Plant science ppt


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This ppt takes students through the major areas of plant science including taxonomy, cells, roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.

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Plant science ppt

  1. 2. <ul><li>The branch of biology that deals with identifying and naming organisms is taxonomy . </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1700s, Carl von Linne (Linnaeus) of Sweden determined a classification system for minerals, plants, and animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Oder, Family, Genus, Species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binomial Nomenclature – 2 word naming system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus and species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive, no slang, universal </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Bryophytes </li></ul><ul><li>These are nonvascular plants </li></ul><ul><li>mosses and liverworts </li></ul><ul><li>limited in size due to the lack of vascular tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Most primitive </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Ferns are vascular plants that reproduce by spores </li></ul><ul><li>Ferns have no true leaves. Instead, ferns have fronds, which have the double purpose of food production and spore formation </li></ul><ul><li>newest fronds are </li></ul><ul><li>called fiddleheads </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Gymnosperms are plants that reproduce with seeds that lay naked on scales </li></ul><ul><li>Using a structure called a “cone.” </li></ul><ul><li>Conifer leaves are specialized to be either needles or scales </li></ul><ul><li>evergreen , holding leaves year round </li></ul><ul><li>deciduous , which means the leaves drop in the winter </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds that develop within a fruiting body </li></ul><ul><li>All the major agricultural crops are angiosperms. </li></ul><ul><li>Two distinct types of </li></ul><ul><li>angiosperm are </li></ul><ul><li>monocots and dicots. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 7. Single Cotyledon Scattered Vascular Bundles Parallel Veins Fibrous Roots Double Cotyledon Vascular Rings Netted Veins Tap Roots Monocot Dicot
  7. 11. <ul><li>The cell wall is a protective layer made of cellulose which surrounds the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane is a thin film comprised of 2 fatty layers that surround the cell and regulate the movement of material into and out of the cell. </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Cytoplasm is the semi-fluid inside the cell membrane which surrounds the organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles are small structures inside the cell which carry out the physiological processes of the organism. </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Chloroplasts are membranes filled with chlorophyll and are the site of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus contains the chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is surrounded by a membrane that allows the movement of materials needed for protein synthesis to pass through. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum is a system of tubes which move compounds through the cell to the ribosomes for protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Golgi apparatus processes, packages, and transports compounds through the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes assemble amino acids into proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole is a large storage compartment filled mostly with water. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>A. Absorb all of the water and minerals that a plant needs to live. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Anchor the plant to the ground and support the above ground part of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Store food made through photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>The first structure to emerge from the germinating seed is a root called a radicle . </li></ul><ul><li>This root becomes the primary root , and on some plants it is the most important root in the whole root system. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>B. Other roots eventually branch out from the primary root. These are called secondary or lateral roots . </li></ul>
  15. 20. Root Cap
  16. 24. <ul><li>White in color </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh smelling </li></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>Stems support the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Stems move water, minerals, and manufactured food throughout the whole plant </li></ul><ul><li>Green stems help produce food through photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Stems store food that has been manufactured by the plant. </li></ul>
  18. 27. <ul><li>herbaceous stems that are usually soft, green, and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>woody stems , which are generally hard and produce secondary growth </li></ul>
  19. 28. <ul><li>Terminal bud – upward growth </li></ul><ul><li>Apical meristem – growing point </li></ul><ul><li>Lenticel – breathing pore </li></ul><ul><li>Node – area of bud </li></ul><ul><li>Internode – area between buds </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral bud – side growth </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>Xylem – takes water and nutrients up </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem – takes sugars down </li></ul><ul><li>Cambium – makes new xylem and phloem </li></ul>
  21. 30. Xylem Phloem Vascular Cambium Notice that monocots do not have cambium
  22. 31. <ul><li>A. A bulb is a very short flattened stem that has several fleshy leaves attached to it. </li></ul><ul><li>B. A corm is a spherical structure like a bulb. The entire structure is stem as opposed to stem and leaves. A gladiolus is a corm. </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>A rhizome is a thick underground stem that lies horizontally (Hostas and Mother-in-law’s Tongue) </li></ul><ul><li>A stolon is a horizontal stem that lies above the ground. (Strawberries) </li></ul><ul><li>A tuber is a rhizome with a tip that is swollen with stored food (potatoes) </li></ul>
  24. 34. <ul><li>Photosynthesis – making food from light, water, and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – releasing water and oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  25. 36. <ul><li>Blade – flat part for catching sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Petiole – stem-like structure to hold leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Margin – edge of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Vein – conducts water and sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Midrib – central vein that connects to the stem </li></ul>
  26. 38. Epidermis = skin Xylem = water up Phloem = sugars down Palisade Mesophyll = site of photosynthesis Spongy Mesophyll = hold water & nutrients Stomata = pores that allow leaf to breath Guard cells = open and close stomata
  27. 47. <ul><li>The male part of a </li></ul><ul><li> flower is called </li></ul><ul><li>the stamen . </li></ul><ul><li>The stamen is </li></ul><ul><li>made of the </li></ul><ul><li>stalk-like filament which holds up the sac-like anther . </li></ul><ul><li>The anther contains pollen which contains the sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers that have only male parts are called staminate . </li></ul>
  28. 48. <ul><li>The female part of a flower is called the pistil . </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of a sticky tissue at its end called the stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receptive to pollen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Below the stigma is a rod-shaped middle part called the style and a swollen base containing eggs called the ovary . </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers that have only female parts are called pistillate . </li></ul>
  29. 49. Petal Calyx Corolla Sepal
  30. 51. Once the pollen reaches the stigma, it forms a pollen tube down through the style to the ovary where sperm is deposited.
  31. 52. <ul><li>Plants may produce flowers that are perfect or imperfect. </li></ul><ul><li>A flower that has both male and female parts is called a perfect flower . </li></ul><ul><li>A flower that is missing either male or female parts is called an imperfect flower . </li></ul>
  32. 53. <ul><li>Plants may have flowers that are complete or incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>If a flower has sepals, petals, pistils, and stamens, it is referred to as a complete flower . </li></ul><ul><li>If a flower is missing one of these parts, it is referred to as an incomplete flower . </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect flowers are always incomplete. Incomplete flowers may or may not be imperfect. </li></ul>