 58. 58 16 I will say positive things about these online marketers to other people. 1 2 3 4 5 17 I will recommend these online marketers to someone who seeks my advice. 1 2 3 4 5 18 I will encourage my friends and relatives to do business with these online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 Brand Loyalty: 19 I will buy these online marketers products next time when I buy a product. 1 2 3 4 5 20 I intend to keep purchasing these online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 21 The next time I buy a product for a gift, I will buy this online marketers’ product. 1 2 3 4 5 Brand Trust: 22 These online marketers’ brands are safe. 1 2 3 4 5 23 I trust these online marketers’ brand. 1 2 3 4 5 24 This is the honest online shops. 1 2 3 4 5 Brand Experience: 25 I am very confident in choosing online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 26 I have a great deal of experience in buying these online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 27 I frequently shop in online marketers. 1 2 3 4 5 28 I am familiar with many online marketers’ products. 1 2 3 4 5 29 I have used or been exposed to online marketers’ products a lot in the past. 1 2 3 4 5 Brand Knowledge: 30 I pay attention to online marketers’ ads or product information in magazine or on TV. 1 2 3 4 5 31 My friends often ask for my advice about online marketers’ 1 2 3 4 5
  • 59. 59 products. 32 I know a lot of online marketers’ brand products 1 2 3 4 5 33 How do you rate your knowledge of online marketers’ products to your family and friends? 1 Positive Negative 2 Favorable Unfavorable 3 Good Bad 4 Like Dislike