IV. The sustainable city

10,283 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

IV. The sustainable city

  1. 1. THE CITY AS A SYSTEM - Rogers Models (R.Rogers, Cities for a Small Planet, 1997) Food UNSUSTAINABLE/LINEAR SYSTEM Waste (organic, inorganic) Goods (landfill, dumped in rivers/sea) OUTPUTS Non INPUTS MEGA Air pollution, noise renewable CITY (Carbon, nitrogen and energy sulfur dioxides, ozone) People Goods, Services Wealth, Sprawl SUSTAINABLE/CIRCULAR SYSTEM Food Recycling of organic waste (water, compost) Goods Reduced outputsConservation Examples of “green cities”: OUTPUTS INPUTS Loja (Ecuador) + use of ECO Curitiba (Brazil) renewable CITY Freiburg (Germany) Melbourne (Australia) energy People Recycling of inorganic waste (paper, Antoine Delaitre © 2011 plastic, etc) 1
  2. 2. SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENTholistic management strategies that seeks to improve the quality of life for current without compromising quality of life of future residents concept of “ecocities” (Richard Register) Management Strategies areas provide adequate housing, social services, security, social equity, access to leisure/culture, reduce traffic/commute time Social management Kibera (Nairobi,Kenya): www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZWe33fToPo&feature=fvsr Singapore: www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HofttbuWhA&feature=related balance development, optimize energy performance, Economic create jobs, control urban growth/sprawl management Denmark: www.youtube.com/watch?v=E22eKYCZ2dQ reduce waste and pollution, heal biosphere (air, water, soil), restore/re-useEnvironmental degraded land management Mexico City: www.youtube.com/watch?v=oiJSibk1ok0 © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 2
  3. 3. Slum upgrading project Offshore windmills Free bicycle sharing Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) In Kibera, Nairobi (Kenya) (Denmark) (Paris) (Singapore) EXAMPLES OF SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIESAlternate circulation Program City Hall rooftop garden Urban organic farm Stone/cactus garden (Mexico City) (Chicago) (San Francisco) (Palm Springs) © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 3
  4. 4. EXAMPLES OF SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES SUSTAINABLE CITY EXAMPLE STRATEGIES ADEQUATE SAO PAULO Upgrading of slums: government gives legal land tenure and provide HOUSING BRAZIL subsidies to support quality self-built housingCLEAN RENEWABLE COPENHAGEN Windmills built offshore ENERGY DENMARK •Timer on lights in hallways/stairs in apartment buildings ENERGY PARIS •Eiffel tower only lit for a few hours at night CONSERVATION FRANCE •Free bike sharing system (Vélib) •Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) to charge car usage rather than can TRAFFIC ownership SINGAPORE MANAGEMENT •Fast and rational public transportation system •Learn more: www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HofttbuWhA&feature=related •Alternate circulation for cars (“Hoy no circula” program) MEXICO CITY •Strict regulations on car emissionsSMOG REDUCTION MEXICO •Single-fare extensive metro system with long/frequent trains •Learn more: www.youtube.com/watch?v=oiJSibk1ok0 •Development of parks URBAN HEAT CHICAGO •Rooftop gardens on some buildingsISLAND REDUCTION ILLINOIS •Carpool + bike lanesSOIL PROTECTION + FUEL EMISSION SAN FRANCISCO •Urban farms (Hayes Valley) REDUCTION WATER PALM SPRINGS Tax reduction for people who replace grass by gravel/cactus CONSERVATION CALIFORNIA © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 4
  5. 5. SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENT: CURITIBA (BRAZIL)Pop x 6 in 60 years 2M in 2010 but has avoided problems typically associated with rapid growth due to innovative planning by Mayor Jaime Lernerstarting in 1971: public transportation preferred to private cars, environment used rather than changed, cheap low-tech solutions preferred to hi-tech ones, bottom-up development involving local communities rather than top-down centralized planning. Look for the video “Curitiba, City ofDreams” on Youtube www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRD3l3rlMpo Describe the sustainable strategies used to achieve in Curitiba the following goals:Reduce air and noise pollution:(Learn more about Curitiba’s public transportation system at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeAZsmpt7a8)Increase land value and control natural hazards (flooding):Recycling :(Learn more about the “Green Exchange” Program at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1bRUZ--9Ws)Clean and rehabilitate slums: © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 5
  6. 6. SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENT: CURITIBA (BRAZIL) Look for the video “Curitiba, City of Dreams” on Youtube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRD3l3rlMpo) Describe the sustainable strategies used to achieve in Curitiba the following goals:Reduce air and noise pollution :(Learn more about Curitiba’s public transportation system at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeAZsmpt7a8)•Pedestrian center•Dedicated express bus lanes•Rapid deboarding/boarding of buses (platforms, wide doors, stretch buses)•Single fare•Trinary road system to improve traffic flow•Projected subway•Bus companies paid by km and not by # of passengers, to ensure all areas are servedIncrease land value and control natural hazards (flooding):•Network of parks and artificial lakes•Herds of sheep to maintain parksRecycle:(Learn more about the “Green Exchange” Program at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1bRUZ--9Ws)•Pick up of recyclables at designated stations in slums•Exchange of recyclables for food, school supplies and bus tokenClean and rehabilitate slums:•Low-income housing program launched in 1960s (rent counts towards eventual purchase of unit) but projects built on outskirts ofcity far from jobs/services•1980: new housing program launched to provide more diverse design in housing, complete services set up (clinics, day care), shopson first floor to limit commuting, large warehouses where people can rent space to establish small business (50,000 jobs created)•Make slum dwellers responsible of their neighborhood (involve grass-root organizations) © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 6
  7. 7. SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENT: CURITIBA (BRAZIL) Take a closer look at Curitiba on Google Earth Fast car traffic Local car/bus trafficExpress buses (stops every 500m) Local car/bus traffic Fast car traffic Dedicated express bus lanes Pedestrian center Trinary road system Recyclable exchange program in slums Recycling sorting bins Parks + artificial lakes to control flooding © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 7
  8. 8. Ecological Footprint World Ecological Footprints in 2007 © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 8
  9. 9. Ecological footprint by countries (2007) © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 9
  10. 10. Ecological footprint and Biocapacity Ecological Footprint < Biocapacity Sustainability Ecological Footprint > Biocapacity Unsustainability © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 10
  11. 11. URBAN ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN CALGARY (CANADA) Go to www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/case_stories/#calgary•What was the ecological footprint of Calgary in 2005 (in global hectares per person, gha pp)?•What is Calgary’s footprint target?•Click on the link to read Calgarys Report "Reducing the Ecological Footprint: A Calgary Approach“ and give a fewexamples of strategies designed to reach that goal (see p.16-21 of report): URBAN ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN HONG KONG © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 11
  12. 12. URBAN ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN CALGARY (CANADA) Go to www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/case_stories/#calgary•What was the ecological footprint of Calgary in 2005 (in global hectares per person, gha pp)?•9.86 gha pp (>30% to Canadian average)•What is Calgary’s footprint target?•7.25 gha pp by 2036•Click on the link to read Calgarys Report "Reducing the Ecological Footprint: A Calgary Approach“ and give a fewexamples of strategies designed to reach that goal (see p.16-21 of report):•Recycling•Water convervation•Purchase green power•Wind-powered electric transit system•LEED buildings (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) URBAN ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN HONG KONG © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 12
  13. 13. Estimate your ecological footprint with this calculator:www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/personal_footprint/ © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 13
  14. 14. 10 tips to reduce your Effect ecological footprint See some tips at www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JhhkU_A3r8 Use zero-emission public transport, Reduce carbon emissions walking or bicycle Buy locally-produced organic food Reduce use of fertilizers and energy needed for processing, transport and storage Local holidays by train instead of Reduce carbon emissions long-distance trips in airplanes (a Eurostar passenger creates ten times less CO2 than on when taking a flight Paris-London)Use hybrid cars, for short distances only Reduce carbon emissions Buy second-hand or borrow 10% of footprint comes from things we buy (which we only wear them a few times a year)Improve home insulation, built rooftop Reduce gas and electricity consumption and carbon emissions garden, turn thermostat down Use clean (wind, solar) energy, Reduce gas and electricity consumption and carbon emissions Install solar panels 1 kg of beef = farming to feed animal + fertilizers + processing (=15 liters of water) Eat less meat (particularly beef) 1 kg of rice = 3 liters of water Avoid overpackaged items Reduce processing and packaging (plastic, paper) recycle, donate unwanted items Read newspapers/magazines online Reduce consumption of paper © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 14
  15. 15. SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES: HOUSING, WASTE CONTROL, URBAN GROWTH CONTROL Check out Newington, Sydney (Australia) On Google Earth Urban growth control: 6 “villes nouvelles” (new cities) created around the greater Paris area (France) Cergy Marne-la-Vallée St Quentin Noisy Evry MelunWaste/pollution control in Graz (Austria) Check out St Quentin-en-Yvelines on Google Earth © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 15 New cathedral of Evry
  16. 16. SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES: HOUSING, WASTE CONTROL, URBAN GROWTH CONTROLSUSTAINABLE CASE-STUDY SOLUTIONS STRATEGIES Problem: high urban ecological footprint and lack of environmental sensitivity Solutions: •2,000 houses for 5,000 people built on 90 ha of Brownfield sites in Newington (Sydney) •Solar panels on all buildings (equivalent to removing 261 cars) Newington •Planting of native drought-resistant species (fewer allergens, less water consumption)Sustainable (Sydney, •Artificial ponds to collect rain water and attract wildlife housing •Dual water system (drinkable vs flushable) Australia) •No house more than 5 minute walking distance from a park •Pedestrian and bike pathways •Window glazing to keep heat inside in winter and provide shade in summer •Improvement of house insulation (houses consume 50% less energy/water than rest of Sydney) Problem: waste, pollution Solutions: Waste and •Ökoprofit Program (Ecoprofit) launched in 1991 Graz Pollution •Educate local businesses to reduce resource consumption, maximize recycling, reduce waste (Austria) •Ecoprofit logo awarded to companies that have reduced solid waste by 30% and air emissions by reduction 50% and make annual improvements •Voluntary basis but marketing tool of Ecoprofit logo Problem: congestion and hyperconcentration in central Paris area in 1960s Solutions: •6 “villes nouvelles” established in 1970s around Paris “Villes •Modern train stations + extension of rapid transit to Paris and surrounding suburbs Control of Nouvelles” •Construction of artistic infrastructures (theaters, cinemas, museums)urban growth •Parks, lakes, leisure areas, sports installation, soft “attractive” architecture (Paris, France) •Establishment of universities and public research centers (Cergy, St Quentin) attracts jobs •Tax credit for private corporations (ex: Disneyland in Marne-la-Vallée) •Emphasis on hi-tech industries (St Quentin) © 2011 Antoine Delaitre 16
  17. 17. ECOCITY PROJECTS ww.good.is/post/the-death-and-life-of-model-%E2%80%9Ceco-cities%E2%80%9DMasdar City (United Arab Emirates) : 80% likelihood Babcock Ranch (Florida): 70% likelihoodTianjin Ecocity (China): 50% likelihood © 2011 Antoine Delaitre Greensburg (Kansas): 90% likelihood 17

×