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Local tree knowledge on coffee agroforestry systems in mountainous areas of Vietnam

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Local tree knowledge on coffee agroforestry systems in mountainous areas of Vietnam

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Local tree knowledge on coffee agroforestry systems in mountainous areas of Vietnam

  1. 1. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Local tree knowledge on coffee agroforestry systems in mountainous areas of Vietnam Nguyen Mai Phuong – ICRAF Vietnam Philippe Vaast – ICRAF/CIRAD
  2. 2. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Background • Coffee (Arabica and Robusta) is the second most important exported cash crops of Vietnam • Arabica with higher price accounts for only 4% of exported amount • Arabica is mainly cultivated in North West (16,000 ha) and North central coast of Vietnam • In North West, coffee is the main substitute for maize and cassava on sloping land from 600 m to 1000 m when maize price decreased. Problem Context Solutions Stable soils – Increased productivity – Livelihood diversification – Stabilized income • Full sun monoculture coffee is not long-term economic sustainable • Enhanced soil degradation, particularly soil erosion in mountainous areas of this region • Low biodiversity • Increasing usage herbicide due to lack of shade • Integrating trees in coffee systems
  3. 3. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Study site 124 farmers in Son La and Dien Bien Ethnicity - Kinh: 25 - Thai: 83 - H’mong: 16 Gender - Male: 68 - Female: 56
  4. 4. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Common practices of agroforestry coffee system • Coffee – Fruit trees Coffee – Avocado in Muoi Noi commune, Thuan Chau district, Son La province. Avocado is planted at 7 m x 7 m spacing in 2012 Simple Coffee –Fruit trees Coffee – Longan- Mango – Plum in Chieng Mai commune, Mai Son district, Son La province. Fruit trees are scattered in coffee garden. Complex Coffee – Fruit trees
  5. 5. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Coffee – Legume trees Coffee – Leucaena leucocephala in Ang Nua commune, Muong Ang district, Dien Bien province. Leucaena is planted at 5 m x 5 m in the beginning and thinned after several years up to 12 m x 12 m • Coffee – Timber trees Coffee - Melia – Native timber trees in Ang Cang commune, Muong Ang district, Dien Bien province. Melia is planted along plot boundary as border marker. Common practices of agroforestry coffee system
  6. 6. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Species richness between coffee agroforestry systems and non-coffee systems
  7. 7. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Species richness in coffee agroforestry systems among three ethnic groups
  8. 8. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Tree presence on coffee agroforestry plots by proximity to road 0 20 40 60 80 100 Far Medium Near-by Percentage Commercial fruit Commercial timber Native timber Family consumption Industrial crop Shade tree
  9. 9. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Farmer’s perspective on tree benefits to coffee Coffee production Soil moisture Soil fertility Soil erosion Use of fertilizer Biodiversity Climate regulation Wind control Frost control Shade provision Mulch provision Fruit production Wood production Weed control Soil moisture interaction Light interaction Pest bio-control Medicine Rodents Coffee life expectancy
  10. 10. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Farmer’s ranking of tree species in coffee agroforestry systems for different services Example of result of tree ranking module in R for soil erosion • Coffee production • Soil moisture • Soil fertility • Biodiversity • Soil erosion • Climate regulation • Wind control • Frost control • Use of fertilizer • Shade provision • Mulch provision
  11. 11. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Online tree advice tool http://www.shadetreeadvice.org/
  12. 12. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Conclusion • Farmers have deep knowledge of the benefits of trees to coffee in coffee agroforestry systems • Farmers still have limited experience/knowledge on impact of shade trees to coffee quality and coffee yield. • The selection of tree species in coffee agroforestry systems is influenced by proximity of farms to road/market. Farmers living near main road tend to plant more commercial fruit trees while farmers living far away from main road plant more timber trees. • No significant findings between gender and ethnicity • This study and the tool (shadetreeadvice.org) help local extension institutions and farmers in the selection of the right tree species according to the local context together with households’ needs and constraints towards more sustainable and climate-smart coffee systems
  13. 13. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees World Agroforestry (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 20 722 4000 Fax: +254 20 722 4001 Email: icraf@cigar.org Website: www.worldagroforestry.org Thank you! Nguyen Mai Phuong (n.maiphuong@cgiar.org)

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