Chapter 12-volcanoes


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Chapter 12-volcanoes

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Volcanoes
  2. 2. Sec 12-1 What are volcanoes? <ul><li>A volcano is an opening in Earth that erupts gases, ash, and lava. A volcanic mountain forms when layers of lava ash build up along side of the volcano. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilauea (kee low Ay ah) in Hawaii is today’s most active volcano. </li></ul><ul><li>When eruptions occur they can cause major destruction, like the burning down of homes and forests and covering land in ash. </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of lava down the side of a mountain is called pyroclastic flow. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Formation of a volcano <ul><li>Deep in the Earth heat and pressure cause surrounding rock to melt and become magma. </li></ul><ul><li>Because this magma is less dense then the rock around it, it is forced upward toward the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>After a long time the magma reaches the surface and flows through a vent, or an opening in the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>As the magma flows out it becomes lava and hardens very quickly causing igneous rock to form around the vent , causing a steep wall, called a crater to form around the vent. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Volcano
  5. 5. Where do volcanoes occur? <ul><li>They occur in 3 places: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Where plates move apart. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Where plates move together. </li></ul><ul><li>3. And at hot spots. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where do volcanoes occur? <ul><li>Where plates move apart is called a divergent plate boundary. A major one is the Mid-Atlantic ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>When these plates move apart they form deep cracks called rifts. When these form lava can then rush through them creating a volcano. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The Surtsey Island in Iceland was formed this way. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where do volcanoes occur? <ul><li>Where plates move together is called a convergent plate boundary. Here plates tend to slide above or below each other and cause the most violent eruptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Soufriere Hills in Montserrat </li></ul>
  8. 8. Soufriere Hills in Montserrat, West Indies
  9. 9. Where do volcanoes occur? <ul><li>Some areas at the boundary between the Earths mantle and core are hot enough to melt rock and cause the magma to come to the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>These are called hot spots and no plate movement is involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The Hawaiian Islands </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 335 ques.1-4 & pg 354 ques 4,6,7, </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kilauea volcano, Hawaii
  11. 11. Sec 12-2 Volcano Eruptions <ul><li>Some volcanoes erupt very violently and some quietly flow. What controls this? </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of water vapor and other gases. And how much silica is in the magma. </li></ul><ul><li>If the gases (water and CO2) from the magma are under great pressure then a violent eruption occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>If the gases have a chance to exit the vent before the pressure is too great then the lava gently flows out. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Quiet & Explosive Eruptions <ul><li>Silica poor magma or basaltic magma will cause quiet eruptions. Ex: Kilauea. </li></ul><ul><li>The lava will flow gently down the sides of the volcano. </li></ul><ul><li>Silica rich magma or granitic magma will cause explosive eruptions because of its thick nature, it traps gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Soufriere Hills in Montserrat </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Volcanoes <ul><li>Shield volcanoes-broad volcanoes with gentle sloping sides. Usually made from basaltic lava and found in the Hawaiian islands. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Volcanoes <ul><li>Cinder Cone are caused by explosive eruptions that throw lava into the air. This solid lava that falls from the air is called tephra, and when it falls it forms steep-sided, loosely packed cinder coned volcanoes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Volcanoes <ul><li>Composite volcanoes can be quiet or violent depending on the gases and silica in the magma. </li></ul><ul><li>When a volcanoes eruptions switch back and forth from quiet to violent, spewing tephra, they create composite volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>These usually occur over plates and an ex: is Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 343 ques. 1-4 & 354 ques. 1-3,5,8,9,11,13 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sec 12-3 Igneous rock features <ul><li>Igneous rock that form inside the Earth are called intrusive. The largest rock body that intrusive rock forms is called a batholiths. </li></ul><ul><li>These form when large amounts of magma that is being pushed toward the surface cool before they get there. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sills and Dikes <ul><li>Magma sometimes squeezes into cracks of rocks and hardens below the surface. These are called dikes. </li></ul><ul><li>Magma that enters cracks that are parallel to the rocks are called sills. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sills and Dikes
  19. 19. Volcanic neck <ul><li>volcanic neck or lava neck , is a volcanic landform created when lava hardens within a vent on an active volcano and the surrounding volcanic mountain is eroded away. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Calderas <ul><li>When an eruption causes the top of the volcanic mountain to collapse, it causes a large depression called a Caldera. </li></ul><ul><li>These can later on become filled with water and become lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 356 1-20 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Test in 1 Week!!!!!