Chapter 9-Plants


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Chapter 9-Plants

  1. 1. Plants Chapter 9
  2. 2. Plants <ul><li>Plants range from microscopic to huge redwood tress. </li></ul><ul><li>Like bacteria, some plants grow in extreme conditions like ice bound polar regions, and hot deserts. </li></ul><ul><li>All plants need water, but some need to be completely submerged in either salt or fresh water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plant cells <ul><li>Plant cells are different from animal and bacterial cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They are more complex because they need special organelles to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a nuclei and contain numerous chromosomes. And they also have cell walls, made of cellulose, that allow for protection and also aid in structure of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants also contain chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that allows photosynthesis to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Many plants cells also have a large central vacuole that is needed to store water, and other pigments besides chlorophyll. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Origin of Plants <ul><li>Plants are said to evolve from green algae that lived in the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Algae use pigments like chlorophyll to go through photosynthesis as well as other pigments like carotenoids and xanthophylls. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils of early plants from 420 mill years ago show a common ancestry to green algae. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Land Plants <ul><li>It makes sense for plants to end up on land b/c there is more opportunity for them to get sunlight and CO2 for photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>One structure that helps plants stay hydrated is called the cuticle. </li></ul><ul><li>It covers the stems and leaves and is a waxy substance that doesn’t allow water to exit the cells of the plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants also, adapted to land in the reproductive aspect. They evolved a water proof seed that allowed better reproduction development on land. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Classification of Plants <ul><li>Plants can be vascular or nonvascular. </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular plants have things called xylem and phloem that act almost like veins and arteries. They carry water and nutrients up and down the plant as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Non –vascular plants do not have these but use other methods to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 247 ques 1-4 </li></ul>
  7. 9. Sec 9-2 Nonvascular seedless plants <ul><li>Nonvascular plants are usually just a few cells thick and only 2-5cm high. They do not have all of the structures that a large vascular plant might have. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of roots they have rhizoids, or threadlike structures that anchor them in the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>They also do not have flowers that produce seeds, they use what are called spores. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually grow in damp places so that surrounding water can diffuse directly through their cell membranes. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Nonvascular seedless plants <ul><li>Mosses are one type . They have green leaf like growths around a central stalk, and many celled rhizoids. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes they have caps on their stalks that hold their spores. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses grow on tree trunks, rocks, and the ground, usually in damp areas. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Nonvascular seedless plants <ul><li>Liverworts are nonvascular plants that have one celled rhizoids, and were thought to have medicinal properties that helped in curing liver diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Hornworts look like spikes, but only have one chloroplast per cell. Their spores look like the horns of cattle. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Liverworts & hornworts
  11. 13. Nonvascular seedless plants <ul><li>Good things about these types of plants is that they can last without a lot of water for a good period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>They can grow in thin soil and their spores get carried by the wind so they can reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are considered pioneer species because they are usually the first to grow in an undisturbed environment. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Vascular seedless plants <ul><li>Vascular seedless plants don’t use seeds either, they use spores, but they do have xylem and phloem to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of plants grow a lot larger than nonvascular plants because of the vascular tissue. They get more water and more nutrients. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Vascular seedless plants <ul><li>Ferns are the largest of this group and have stems, leaves called fronds and roots. </li></ul><ul><li>There are thousands of fern species on earth and they carry their spores on the underside of their fronds. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Vascular seedless plants <ul><li>Club mosses are more closely related to ferns than to mosses. </li></ul><ul><li>They have vascular tissue and have needle like leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>They have spores at the end of their stems in structures that resemble pine cones. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Vascular seedless plants <ul><li>When these vascular seedless plants die they decay and become compressed in the ground to form Peat. </li></ul><ul><li>Peat is a material that is the beginning stages of coal, and we can use it to get energy. Peat is used highly in places like Ireland, that have swampy boggy areas. </li></ul><ul><li>If Peat is left alone, after many, many years of compaction it will become coal. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 253 ques.1-4 </li></ul>
  16. 18. Sec 9-3 Seed plants <ul><li>Seed plants are the largest category of plant on earth. Every tree, vegetable, and fruit is a seed plant. </li></ul><ul><li>They have leaves, stems, roots, and vascular tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaves of a seed plant is were photosynthesis takes place. There will be more chloroplasts in the leaves of a seed plant then anywhere else. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Leaf structure <ul><li>Leaves have different layers. The upper and lower parts are called the epidermis, which cover and protect the leaf, the upper one is covered by a waxy cuticle. </li></ul><ul><li>The epidermis has small opening called stomata, to allow water, CO2 and O to enter and leave the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>These stomata each have 2 guard cells that open and close them. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Leaf structure <ul><li>Below the epidermis is the palisade layer. This layer has tightly packed cells that contain many chloroplasts for photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Below the palisade layer is the spongy layer, which contains vascular tissue and air spaces. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Stems <ul><li>The trunk of a tree is really the stem of the tree. Stems are located above ground and support the branches and leaves above it. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials like water, and nutrients make their way from the ground through the stem, to the leaves and vice versa through vascular tissue in the stem, leaves and roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant stems can be herbaceous, soft and green, or woody, like large trees and shrubs. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Roots <ul><li>Roots of a seed plant are the largest part of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>They allow for absorption of water and other nutrients from the ground through their vascular tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>They also act as anchor into the ground. And they store food as well. Carrots beets and potatoes are all plant roots. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Vascular tissue <ul><li>Xylem moves materials from the roots up to the rest of the plant and to the leaves so photosynthesis can occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem carries material from the leaves down to the rest of the plant, like sugar made in the leaves during photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Seed plant classification <ul><li>Gymnosperms- are plants that produce seeds that are not protected by a fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>They have no flowers, and their leaves are needle like. </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes are the 4 major types of gymnosperms. </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers are pine trees, firs, spruces, redwoods. They all produce male and female cones that are the plants reproductive structures. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Angiosperms <ul><li>These plants have flowers and have a fruit that contains seeds. They include all flowers like roses and fruits like apple, strawberries etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperms are divided into 2 groups: monocots and dicots. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Monocots Vs. dicots <ul><li>Have one cotyledon, apart of a seed that stores food. Dicots have 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Monocots have slender leaves and have flower parts in multiples of 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Dicots have wider leaves and flowers parts in multiplesof4 or 5. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 270 ques. 1-15 </li></ul>
  25. 29. Test in 1 Week!!!!