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Thesis Book

  1. 1. Aimee Na llyStewardship and Stone Soup
  2. 2. Stewardship and Stone Soup Stewardship and Stone SoupCopyright © 2010 by Aimee Nally Aimee Nally Masters of Architecture The University of Detroit Mercy School of Architecture ARCH 5100, 5110, 5200, & 5210 Karen Swanson, Associate Professor 30 April, 2010
  3. 3. Table of ContentsAbstract 7Thesis Paper 9Organizational Precedents 23Architectural Precedents 35Community Needs Assessment 51Site Selection and Analysis 67Programmatic Development 101Design Implementation 141Stone Soup and the Public Square 161Conclusion 179Bibliography 183Appendix 189
  4. 4. ABSTRACT: STEWARDSHIP AND STONE SOUP “Stewardship is the choice for Service. We serve best through Partnership, rather than patriarchy. Dependency is the antithesis of stewardship and so Empowerment becomes essential.” -Peter Block, Author of Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest- Stewardship is hardly a new concept. The bibli- cal basis for the idea of stewardship dates all the way back to the creation story in Genesis. God created man and “placed him in the Garden of Eden to work it and watch over it” (Genesis 2: 15). The biblical idea of stew- ardship suggests that as humans we do not, in fact, have ownership nor entitlement over the things that we typi- cally claim to be ours. Our time, skills, and possessions have been entrusted to us not for our own benefit, but for the benefit of the human community as a whole. Living out stewardship within an individualistic, consumer culture seems to be an impossible paradox. Stewardship requires a high degree of accountability for the results of one’s actions on the environment, the economy, and our fellow man or woman. It is the opposite of being wasteful, cautious, apathetic, or complacent. This thesis, while accepting the American, consumer culture as a reality to be reckoned with, seeks to coun- teract its throwaway tendency by inserting programsStone Soup is a French Folk Tale in which a poor man comes to a village that make it easy, beneficial, or fun to do stewardshipduring a famine. No one is willing to share their food, so the man in an architecture that acts as a catalyst for sharing asbegins to boil stones in a pot of water in the town square. When askedwhat he is doing the man replies he is making stone soup. In sequence, well as a vehicle for reuse and interaction. By working inhe tells several people the soup is nearly perfect but is missing just synergy with the existing capitalist structure, this thesisone ingredient, which that person quickly provides. By supper time the will attempt to create an architecture that will act asman has created a soup full of meat, vegetables, and spices, and thewhole town joins him in a feast. Stone Soup within its community; bringing together excess resources and redistributing them for the benefit of all. 7 THESIS ABSTRACT
  5. 5. THESIS PAPER:STEWARDSHIP AND STONE SOUP “We’ve become like a nation of advertising men, all hidingbehind catch phrases like, ‘prosperity’ and ‘rugged individualism’and ‘the American way.’ And the real things like freedom, and equalopportunity, and the integrity and worth of the individual – things thathave belonged to the American dream since the beginning – they havebecome just words, too (Byron 20).”Introduction Freedom, democracy, self-expression, individu-ality, the American Dream – these words all describeAmerican society, right? What about – compliance, con-formity, obedience, reliance, and greed; sadly, thesewords all describe American society as well. The UnitedStates exists within a constant state of dichotomy. Onthe one hand, there is the so-called “free market,” theephemeral possibility of the American Dream; anybodycan potentially become a millionaire. On the otherhand, there is the brutal world of corporate America;an amorphous set of religious beliefs based on the idealsof survival of the fittest. Often, within the corporateworld, acts of compliance, conformity, and obedienceare encouraged. Peter Block, in his book, Stewardship:Choosing Service Over Self-Interest, describes the corpo-rate world as having a “this is not a democracy” mental-ity. Simultaneously, popular American Culture demandsdemocracy, self-expression, and individuality. Conse-quently, because of our economy, what we, as a nation,“believe in” and how we act out those beliefs does notalways correspond (Block xii). This contradiction, how-ever, is not necessarily the fault of the individual. Amer-ican society is structured in such a way that actions,which create waste and unequal surplus while also en-dorsing selfishness and self-promotion, are often easierthan actions that encourage equality, fairness, sharing,and compassion. In other words, seemingly fruitfulsquandering is easier than industrious stewardship.9 THESIS PAPER
  6. 6. Peter Block defines stewardship as “the choice When asked what he is doing the manfor service.” He states that, “We serve best through replies he is making stone soup. Inpartnership, rather than patriarchy. Dependency is the sequence, he tells several people theantithesis of stewardship and so empowerment becomes soup is nearly perfect but is missingessential (6).” Stewardship is hardly a new concept. just one ingredient, which that personThe biblical basis for the idea of stewardship dates all quickly provides. By suppertime, thethe way back to the creation story in Genesis. God man has created a soup full of meat,created man and “placed him in the Garden of Eden to vegetables, and spices, and the wholework it and watch over it” (Genesis 2: 15). The biblical town joins him in a feast.idea of stewardship suggests that as humans we do not, The man in this story chooses to accept the society inin fact, have ownership nor entitlement over the things which he is situated; for that reason, he uses a more-or-that we typically claim to be ours. Our time, skills, and less deceitful tactic to bring about a positive outcome.possessions have been entrusted to us not for our own The present situation of the U.S. economy very easilybenefit, but for the benefit of the human community compares to the famine of this folktale. Architects andas a whole. Stewardship is the idea of responsibility other individuals wishing to affect change within theirwithout ownership. communities are often given very little if anything to With the ever-growing phenomenon of the use as resources. Therefore, the question can be asked“global economy,” it seems that the American economic whether architects and community activists can be assystem is becoming more and more disconnected with sneaky and resourceful as the clever soldier in the storythe lives and the people it directly affects. Stewardship of Stone Soup. By inserting programs that make it easy,requires a high degree of accountability for the results beneficial, or fun to “do stewardship,” it may be possibleof one’s actions on the environment, the economy, and to create an architecture that could act as a catalyst forother people; however, the present global, competitive, sharing as well as a vehicle for reuse and interactionand consumerist system rarely allows anyone, within its existing environment.especially architects, to act as responsible stewardsto their neighbors (Byron 24-29). To act as steward The Issuewithin America’s present form of capitalism, it often Our society is individualistic and based on liberaltakes a great deal of ingenuity, resourcefulness, and ethical principles. These principles uphold liberty overcollaboration; such as the man in the French folktale, equality and individuality over communal altruism“Stone Soup:” (Lebacqz); they are played out through an economic Stone Soup is a French Folk Tale in which system called capitalism. Within the capitalist system a soldier comes to a village during a disparities do not imply discrimination, and the overall famine. No one is willing to share their sentiment towards the poor is that their plight is food so the man begins to boil stones unfortunate, but not unfair (Lebacqz 55, 56, and 58). One in a pot of water in the town square. of the chief ethical advocates of this position is liberalTHESIS PAPER 10 11 THESIS PAPER
  7. 7. theorist, Robert Nozick. In his theory of “entitlement,” proposal of an entirely new economic system seemsNozick attempts to explain the fairness of a capitalist to a be frightening and nearly impossible endeavor;system by arguing that it is a just procedure and, however, the insertion of a sub-economy that workstherefore, its outcomes, no matter how disparate, are synergistically within capitalism to create more sociallyin turn just as well. just communities and therefore more socially just Capitalism, according to Nozick, is based on fair, architecture (an architecture of stewardship) is possiblefree exchange between two knowledgeable parties. Both through the implementation of stone soup principles.parties must freely agree to the exchange in order for The pursuit of an architecture of stewardshipit to take place, and therefore, in theory, the exchange through the tactic of Stone Soup may be unconventional,is just. Within this system of free exchange there often but it is certainly not unprecedented. Organizationsarises a small group of individuals who seem to prosper such as Forgotten Harvest of Metro Detroit, Goodwillsignificantly more than their “free” but less successful Industries, and One World Everybody Eats, work dailycounterparts; Nozick acknowledges this phenomena and within unsympathetic environments to successfullyargues that it does not violate any basic human rights promote and achieve stewardship. Similarly, architects Nozick’s defini-(Lebacqz 57, 58). This part of Nozick’s argument is used tion of basic and artist have been working within adverse environmentsby many Americans to justify the economic disparities human rights to initiate social change and cultivate human potential are: the rightwithin the United States. Whereas racial discrimination not to be killed in their local communities. Artists, architects, andis illegal in our country, economic discrimination is not or assaulted, religious organizations such Jon Rubin, Samuel the right not(Wenz 58). Capitalists argue that these people, the poor, to be sacrificed Mockbee, the collaboration of Artists for Humanity andhave simply been unable to prosper in the free market for another’s Arrowstreet, and Grace Centers of Hope have designed sake, the rightsystem, but because capitalism is “fair” in procedure, to acquire and and built projects which empower people and encouragethen their situation cannot be counted as injustice. transfer property, growth and sustainability in both the human and natural and the right to The economy has a tremendous affect on the freedom of choice environments.ways in which people can live their lives; it can allow (Lebacqz p 52).them to live to their full human potential (The National Organizational PrecedentsConference of Catholic Bishops) or it can force them Forgotten Harvest is the third largest food rescueinto a life of oppression and powerlessness (Iris Marion organization in the United States. The organization isYoung). The economy of the United States is part of a based in Metropolitan Detroit, and rescued over 12.5capitalist system that does not naturally provide for the If 5% of this food million pounds of food last year. Normally when apoorest and most marginalized of society. Therefore, was reclaimed it restaurant, grocery store, or caterer has extra perishable could eliminatethis generation of architects, community developers, hunger within food, they have to throw these things into the garbage.social workers, entrepreneurs, and political leaders, if the United States In fact, last year Americans threw away approximately (Harvest Newsthey desire to be good stewards, must be prepared to 2009). 96 billion pounds of food, about 25% of all the foodwork within this context and challenge themselves to the country produced (Luoma 20). Forgotten Harvest,reshape this system to the benefit of all people. The however, acts as stone soup within metro Detroit byTHESIS PAPER 12 13 THESIS PAPER
  8. 8. making it easy and beneficial for restaurants, grocery profit companies. Similarly, in holistically approachingstores, or caterers to donate their excess food rather job placement, by also providing things such as childcarethan throw it away. The organization operates a fleet and transportation, Goodwill has been able encourageof 14 refrigerated trucks that travel through three stewardship in both their for-profit, corporate partnerscounties. This door-to-door pickup assures that there is as well as the individuals whose lives they have changedno extra work for donors to give their food rather than through these collaborations.throw it away. Further, donors are able to right-off this One World Everybody Eats is a “pay as you can”donation rather than pay for the cost of garbage removal. café/community kitchen in Salt Lake City, Utah. TheOddly enough, the biggest hurtle Forgotten Harvest has founder of the café, Denise Cerreta, desired to create aovercome is that of liability. With the passing of the place where all could come to share a meal regardlessBill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act, food of economic class. Therefore, patrons of One World aredonors are now excused from any liability if the food asked to pay what they believe their meal is worth. If theywhich they have donated, assuming it meets all typical cannot pay, they are asked to give one hour of service,federal, state, and local food regulations, should cause doing things such as food preparation, gardening andharm (Luoma 22). With extremely limited liability yard work, or meditation and prayer. A bowl of “dal andand added benefits of donating excess food, Forgotten rice” is available free of charge, so that anyone, evenHarvest has found a way to make stewardship the easy those that cannot work, will be able to eat. All of thechoice for hundreds of food organization in Metropolitan food served is organically grown and the menu changesDetroit. with the seasons. Similarly, patrons choose their own Goodwill Industries International is a unique portions of food to eliminate food waste (http://www.organization. Although the company is a 501(c)(3) oneworldeverybodyeats.com). Because this precedentnonprofit, it makes over 2.16 billion dollars in sales each brings up an issue often overlooked in architecture, ityear. Most people know of Goodwill because of their could be categorized with the architectural as well as thethousands of thrift stores across the country; however, organizational precedents. Architecture, especially wellthe true mission of this organization is job placement designed architecture, is usually exclusionary. In fact,and training. Goodwill acts as stone soup within their most places in American society, places like restaurants,environment by not only the reuse and profitability clothing stores, hair salons, coffee shops, etc. excludeinherent in their thrift stores but also through the poor. By allowing people a chance to learn a skillpartnerships with for-profit companies. Collaborations and earn a meal, One World Everybody Eats is not onlywith corporations such as the Bon-Ton, GM, or Dell being a good steward to its community, it is also actinghave been created for anything from fund-raising to as stone soup, almost literally, by bringing together thejob creation (http://www.goodwill.org/page/guest/ contributions of many, no matters how small, to feed aabout). These collaborations have systematically been community.carried out in clever ways by making the relationships These three organizational precedents aremutually beneficial to both the for-profit and not-for- sources of inspiration as well as proof that stewardshipTHESIS PAPER 14 15 THESIS PAPER
  9. 9. is most successful and affective when it is done in unconventional exchange and advertisement.a collaborative, synergistic, and resourceful way. Samuel Mockbee started the project RuralDifferent lessons can be learned from each one of these Studio in Hale County, Alabama, in the early 1990’s.organizational precedents. Forgotten Harvest proves Mockbee was an architect and professor who sawthat it is possible to make “doing stewardship” beneficial the overwhelming poverty in rural Hale County asand fun for those involved. Goodwill confirms that an opportunity to get his students involved in socialworking in partnership with for-profit companies can justice as well as an architecture of innovation andbe mutually beneficial, and allow for things that would resourcefulness. Although Samuel Mockbee has passedotherwise be impossible. Lastly, One World Everybody away since the studio was started, the project continuesEats inspires us to think outside the limitations of our to be run through Auburn University. All of the projectspresent financial conditions, and suggests a sub economy done by Rural Studio are funded through grants orthat builds communities and allows for an exchange of other means that do not take money away from theskills, talents, and goods without an exchange of money. poor individuals or communities for whom the studio is working. Many of the projects reuse objects thatArchitectural Precedents would otherwise be considered “trash” to the average Jon Rubin is an artist in Oakland, California. His eye or buildings that seem to be beyond repair. Ruralproject, FREEmobile is a great example of stewardship Studio, similar to One World Everybody Eats, makes thearchitecture. FREEmobile was created in collaboration argument that well designed architecture is deservedwith Hillman City, a neighborhood in Seattle Washington. by all people, regardless of economic class. On theThe intent of the project was to help Hillman City find same note, it encourages architecture students to actan identity, and Rubin felt that the best way to do this as stewards to their neighbors. This project forces thewas to create social interaction. So he went and bought designers to be clever and innovative; they must bea 1968 Chevy step-van and painted the word FREE in big capable of designing sensibly on a small budget, oftenbubble letters on the side of the vehicle. Rubin then with found materials. It discourages waste and allowsenlisted several community members to take the van out for meaningful interactions between the designers andindividually on eight consecutive weekends and offer the community (Dean and Hursley).their neighbors some personal skill, talent, or good for The Artists for Humanity Building, in Boston, wasfree (Baudelaire 1). The project was a huge success. designed by Arrowstreet. It is another good examplePeople were lining up down the block to receive anything of what an architecture of stewardship might look like.from free vegetables to free bike repair or hair braiding. Not only is the building LEED Platinum, but it is partiallyFREEmobile is an example of how architecture can act built out of the products of the program it contains.as a vehicle for sharing as well as social interaction. Artists for Humanity is an organization that takes inAdditionally, like One World Everybody Eats and troubled adolescents and helps them establish careers inStone Soup, this project potentially created a micro- the arts. The program assists the students in marketingeconomy within its neighborhood, acting as a means of and selling items they create, often from reused orTHESIS PAPER 16 17 THESIS PAPER
  10. 10. found materials. In congruence with the program, the neighborhood in downtown Pontiac,architecture was also made from reused material, such destroyed by drugs and prostitution,as a railing made out of windshields or the artwork on is now a growing community wherethe walls composed of anything from old shoes to old children ride their bikes safely upmagazines. In the aspect of stone soup, the organization and down the street (http://www.bleeds out into the community through its program, but gracecentersofhope.org).”also draws the community in with its architecture. The One of the reasons Grace Centers of Hope is such aexhibition hall is rented out as banquet facility, both successful stewardship organization is because it isbringing in revenue and acting as a public gallery for the entirely self-sustaining. Because they do not rely onstudents’ work. government funding the center is free to be resourceful, Grace Centers of Hope, in Pontiac Michigan, is experimental, and community based with their financialthe precedent that most strongly connects a program of support and operation. Grace Centers of Hope acts asstewardship with an architecture of stewardship. Grace a catalyst within its community through its thrift stores,Centers of Hope is a lot more than a homeless shelter. community clinic, and its rehabilitation programs. ManyTheir mission is based on the idea that the brokenness of Grace’s graduates later return to the community toof the homeless, addicted, and unwanted can only be be volunteers, continuing to build up Little Grace Villagehealed by the gospel of Jesus Christ. Because this strong and maintain the shelter.belief in the gospel is an integral part of their recovery These four architectural precedents make itprogram, they accept no money from the federal clear that an architecture of stewardship is inextricablygovernment. Instead, their three million dollar budget related to a program of stewardship. A building aloneeach year is met entirely by private donations, churches, cannot be a steward or act in stewardship; instead, atheir five thrift stores, and volunteers. Grace takes a building needs a steward. A building can be a vessel,community approach to stewardship. After graduation a vehicle, a result, or a catalyst for stewardship, butfrom their two year, in-house program, the graduates only if the program and the people acting within it aremove into rent-to-own houses on close-by Seneca Street, being or doing stewardship themselves. Therefore,which they refer to as Little Grace Village. What used to to build or design an architecture of stewardship, thebe one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in Pontiac architect must first set in place or ensure the existenceis now the epitome of a strong, interactive, and safe of a steward and a stewardship program.community: “Grace Centers of Hope has pioneered a Conclusion and Proposal fresh approach to ending and preventing Any post-industrial city within homelessness by weaving together the United States would have most likely been an supportive services, safe and affordable appropriate place to explore this thesis. Most cities that housing, and neighborhood revitalization once relied on manufacturing and industry as their sole efforts. What once was a blighted sources of income and economy are now suffering fromTHESIS PAPER 18 19 THESIS PAPER
  11. 11. the massive voids and damage caused by the rise and interaction. By working in synergy with the existingfall of their once prized industrial leaders. For the past capitalist structure, this thesis will attempt to createseveral decades, American society has produced less an architecture that will act as stone soup within itsand less goods due to outsourcing and more and more community; bringing together excess resources andwaste due to consumerism. This disproportionate cycle redistributing them for the benefit of all.of unfettered, global capitalism is negatively affectingall involved, as made most evident by the recent globalrecession and the ever-present effects of global climatechange. Similarly, the gap between the richest Americanand the poorest American grows ever wider, and is nowbeginning to affect even the middle class. With manypeople fed up with this sick cycle, yet unwilling orunsure how to change it, the climate is perfect to testthe insertion of a synergistic, alternate yet coexistentsystem within American capitalism. This system couldallow for an architecture as well as an entire system ofstewardship to exist and even thrive within our citiesand our society. The goal of site selection was to find a communitythat could provide both the steward and the environmentto foster the growth and development of an architectureof stewardship and its necessary correspondent systemof stewardship and stone soup. Although, Defiance Ohiowas chosen as a site in which to explore Stewardship andStone Soup, the intent is that the conclusions drawn canpotentially be applied to most cities across America. The present global, competitive, andconsumerist economy rarely allows anyone, especiallyarchitects, to act as responsible stewards to theircommunities. This thesis, while accepting this realityas something to be reckoned with, seeks to counteractthe existing culture’s wasteful and apathetic tendenciesby inserting programs that make it easy, beneficial, orfun to do stewardship in an architecture that acts as acatalyst for sharing as well as a vehicle for reuse andTHESIS PAPER 20 21 THESIS PAPER
  12. 12. ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  13. 13. ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS The word “Stewardship,” is very alluding. It is the kind of word that everyone knows what it means but no one can easily explain its definition. Similarly, the idea of stewardship seems to be one of common sense, yet ironically it is very rarely practiced. Therefore, to begin the search for what an architecture of stewardship might be or look like, it is imperative to first understand what a practice of stewardship means, what it looks like, and how it exists within our present society. This thesis begins by searching out and analyzing several organizations that are presentlyGrace Centers ofHope, Forgotten practicing stewardship in dynamic and innovative ways. Harvest, and These organizational precedents are then used not as Goodwill examples to be artificially copied from, but instead, as sources of inspiration as well as proof that stewardship is most successful and affective when it is done in a collaborative, synergistic, and resourceful way. These organizations work daily within the American, capitalist system, to bring everything the “American Dream” idealistically stands for, to more people than capitalism realistically ever could. “People are afraid to think straight – afraid to face themselves – afraid to look at things and see them as they are. We’ve become like a nation of advertising men, all hiding behind catch phrases like, “prosperity” and “rugged individualism” and “the American way.” And the real things like freedom, and equal opportunity, and the integrity and worth of the individual – things that have belonged to the American dream since the beginning – they have become just words, too.”William J. Byron,Author of Toward Stewardship: An Interim Ethic of Poverty, Power, and Pollution 25 ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  14. 14. FORGOTTEN HARVEST METROPOLITAN DETROIT, MI According to the USDA, one- quarter of the food produced in the United States each day FOOD is wasted, while simultaneously more than 36 million people go hungry. Of the large amount of food thrown out in the United States a very minute amount is composted and the rest ends up in a landfill or incinerator, releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere. Forgotten Harvest is an organization that rescued about TRASH CAN COMPOST BINS 12.5 million pounds of perishable food last year. The organization takes the excess, perishable food from places such as grocery stores, restaurants, and caterers, and then delivers that food directly to the organizations that feed the hungry of metro Detroit. GARBAGE TRUCK GARDEN One pound of food is approximately one meal. So Forgotten Harvest rescues 12,500,000 meals from going to the landfill each year and instead delivers them toINCINERATOR LANDFILL hungry families. 27 ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  15. 15. FOOD Like the man in the story of Stone Soup, Forgotten Harvest is able to feed AT many people by convincing COLLECTING DONATIONS LOADING TRUCK community members that it would be more beneficial to donate their excess food rather than to throw it in the trash. Forgotten Harvest markets their process as a money saver; if they collect food before it perishes, the cost of waste collection is greatly reduced or avoided for the food’s donor.MOBILE PANTRY DELIVERY TRUCK STORAGE The donation does not cost anything It saves the donor on dumpster fees The donation is tax deductible There is no risk of liability forHUNGRY PERSON RECIPIENT ORGANIZATION donors <http://www.forgottenharvest.org> 29 ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  16. 16. GOODWILL INDUSTRIES INTERNATIONAL Although most people know of Goodwill because of their thousands of thrift stores internationally, the organization actually uses the 2.16 Billion DONATIONS OF GOODS CLOTHING DONATIONS Dollars of sales each year to fund their true mission – job placement, creation, and training. Goodwill collects some of society’s excess goods and resells them to the general public; this keeps these usable goods from being lost to a landfill. They go beyond this,GOVERNMENT SUPPORT PRIVATE DONATIONS GOODWILL STORES however, by creating jobs through partnerships with for-profit companies (stone soup). These programs range from recycle and reuse of a companies’ products to janitorial and maintenance work. For example, Detroit, Goodwill has partnered with several auto makers to reclaim, disassemble, and reuse parts from excess cars.CORPORATE PARTNERS NON-PROFIT PARTNERS JOB CREATION AND TRAINING <http://www.goodwill.org> 31 ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  17. 17. ONE WORLD EVERYBODY EATS SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH One World Everybody Eats is a “pay as you can” café/community kitchen. The founder of the café, Denise Cerreta, desired to create a place where all could come to share a meal regardless of economic class. Therefore, patrons of One World are asked to pay what they believe theirMAINTENANCE WORKER PAYING FAMILY PRAYERS meal is worth. If they cannot pay, they are asked to give one hour of service, doing things such as food preparation, gardening and yard work, or meditation and prayer. A bowl of “dal and rice” is available free of charge, so that anyone, even those that cannot work, will be able to eat. All of the food served is organically grown and the menu changes with the seasons. Similarly, patrons choose their own portions of food to eliminate food waste. This precedent DISHWASHER MEAL COOK brings up an issue often overlooked in architecture. Architecture, especially well designed architecture, is usually exclusionary. FOOD SERVER COMMUNITY OUTREACH FAMILY GARDENER <http://www.oneworldeverybodyeats.com> 33 ORGANIZATIONAL PRECEDENTS
  18. 18. ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  19. 19. RURAL STUDIO HALE COUNTY, ALABAMA Rural Studio was started by Samuel Mockbee, an architect and professor who saw the vast poverty in rural Hale County, Alabama, as an opportunity to get his students involved in social justice as well as an architecture of innovation and resourcefulness. The buildings use excess goods such The studio was started in the early 90’s and continues as windshields, to the present, even after the passing of its founder. Wax Impregnated tires, scrap Cardboard All of the projects done by the Rural Studio are funded metal, and wax impregnated without taking money from the poor individuals or cardboard for anything from communities for whom the students are working. Many cladding to of these projects reuse objects that would be considered structural walls. “trash” to the average eye or buildings that seem to Student Dorms be beyond repair. Yancey Chapel in Sawyerville, one of Rural Studio’s first projects, was built mainly out of salvaged tires coated in stucco. Scrap metal sheathing was used for the roof. Another chapel was also built from Recycled License Plates found materials, using windshields from a scrap yard in Chicago. The Boys and Girls Club in Akron was created from the remains of a long abandoned grocery store. Rural Studio saw the abandoned The building stood as brick walls without a roof or and used as an windows for years, but Rural Studio transformed it into Student Dorms opportunity instead of as a this small town’s community center. detriment to the The projects of Rural Studio are innovative, community. fun, ethical, and fitting. They are direct responses to a place, its needs, its resources, and its personality. Tires Coated in Stucco Rural Studio: An Architecture of Decency Yancey ChapelARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS 36 37 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  20. 20. The Smokehouse was constructed The walls were almost entirely of created from reused materials, large pieces of on a budget of concrete one hundred and leftover from fifty dollars. the repair of a nearby highway. Smokehouse Smokehouse and Interior Hay Bale House One of the first projects that the students from Rural Studio designed was a smokehouse built to accompany Recycled street the Hay Bale House. The smokehouse was mainly designed signs were used to create the and built by one thesis student. He used broken pieces roof. of leftover concrete from a local highway project for the walls, glass bottles for the windows, and unused street signs for the roof. The entire project was built for only $150. Recycled bottles were used to let in sunlight. Smokehouse DetailARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS 38
  21. 21. GRACE CENTERS OF HOPE PONTIAC, MICHIGAN Grace Centers of Hope is a lot more than an average homeless shelter. Their mission is based on the idea that the brokenness of the homeless, addicted, and unwanted can only be healed by the gospel of Jesus Christ. Because this strong belief in the gospel is anGrace Gospel The act of integral part of their recovery program, Grace accepts Involving severalFellowship no money from the federal government. Instead, their players within the funding of the three million dollar budget each year is met entirely by organizations, isLittle GraceVillage an act of Stone private donations, churches, their five thrift Soup stores, and volunteers. Grace takes a community approach to stewardship. After graduation from their two year, in-house program, the graduates move into rent-to-own houses on close-by Seneca Street, which they refer to as Little Grace Village. What used to be one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in Pontiac is now the epitome of a strong, interactive, and safe community.Grace Centersof HopeAerial of GraceCenters of Hope “Grace Centers of Hope has pioneered a fresh approach to ending and preventing homelessness by weaving together supportive services, safe and affordable housing, and neighborhood revitalization efforts. What once was a blighted neighborhood in downtown Pontiac, destroyed by drugs and prostitution, is now a growing community where children ride their bikes safely up and down the street.” <http://www.gracecentersofhope.org/> 41 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  22. 22. PRIVATE DONATIONS FREE COMMUNITY HEALTH CLINIC CHURCHES EMERGENCY SHELTER PROGRAM One of the reasons Grace Centers of Hope is such a successful stewardship organization is because the organization is entirely self-sustaining. Since Grace does not rely on government funding, the center is free to be resourceful, experimental, and community based with their funding THRIFT STORES AFTER CARE and operation. The diagram to the left PROGRAM exemplifies how Grace Centers of Hope acts as a catalyst within its community through its thrift stores, community clinic, and its rehabilitation programs. Many of Grace’s graduates later return to the community to be volunteers, continuing to build up Little Grace Village and maintain the shelter. VOLUNTEERS LITTLE GRACE VILLAGE 43 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  23. 23. ARTISTS FOR HUMANITY BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Vinyl From Billboards Used Magazines Reused Shoes The Artists for Humanity building might be considered good stewardship because it is LEED Platinum, but stewardship goes beyond the building into the program Artist Designed and the items they produce. Artists for Humanity takes Bathrooms “Artists for in troubled adolescents and helps them establish Humanity’s mission is to careers in the arts. The program assists the students bridge economic, in marketing and selling the items they create, often racial, and from reused materials. In the aspect of stone soup, social division by providing under the organization bleeds out into the community served youth through its program, but also draws the community with the keys to self-sufficiency in with its architecture. The exhibition hall is rented out through paid as banquet facility, both bringing in revenue and acting employment in the arts” as a public gallery for the students’ work. Rentable Gathering Space Railing Made From Windshields <http://www.afhboston.com/>ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS 44 45 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  24. 24. FREEmobile SEATTLE, WASHINGTON Before After The FREEmobile is a 1968 Chevy step-van, designed by the artist Jon Rubin. On eight different weekends, during the summer of 2003, different members of the community took the van out into their neighborhood and The FREEmobile gave away a particular skill, talent, or resource is stewardship on wheels. Going for free to their neighbors. Some people gave away Free Pansies directly into vegetables or flowers from their gardens; others offered the community and catalyzing bike repairs, or free hair braiding. In a community dialogue, struggling to find an identity, this project was mobile interaction, and sharing. and activating, creating a dialogue and acting as a vessel for shared time, talents, and resources. Free Incense Trees Free Massage Free Dance Lessons Clare Cumberlidge and Lucy Musgrave Free Braids Design and Landscape for PeopleARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS 46 47 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  25. 25. CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS These three precedents make it quite evident that an architecture of stewardship is inextricably related to a program of stewardship. A building alone cannot be a steward or act in stewardship, instead a building needs a steward. A building can be a vessel, a vehicle, a result, or a catalyst for stewardship, but only if the program and the people acting within it are being or doing stewardship themselves. Therefore to build or design an architecture of stewardship, the architect must first set in place or ensure the existence of a steward and a stewardship program. Stewardship is the idea of responsibility without ownership. A steward’s possessions, skills, and even his or her timeare not meant to be hoarded forhis or her benefit alone, but to be used and shared for the benefitof neighbors and community. 49 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENTS
  26. 26. COMMUNITYNEEDS ASSESSMENT
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNITY SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT Any post-industrial city within the United States would have most likely been an appropriate place to explore this thesis. Most cities that once relied on manufacturing and industry as their sole sources of income and economy are now suffering from the massive voids and damages caused by the rise and fall of their once prized industrial leaders. For the past several decades, American society has produced less and less goods due to outsourcing and more and more waste DETROIT due to consumerism. This disproportionate cycle of unfettered, global capitalism is negatively affecting all 96 ANN ARBOR WINDSOR involved, as made most evident by the recent global 94 WAYNE COUNTY recession and the ever-present effects of global climate change. With many people fed up with this 75 23 sick cycle yet unwilling or unsure how to change it, the climate is perfect to test the insertion of a synergistic, 127 alternate yet coexistent system within American capitalism. This system could allow for an architecture TOLEDO The following as well as an entire system of stewardship to exist and diagrams explain the comparisons even thrive within our cities and our society. and contrasts of The goal of site selection was to find a community the two cities 24 90 as well as the that could provide both the steward and the environment DEFIANCE COUNTY selection of SANDUSKY to foster the growth and development of an architecture Defiance as the DEFIANCE community in of stewardship and its necessary correspondent system of which to exploreFORT WAYNE stewardship and stone soup. The two cities considered an architecture of stewardship were Detroit, Michigan and Defiance, Ohio. Thomas Sugrue, Origins of the Urban Crisis 53 COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  28. 28. Wayne County Urban Land: 99% Defiance County Urban Land: 3%Wayne County Rural Land: 1% Defiance County Rural Land: 97%City of Detroit Population: 886,671 City of Defiance Population: 15,998Wayne County Population: 1,985,101 Defiance County Population: 38,543Postindustrial Disinvestment YES Postindustrial Disinvestment YESDepopulation YES Depopulation YESRegional Hub YES Regional Hub YESGeneral Lack of Stewardship YES General Lack of Stewardship YESSeveral Strong Stewardship Organizations A Few Social Service InstitutionsOverwhelming Need More Manageable NeedsExciting Things Happening Now No Clear, Creative Proposals Presently in PlaceCreative Community Development Organizations Few to No Community Development Organizations
  29. 29. DEFIANCE, OHIO Defiance is a city of approximately 16,000 people. It is situated at the intersection of three rivers: the Tiffin River from the north as well as the Auglaize River from the south both flow into the Maumee River. The Maumee flows northeast to Toledo and empties into Lake Erie. The town is named after Fort Defiance which was built in the early 1800’s. The early growth of the city was a result of both the canals and later trains that passed through the area. The infrastructures of both have had lasting effects on the fabric of the city. General Motors has been the biggest employer for the city since the plant opened nearly eighty years ago. Although the plant, situated just outside the eastern city limit, still provides more jobs the any other employer in town, the factory’s numbers have gone down from 5,500 While Defiance in the late 1970’s to just over 1,300 employees to date. does have a As a result of this and the U.S. economy in general, number of problems that unemployment in Defiance is hovering around 13%. The have resulted county applied for federal assistance in 2008. from a lack of stewardship, The City of Defiance is the county seat for the city was Defiance County and houses the county’s civic buildings, also selected because of its along with other assets such as Defiance College and the large number Defiance Regional Medical Center. Conversely, Defiance of potential stewards and an has a poor record in regards to historic stewardship. Many atmosphere and beautiful buildings have been torn down to make room DETROIT size that could 96 ANN ARBOR WINDSOR lend itself to for the new. As a result of this, along with the recent WAYNE COUNTY 94 experimentation additions (within the last thirty years) of a mall, Meijer, 23 75 creativity, and the development Walmart, Kohls, Office Max, Walgreens, Rite Aid, Big Lots, 127 of a system of Dollar General, Lowes, and Menards, the county’s stewardship and landfill has been growing at an alarming rate. TOLEDO stone soup. 24 90 DEFIANCE COUNTY SANDUSKY DEFIANCEFORT WAYNE <http://www.defecon.com/> “GM Plant Saved,” June 1, 2009 <http://www.crescent-news.com/> 57 COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  30. 30. The three rivers Industry is not create natural concentrated wi- Tiffin River boundaries within thin one single the city. From part of the city, er downtown there but developed e Riv u me is one bridge that with the city in Ma crosses north to many different the main com- areas. Several in- mercial district, dustrial buildings r and two that cross are presently va- ve Ri east to residen- cant. Sadly, most ze i tial and industrial new industries gla Au neighborhoods. prefer to build new facilities rather than reus- ing existing ones.River and Flood Plains Industrial The original, Big Box Retail The large red and densely packed pink region in the street grid that north is the city’s can be seen in the main retail cor- core of the city ridor, mainly con- begins to disperse sisting of big box as one moves retail and a mall. Downtown further into the Downtown There are some countryside. Two smaller business- rails pass through es downtown and the city: one local one larger strip and one national. center on the east side.Roads and Railroads Businesses Much of the older The city is some- housing stock was what lacking in built between large scale park 1850 and 1920. space. There More homes were are no places to built in the 50’s, walk, bike, or run 60’s, and 70’s to along the river, accommodate wo- Downtown except for one rkers moving to small section near town to work for the library. Most GM. Many of the Cemetery residents walk, recent homes bike, and run at have been built the large cem- in Mcmansion-like etery, just south subdivisions. of downtown.Residential Parks, and Special Uses
  31. 31. 8 4 2 3 5 1 7 69 L-LANDFILL SR-SUBURBAN RESIDENCE R1-LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL R2-MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL R3-HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL R4-MOBILE HOME PARK B1-CENTRAL BUSINESS PRIOR BUILDING OF ST. MARY’S CATHOLIC SCHOOL 1 B2-NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS PRIOR BUILDING OF ST. JOHN’S CATHOLIC SCHOOL 2 B3-GENERAL BUSINESS ABANDONED GRAIN ELEVATOR AND ADJACENT BUILDINGS 3 B4-COMMUNITY SHOPPING CENTER VACANT BUILDINGS ALONG CLINTON STREET 4 S1-SPECIAL PRIOR SITE OF BRICKELL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 5 FP-FLOOD PLAIN PRIOR SITE OF GOLDENETZ GROCERY STORE 6 AO-INSTITUTIONS AND OFFICES HISTORIC FIRE STATION 7 M1-RESTRICTED INDUSTRIAL NORTHSIDE BRIDGE AND SURROUNDING AREA 8 M2-LIMITED INDUSTRIAL PRIOR BUILDING OF ZELLER MANUFACTURING 9 M3-GENERAL INDUSTRIAL
  32. 32. COMMUNITY RESEARCH DEFIANCE, OHIO For the needs assessment, both the city’s history and the issues it is presently facing were studied. Interviews were set up with Kris Byrant, the director of the PATH Center, Defiance’s homeless shelter and soup kitchen, and Lee Rausch, the City Engineer. Similarly, information was gleaned from observing one of the city’s strategic planning committee meetings. These interviews and meetings were used to help understand some of the strengths, weaknesses, assets, and opportunities the American Cancer Society, city has to offer. American Red The interviews provided two necessary, yet Cross , Defiance Area completely different perspectives on the city and Youth for Christ, what it needs. Kris Byrant naturally provided a human First Call for Help, development viewpoint, bringing forth concerns Goodwill affecting the poor and vulnerable in Defiance, whereas Industries of Northwest Ohio, Lee Rausch concentrated on the physical development Sarah’s House, of the city.The Defiance Area Foundation, Some of the issues raised in regards to human YMCA, needs were the necessity for some type of transportation Young Peoples Theater Guild, for those who cannot afford to own and maintain their Habitat for own vehicles, as well as more affordable housing, and a Humanity, Big Brothers Big better job skills and training program for the region. The Sisters, and problems caused by the city’s aging housing stock were Rotary ClubA list of just some also mentioned. Most homes do not meet HUD standards organizational due to lead paint or lack of weatherization. Because of assets the city already has to this, most HUD money given to the PATH Center for the offer. rapid rehousing of families in danger of homelessness cannot be used. Some of the physical development issues raised involved circulation throughout the city. With a desire to turn the historic downtown of Defiance into a more pedestrian friendly area, it is necessary to reroute the existing truck traffic around the city’s core. Additionally, Defiance would like to adaptively reuse some of their vacant older buildings throughout the 63 COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  33. 33. LIST OF IDENTIFIED PLACE NEEDScity and design mixed-use districts, especially near the 1. Defiance needs a place for small scale makershistoric downtown. There is also a desire for the city to to Make and share their goods.redevelop the old canal as a greenway and make betteruse of its natural assets, such as the rivers. 2. Defiance needs a place where the hungry can be Naturally, some of the biggest concerns the city Served dinner.has within its strategic plan are economic. Creating andmaintaining competitive employment and commerce 3. Defiance needs a place for people without healthwithin the city is key to its health and well being. Along insurance to stay healthy and Heal.with bringing in more manufacturing, Defiance wishes toattract more high-end or name-brand retail companies 4. Defiance needs a better place for the jobless toand restaurants. Learn skills so they can find and maintain The information gathered from these meetings employment.and interviews was analyzed and translated into ten“place needs” within the city. Some of the expressed 5. Defiance needs a place to help it Grow in awants were not necessarily needs or did not correspond healthy way.with the ideals of stewardship, therefore the final listwas framed within the perspective of stewardship 6. Defiance needs more places to assist people in Groundingand its relationship to architecture. needs in place Sharing their skills with the community. reinforces the idea of architecture 7. Defiance needs more places to Play. as the vehicle or vessel of a stewardship 8. Defiance needs more places to Gather program or “non-recyclable” waste so that it can be reused organization. The two are instead of being thrown in the County Landfill. codependent. 9. Defiance needs more clean, warm, affordable and safe places to Live. 10. Defiance is lacking a way to Connect all of these places, especially for those who do not These needs each own cars. correspond to a type of place the city is lacking, places that any community must have in order to be healthy.COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT 64 65 COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  34. 34. SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS

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