Sti's updated-What you need to know


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STI information with content knowledge of what is important relating to protecting oneself. This is targeted for 16yer old students as teaching support and may contain some graphic pictures.

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Sti's updated-What you need to know

  1. 1. Sexually Transmitted Infections
  2. 2. Formally known called STI’s  STI’s were termed as Venereal Diseases (VD’s).  From VD the name then changed to Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s).  However the term ‘disease’ may indicate a serious long term issue, whereas an ‘illness’ covers all areas from an easily cured feeling of unwell to a more serious infection or disease.
  3. 3. STI’s ..What are they? STI’s…  are sexually transmitted infections spread mainly through person to person contact such as vaginal, oral and anal sex.  are mostly caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites.  can cause a range of problems from short term (itching) to long term (infertility) and even death.  symptoms may be immediate, or in some cases show no signs of infection (Chlamydia, Herpes virus).  Bacterias and Parasites can be cured.  Viruses usually incurable.
  4. 4. What can STI’s do to you?  Kill you at worst  Make your life shorter and less enjoyable  Cause pain  Cause discomfort  Cause infertility  Cause embarrassment  Affect relationships and cause distrust
  5. 5. How are STI’s passed on? The most common ways STI’s can be passed from one person to another is through specific sexual behaviours:  vaginal intercourse (penis in vagina)  anal intercourse (penis in anus)  oral sex (mouth on vagina or mouth on penis). However, some STIs can also be passed on by close physical contact or even by fingers touching infected areas.
  6. 6. The 3 types of STI’s 1. Bacteria – a single celled organism treated by antibacterial treatment - Chlamydia, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea 2. Virus – an even smaller micro-organism that can only reproduce inside a host’s living cell. It is very difficult to kill. - HIV , Genital herpes, HPV-Type 1 and 2 3. Parasites – are mites that live on the host and lay eggs and reproduce. - Pubic lice , Scabies
  7. 7. Bacterial infections A bacterial infection passed on through oral, vaginal or anal sex and can be passed on through skin-to-skin contact with an infected area- 3 main types-: Chlamydia Syphilis Gonorrhoea
  8. 8. Chlamydia-What is it…How do you get it?  It’s the most common STI.  It’s most commonly found in under 25 year olds.  It is the ‘silent infection’ as often there are no symptoms.  Chlamydia can be passed on through unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex.  A pregnant woman can also pass it onto her baby during childbirth e.g. in the eye. ALSO  Chlamydia CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels.  Condoms and regular tests will check on whether you have Chlamydia. Bacteria
  9. 9. Chlamydia-Symptoms  75% women with Chlamydia show no signs. Symptoms may include-:  burning and itching in genital areas as well as eyes  burning and itching when you urinate  needing to urinate a lot  pain in and around genital areas  Females: bleeding in between and painful periods  Males: watery discharge from penis, scrotum pain and swelling Bacteria
  10. 10. Chlamydia – Treatment (silent STI)  Tests involve a simple urine test or a swab of the penis, anus, cervix or vagina.  An annual Chlamydia check-up recommended for sexually active people under the age of 25.  If detected early, Chlamydia can be treated with a course of antibiotics.  Partners of people with Chlamydia need to be informed, tested and treated as well. Bacteria
  11. 11. Syphilis-What is it…How do you get it?  Direct contact with a syphilis sore, mainly on external genitals, vagina, anus, mouth and lips.  Syphilis can be passed on through skin to skin contact with sores- vaginal, anal, oral sex or kissing.  Pregnant women can pass it onto babies whilst they are pregnant.  Syphilis may be passed on through blood transfusion ( but nowadays this is uncommon. ALSO..  Syphilis CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels. Bacteria
  12. 12. Syphilis- Symptoms Primary Stage: (3-6 weeks if untreated)  Appearance of a sore- often painless.  Sore lasts 3-6 weeks if not treated then infection progresses to secondary stage Secondary Stage: (up to 24 months if untreated)  Rash develops along with many symptoms-:  fever, sore throat, headaches  Weight loss, muscle aches, fatigue  It is highly contagious when the rash is present  If untreated, it could cause brain, heart disease and death.
  13. 13. Syphilis – Treatment  Tests involve examining the sore and /or through having a blood test.  Syphilis can be treated with a course of antibiotics.  Partners of people with Syphilis need to be informed, tested and treated as well. Bacteria
  14. 14. Syphilis sufferers
  15. 15. Gonorrhoea-What is it-How do you get it?  Also known as ‘the clap’.  It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years.  It can affect the penis, vagina (cervix), anus and throat.  It is passed on through unprotected sex-vaginal, oral, anal.  A pregnant women can also pass gonorrhoea on through birth. ALSO  Gonorrhoea CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels. Bacteria
  16. 16. Gonorrhoea-Symptoms Symptoms include:  a burning sensation when urinating, discharge  sore throat ( from anal or oral gonorrhoea)  anal soreness and itching  painful bowel movements and bleeding Males:  white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis;  painful or swollen testicles ( this is less common). Females:  Heavy periods and vaginal bleeding between periods  Abdominal pain leads to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
  17. 17. Gonorrhoea – Treatment  Tests involve swabs from infected area.  Gonorrhoea treatment with a course of antibiotics.  Although medication will stop the infection, it will not undo any permanent damage caused by the disease.  Infertility-inability to get pregnant  Long-term pelvic/abdominal pain  Painful condition in vas deferens  Sterility ALSO..  Untreated gonorrhea may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV.
  18. 18. Gonorrhoea sufferers
  19. 19. Viral Infections
  20. 20. HIV/ AIDS- What is HIV? -Viral HIV stands for ‘Human Immunodeficiency Virus’  Human-can only affect humans  Immunodeficiency- weakens immune system by destroying cells that fight infection and disease.  Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host.  Like other viruses, except it destroys the immune system. When this happens it leads to AIDS.  If a person is HIV positive, it doesn’t mean that they have AIDS. They carry the HIV virus and can pass it on. AIDS develops months or years after infection with the virus.  Treatments keep people with HIV/AIDS healthier.  There is no cure.
  21. 21. HIV/ AIDS- What is AIDS? -Viral AIDS stands for-:  A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You acquire AIDS after birth.  I – Immuno –The body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease.  D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient,” and not working the way it should.  S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a sign of a complex illness with a wide range of symptoms.  AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.  People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems, which put them at risk with any infection, often resulting in death.
  22. 22. HIV- How is it spread? -Viral HIV is spread through  blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of a person infected with HIV.  Higher risk through-:  Unprotected sexual contact (vaginal, anal)  Sharing needles with someone who has HIV  Lower risk through  HIV infected mother during pregnancy, birth, breast milk  Unprotected oral sex with someone with HIV HIV CANNOT be spread though contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, shared clothing, towels, kissing, coughing, sneezing.
  23. 23. HIV Symptoms -Viral  Flu-like symptoms  Tiredness fevers, chills and night sweats  Rapid weight loss, decreased appetite  Swollen lymph glands  White spots or unusual marks in the mouth  Purplish skin marks or bumps, usually painless  Continuous coughing  Diarrhoea
  24. 24. HIV Treatment -Viral Treatment can’t cure HIV, but it can help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. Treatment includes-:  Drug treatment  Early treatment can minimise affect of HIV on the body  Alternative therapies-:  Vitamins  Meditation  Acupuncture  Massage  Chinese Medicine
  25. 25. Genital Herpes -What is it? -Viral Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV1 or HSV2). HSV1- Type 1  infects mouth and face producing cold sores.  Cold sores on the mouth can cause genital infection during oral sex for those who do not already have the cold sore virus HSV2- Type 2  occurs mainly on the genitals  Spread from skin-to-skin contact-: oral, anal or vaginal sex Due to oral sex Type 1 can infect the genital area and Type 2 can infect area around the mouth.
  26. 26. Genital Herpes-How is it spread?  Type 1-When you have a cold sore this is the virus shedding (and coming to the surface) and it can easily be passed on at this time.  Type 2-Genital herpes is spread through direct contact with blisters, ulcers, mucus or vaginal secretions…  through vaginal, anal, oral sex.  Unfortunately condoms only provide protection when covering or separating body parts infected with ulcers and blisters.
  27. 27. Genital Herpes Symptoms Short term effects  Itching, discomfort in the genital area.  Sores -small painful blisters, become shallow ulcers and lead to scabs.  Flu-like symptoms – such as feeling unwell, headaches and pains in the back and legs Long term effects  Although the sores disappear, the virus probably remains in the body for life.  Frequent outbreaks will vary for each person. A viral swab will confirm the presence of HSV 1 and 2.
  28. 28. Genital Herpes Treatment There is NO cure for Herpes ( Type 1 or 2)  Bathing in warm salt water can help minimise the pain and discomfort.  Antiviral treatment may decrease inflammation and decrease symptoms.
  29. 29. Genital Warts What is it? Symptoms?  Caused by the Human Papilla Virus (HPV).  May appear as lumps around the vulva or in the vagina, on the penis or around or inside the anus.  They appear as growths and may be  flat or raised  single or multiple  clustered together with a cauliflower-like appearance  They may be painless or cause some irritation.  There may be no symptoms of the infection.  Some people feel mild irritation from warts.
  30. 30. Genital Warts Treatment - Viral  Genital warts can be removed by a Doctor  They can be frozen or treated with creams.  Regular pap smears are required for females.
  31. 31. Hepatitis- What is It? -Viral  ‘Hepatitis’ means ‘inflammation of the liver’.  There are three forms of hepatitis  Hepatitis A (spread by faeces)  Hepatitis B  Hepatitis C
  32. 32. Hepatitis A (Hep A)- How is it spread?  A viral infection which can affect the liver.  Spread by faeces.  Hep A passed on if in direct contact with food, or objects contaminated faeces of infected person.  Occurs in childcare centres during nappy changing.  Once infected, you will NOT get it again.  You can be immunised against Hep A but NOT treated for it.
  33. 33. Hep A -Symptoms - Viral  Symptoms occur 15 - 50 days after catching virus  People ( under 5 years) show no symptoms  Symptoms include  flu symptoms, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting  jaundiced skin and eyes  Diagnosed by a blood test. Treatment  Wash hands with soap and water  Thoroughly clean toilet seats, taps etc.  Boil drinking water from untreated source e.g. river.
  34. 34. Hep B How is it spread? -Viral?  Hep B is a disease caused by Virus (HBV).  Infection can lead to liver failure, liver cancer and even death.  Hep B is spread by infected blood, bodily fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, sores.  Hep B spread via-:  Unprotected sex  Sharing needles related to drug taking  Non sterile tattooing and piercing  Infected mother through birth  Sharing of toothbrushes, razors with infected blood.
  35. 35. Hep B Symptoms - Viral  Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, fever  Pain in the liver and joints  Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)  Most recover from Hep B  Some people become chronic carriers  Long term effects: Scarring of the liver, poor liver function, liver cancer  Frequently there will be no symptoms, and it is only discovered in a blood test  Often, symptoms occur one to six months after exposure.  30% of those infected do not show typical signs or symptoms.
  36. 36. Hep B Treatment / Prevention  Vaccine will prevent contracting the disease.  Blood test to check you need vaccine  Use protection during sex  Get vaccinated  Immunise baby ASAP if mother in infected  Avoid oral sex with bleeding gums  Wear gloves to clean up spilt blood  Use clean needles
  37. 37. Hep C What is it? How is it spread?  Liver illness caused by Hep C virus.  Most have illness for life.  Illness can cause liver problems.  Spread by  blood contact with infected person  sharing needles, toothbrushes, razors  getting tattooed or pierced with unclean equipment from infected person  passed from mother to baby
  38. 38. Hep C Symptoms  Often there are no symptoms  Others experience flu symptoms:  Mild to severe tiredness  Loss of appetites  Nausea and vomiting  Fatigue, nausea  Muscle aches and abdominal pain
  39. 39. Hep C Treatment_Prevention  There is NO vaccine but drugs to treat it which may cause cure or less pain  70% infected people carry it for life  15-20% will develop cirrhosis of the liver (scarring) and this can turn into cancer  Avoid alcohol  Prevent it by not sharing toothbrushes, razors  Ensure sterile tattooing equipment  Never share needles  Wear gloves to clean up blood spills
  40. 40. Ectoparasitic infestations (Parasites)
  41. 41. Pubic Lice/ Crabs What are they?  Small lice that infect pubic hair, armpit and eyebrows and lay eggs.  Spread by close personal contact, not always sexually transmitted.  Spread through-:  Toilet seats, sheets, blankets, bathing suits in shops Symptoms  Itching, bluish skin  Sores due to bites and scratching Treatment  Prescription drugs
  42. 42. Scabies What are they?  Small mites that burrow under the skin to lay eggs.  This can occur anywhere on the skin.  Causes intense itchiness.  Spread by close personal contact - not always sexually transmitted.  May be spread from sharing unwashed bed linen, clothes and towels
  43. 43. Scabies Symptoms -Treatment Symptoms may include-:  Itching, worse at night or after a hot shower  A bump blister rash , often difficult to see  Rash visible on wrists, armpits, stomach, genitals  Children get face rashes, scalp and soles of feet  Symptoms occur 2-4 weeks after infection but people who had it before only 24-48 hours after Treatment  Prescription drugs
  44. 44. Vaginal Infections
  45. 45. Fungus- Candidas (Thrush) Vaginal thrush is NOT a sexually transmissible infection Caused by an overgrowth of yeasts in the vagina Symptoms  Women may experience -:  Vaginal discomfort and a thick white discharge with a ‘cottage cheese’ appearance  Redness or swelling of the vagina or vulva  Stinging or burning while urinating and during sex.  Diagnosis made via examination and / or swab Treatment  Antifungal creams or tablets  You can still have sex when you have vaginal thrush  Males may experience itching, burning on urination, reddening of penis
  46. 46. Trichomoniasis - Bacteria  Trichomoniasis is caused by a small organism called Trichomonas vaginalis.  Women are most often affected by this disease, although men can become infected and pass on infection to their partners through sexual contact. Symptoms  Yellow-green vaginal discharge in women which may feel irritating and have a strong smell.  May be passed onto male leading to similar discharge or no symptoms at all. Treatment  Easily diagnosed by examination and swab.  Antibiotics
  47. 47. How can STI’s be avoided?  Avoid sex altogether  Use protection  Get tested with a new partner  Discuss protection with your partner  Don’t share needles  Be careful with people who are bleeding