Formally known as..now called STI’s
STI’s were termed as Venereal Diseases (VD’s).
From VD the name then changed to Sexually
Transmitted Diseases (STD’s).
However the term ‘disease’ may indicate a serious
long term issue, whereas an ‘illness’ covers all areas
from an easily cured feeling of unwell to a more
serious infection or disease.
STI’s ..What are they?
are sexually transmitted infections spread mainly
through person to person contact such as vaginal,
oral and anal sex.
are mostly caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
can cause a range of problems from short term
(itching) to long term (infertility) and even death.
symptoms may be immediate, or in some cases show
no signs of infection (Chlamydia, Herpes virus).
Bacterias and Parasites can be cured.
Viruses usually incurable.
What can STI’s do to you?
Kill you at worst
Make your life shorter and less enjoyable
Affect relationships and cause distrust
How are STI’s passed on?
The most common ways STI’s can be passed
from one person to another is through specific
vaginal intercourse (penis in vagina)
anal intercourse (penis in anus)
oral sex (mouth on vagina or mouth on penis).
However, some STIs can also be passed on by
close physical contact or even by fingers
touching infected areas.
The 3 types of STI’s
1. Bacteria – a single celled organism
treated by antibacterial treatment
- Chlamydia, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea
2. Virus – an even smaller micro-organism
that can only reproduce inside a host’s
living cell. It is very difficult to kill.
- HIV , Genital herpes, HPV-Type 1 and 2
3. Parasites – are mites that live on the
host and lay eggs and reproduce.
- Pubic lice , Scabies
A bacterial infection passed on through oral, vaginal or anal sex
and can be passed on through skin-to-skin contact with an
infected area- 3 main types-:
Chlamydia Syphilis Gonorrhoea
Chlamydia-What is it…How do you get it?
It’s the most common STI.
It’s most commonly found in under 25 year olds.
It is the ‘silent infection’ as often there are no symptoms.
Chlamydia can be passed on through unprotected oral,
vaginal or anal sex.
A pregnant woman can also pass it onto her baby during
childbirth e.g. in the eye.
Chlamydia CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet
seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels.
Condoms and regular tests will check on whether you have
75% women with Chlamydia show no signs.
Symptoms may include-:
burning and itching in genital areas as well as eyes
burning and itching when you urinate
needing to urinate a lot
pain in and around genital areas
Females: bleeding in between and painful periods
Males: watery discharge from penis, scrotum pain
Chlamydia – Treatment (silent STI)
Tests involve a simple urine test or a swab of the
penis, anus, cervix or vagina.
An annual Chlamydia check-up recommended for
sexually active people under the age of 25.
If detected early, Chlamydia can be treated with
a course of antibiotics.
Partners of people with Chlamydia need to be
informed, tested and treated as well.
Syphilis-What is it…How do you get it?
Direct contact with a syphilis sore, mainly on
external genitals, vagina, anus, mouth and lips.
Syphilis can be passed on through skin to skin
contact with sores- vaginal, anal, oral sex or kissing.
Pregnant women can pass it onto babies whilst they
Syphilis may be passed on through blood
transfusion ( but nowadays this is uncommon.
Syphilis CANNOT be spread though contact with
toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared
Primary Stage: (3-6 weeks if untreated)
Appearance of a sore- often painless.
Sore lasts 3-6 weeks if not treated then infection
progresses to secondary stage
Secondary Stage: (up to 24 months if untreated)
Rash develops along with many symptoms-:
fever, sore throat, headaches
Weight loss, muscle aches, fatigue
It is highly contagious when the rash is present
If untreated, it could cause brain, heart disease and
Syphilis – Treatment
Tests involve examining the sore and /or through
having a blood test.
Syphilis can be treated with a course of antibiotics.
Partners of people with Syphilis need to be
informed, tested and treated as well.
Gonorrhoea-What is it-How do you get it?
Also known as ‘the clap’.
It is a very common infection, especially among
young people ages 15-24 years.
It can affect the penis, vagina (cervix), anus and
It is passed on through unprotected sex-vaginal,
A pregnant women can also pass gonorrhoea on
Gonorrhoea CANNOT be spread though contact
with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools,
shared clothing, towels. Bacteria
a burning sensation when urinating, discharge
sore throat ( from anal or oral gonorrhoea)
anal soreness and itching
painful bowel movements and bleeding
white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis;
painful or swollen testicles ( this is less common).
Heavy periods and vaginal bleeding between periods
Abdominal pain leads to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
Gonorrhoea – Treatment
Tests involve swabs from infected area.
Gonorrhoea treatment with a course of antibiotics.
Although medication will stop the infection, it will
not undo any permanent damage caused by the
Infertility-inability to get pregnant
Long-term pelvic/abdominal pain
Painful condition in vas deferens
Untreated gonorrhea may also increase your
chances of getting or giving HIV.
HIV/ AIDS- What is HIV? -Viral
HIV stands for ‘Human Immunodeficiency Virus’
Human-can only affect humans
Immunodeficiency- weakens immune system by destroying cells that
fight infection and disease.
Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body
of its host.
Like other viruses, except it destroys the immune system.
When this happens it leads to AIDS.
If a person is HIV positive, it doesn’t mean that they have
AIDS. They carry the HIV virus and can pass it on. AIDS
develops months or years after infection with the virus.
Treatments keep people with HIV/AIDS healthier.
There is no cure.
HIV/ AIDS- What is AIDS? -Viral
AIDS stands for-:
A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You
acquire AIDS after birth.
I – Immuno –The body's immune system includes all the organs and
cells that work to fight off infection or disease.
D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient,”
and not working the way it should.
S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a sign of a complex illness with a wide
range of symptoms.
AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.
People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged
immune systems, which put them at risk with any infection,
often resulting in death.
HIV- How is it spread? -Viral
HIV is spread through
blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of a
person infected with HIV.
Higher risk through-:
Unprotected sexual contact (vaginal, anal)
Sharing needles with someone who has HIV
Lower risk through
HIV infected mother during pregnancy, birth, breast milk
Unprotected oral sex with someone with HIV
HIV CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet seats,
doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels, kissing,
HIV Symptoms -Viral
Tiredness fevers, chills and night sweats
Rapid weight loss, decreased appetite
Swollen lymph glands
White spots or unusual marks in the mouth
Purplish skin marks or bumps, usually painless
HIV Treatment -Viral
Treatment can’t cure HIV, but it can help people
with HIV live longer, healthier lives.
Early treatment can minimise affect of HIV on the body
Genital Herpes -What is it? -Viral
Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV1 or HSV2).
HSV1- Type 1
infects mouth and face producing cold sores.
Cold sores on the mouth can cause genital infection
during oral sex for those who do not already have
the cold sore virus
HSV2- Type 2
occurs mainly on the genitals
Spread from skin-to-skin contact-: oral, anal or
Due to oral sex Type 1 can infect the genital area and
Type 2 can infect area around the mouth.
Genital Herpes-How is it spread?
Type 1-When you have a cold sore this is the
virus shedding (and coming to the surface) and it
can easily be passed on at this time.
Type 2-Genital herpes is spread through direct
contact with blisters, ulcers, mucus or vaginal
through vaginal, anal, oral sex.
Unfortunately condoms only provide protection
when covering or separating body parts infected
with ulcers and blisters.
Genital Herpes Symptoms
Short term effects
Itching, discomfort in the genital area.
Sores -small painful blisters, become shallow ulcers
and lead to scabs.
Flu-like symptoms – such as feeling unwell,
headaches and pains in the back and legs
Long term effects
Although the sores disappear, the virus probably
remains in the body for life.
Frequent outbreaks will vary for each person.
A viral swab will confirm the presence of HSV 1 and 2.
Genital Herpes Treatment
There is NO cure for Herpes ( Type 1 or 2)
Bathing in warm salt water can help minimise the
pain and discomfort.
Antiviral treatment may decrease inflammation
and decrease symptoms.
Genital Warts What is it? Symptoms?
Caused by the Human Papilla Virus (HPV).
May appear as lumps around the vulva or in the
vagina, on the penis or around or inside the anus.
They appear as growths and may be
flat or raised
single or multiple
clustered together with a cauliflower-like appearance
They may be painless or cause some irritation.
There may be no symptoms of the infection.
Some people feel mild irritation from warts.
Genital Warts Treatment - Viral
Genital warts can be removed by a Doctor
They can be frozen or treated with creams.
Regular pap smears are required for females.
Hepatitis- What is It? -Viral
‘Hepatitis’ means ‘inflammation of the liver’.
There are three forms of hepatitis
Hepatitis A (spread by faeces)
Hepatitis A (Hep A)- How is it spread?
A viral infection which can affect the liver.
Spread by faeces.
Hep A passed on if in direct contact with food, or
objects contaminated faeces of infected person.
Occurs in childcare centres during nappy changing.
Once infected, you will NOT get it again.
You can be immunised against Hep A but NOT
treated for it.
Hep A -Symptoms - Viral
Symptoms occur 15 - 50 days after catching virus
People ( under 5 years) show no symptoms
flu symptoms, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting
jaundiced skin and eyes
Diagnosed by a blood test.
Wash hands with soap and water
Thoroughly clean toilet seats, taps etc.
Boil drinking water from untreated source e.g. river.
Hep B How is it spread? -Viral?
Hep B is a disease caused by Virus (HBV).
Infection can lead to liver failure, liver
cancer and even death.
Hep B is spread by infected blood, bodily
fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, sores.
Hep B spread via-:
Sharing needles related to drug taking
Non sterile tattooing and piercing
Infected mother through birth
Sharing of toothbrushes, razors with infected blood.
Hep B Symptoms - Viral
Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, fever
Pain in the liver and joints
Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)
Most recover from Hep B
Some people become chronic carriers
Long term effects: Scarring of the liver, poor liver function,
Frequently there will be no symptoms, and it is only discovered
in a blood test
Often, symptoms occur one to six months after exposure.
30% of those infected do not show typical signs or symptoms.
Hep B Treatment / Prevention
Vaccine will prevent contracting the disease.
Blood test to check you need vaccine
Use protection during sex
Immunise baby ASAP if mother in infected
Avoid oral sex with bleeding gums
Wear gloves to clean up spilt blood
Use clean needles
Hep C What is it? How is it spread?
Liver illness caused by Hep C virus.
Most have illness for life.
Illness can cause liver problems.
blood contact with infected person
sharing needles, toothbrushes, razors
getting tattooed or pierced with unclean
equipment from infected person
passed from mother to baby
Hep C Symptoms
Often there are no symptoms
Others experience flu symptoms:
Mild to severe tiredness
Loss of appetites
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle aches and abdominal pain
Hep C Treatment_Prevention
There is NO vaccine but drugs to treat it which
may cause cure or less pain
70% infected people carry it for life
15-20% will develop cirrhosis of the liver (scarring) and
this can turn into cancer
Prevent it by not sharing toothbrushes, razors
Ensure sterile tattooing equipment
Never share needles
Wear gloves to clean up blood spills
Pubic Lice/ Crabs What are they?
Small lice that infect pubic hair, armpit and
eyebrows and lay eggs.
Spread by close personal contact, not always
Toilet seats, sheets, blankets, bathing suits in shops
Itching, bluish skin
Sores due to bites and scratching
Scabies What are they?
Small mites that burrow under the skin to lay eggs.
This can occur anywhere on the skin.
Causes intense itchiness.
Spread by close personal contact - not always
May be spread from sharing unwashed bed linen,
clothes and towels
Scabies Symptoms -Treatment
Symptoms may include-:
Itching, worse at night or after a hot shower
A bump blister rash , often difficult to see
Rash visible on wrists, armpits, stomach, genitals
Children get face rashes, scalp and soles of feet
Symptoms occur 2-4 weeks after infection but
people who had it before only 24-48 hours after
Fungus- Candidas (Thrush)
Vaginal thrush is NOT a sexually transmissible infection
Caused by an overgrowth of yeasts in the vagina
Women may experience -:
Vaginal discomfort and a thick white discharge with a ‘cottage cheese’
Redness or swelling of the vagina or vulva
Stinging or burning while urinating and during sex.
Diagnosis made via examination and / or swab
Antifungal creams or tablets
You can still have sex when you have vaginal thrush
Males may experience itching, burning on urination,
reddening of penis
Trichomoniasis - Bacteria
Trichomoniasis is caused by a small organism called
Women are most often affected by this disease, although men
can become infected and pass on infection to their partners
through sexual contact.
Yellow-green vaginal discharge in women which may feel
irritating and have a strong smell.
May be passed onto male leading to similar discharge or no
symptoms at all.
Easily diagnosed by examination and swab.
How can STI’s be avoided?
Avoid sex altogether
Get tested with a new partner
Discuss protection with your partner
Don’t share needles
Be careful with people who are bleeding