THE PLANT KINGDOM
7 Basic needs of plants:     *temperature        *light        *water          *air      *nutrients         *time    *room...
All plants:*eukaryotes and autotrophic.*Most live on land and have away to obtain water.* Many have a waterproof layercove...
Life Cycle of Plants       Two stages:   Sporophyte - the plant      produces spores  Gametophyte - the plantproduces 2 ki...
Two major divisions of plants Vascular Plants -those that havevascular tissues(tubes that transportwater throughoutthe cell
Nonvascular Plants- those that haveno vascular tissuesand must becompletelyconnected to theground
The three kinds ofnonvascular plants aremosses, liverwortsand hornworts.
MOSS
Mosses: green fuzzy part you see isthe gametophyteRoot-like structures called rhizoidsanchor the moss & absorb water andnu...
LIVERWORTS
LiverwortsLiverworts grow flatalong the ground onmoist rocks and soilalong streams. Theylook like a human liver.
HORNWORTS
Hornworts look likeliverworts except thatthey have curvedstructures growingout of them. They livein moist soil mixed ingra...
VASCULAR PLANTSTwo main divisions of vascularplants:1. SPORE PRODUCERS(ferns, club mosses andhorsetails)2. SEED PRODUCERS
Ferns, club mosses and horsetailsneed moist surroundings so sporeswill survive and grow intogametophytes. When thegametoph...
All other plants areseed plants. They havetwo types of vasculartissue (xylem andphloem) and use seedsto reproduce.
Cells of stemsare xylem, orphloem -located in longstrands calledvascularbundles.
xylem  cells:movewater inplants.
phloem   cells:move fooddown thestem to otherparts of theplant.
TWO TYPES OF  STEMS:
woodyStems that are hard and stiff.These stems usually dont dieback to the ground during thewinter. These are stems we use...
herbaceousPlants withstems that areusually soft.These stems dieback to theground everyyear.
Two types of seed plants: GYMNOSPERMS:•Woody stems(conifers)• Produce naked•seeds not enclosed in anovary•Needle like leaves
REPRODUCTION IN GYMNOSPERMSConifers produce male and femalecones - sometimes cones are producedon separate trees
Male conesproduce pollenFemalesproduce oneovule at base ofcone
Pollen fallsfrom male onto female.In time spermand egg celljoin in ovule.Zygotedevelops intoembryo.
POLLINATION:Transfer of malereproductive structure                         Seed develops &                         cone si...
2nd typeof seed    ANGIOSPERMS:plant           •Herbaceous stems           •Produce stems in enclosed fruit           •two...
The stigma is thesticky surface atthe top of the pistil;it traps and holdsthe pollen. Thestyle is the tube-like structure ...
The stamen has twoparts: anthers andfilaments. Theanthers carry thepollen. These aregenerally yellow incolor. Anthers areh...
Petals attractpollinators. The sepals arethe green petal-like parts at thebase of theflower. Sepalshelp protect thedevelop...
Seeds develop once thesperm cells fertilize the eggcells.The seed provides a coveringto keep the young plant fromdrying ou...
•The young plant that developsfrom the fertilized egg is calledthe embryo.•The embryo has the beginningsof the roots, stem...
TWO TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMSDICOT:             •Flowers have 4 or 5examples are       petals or multiples ofroses, violets    ...
•Slender leavesMONOCOT:                 with veins thatExamples are     run parallel likegrasses, corn,   train trackswhea...
Life CycleA plants life cycledescribes how long aplant lives or how long ittakes to grow, flower,and set seed. Plants canb...
AnnualA plant that completes itslife cycle in one growingseason. It will grow,flower, set seed, and dieExamples: marigolds...
Perennial A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years.Examples: daisies,chrys...
BiennialA plant that needs twogrowing seasons tocomplete its life cycle.Produces leaves oneseason, rests in winter andgrow...
Plant Parts - RootsThe roots provide support -anchor the plant & absorbwater and nutrients neededfor growth.              ...
ROOT SYSTEMS     Taproot system  A root with a few  branches that is very  thick and swollen.  Carrots & potatoes  are exa...
fibrous root systemSome plants have a rootsystem like this. It is abunch of very fine roots alltogether. Grass plants have...
Plant Parts - StemsStems carry water andnutrients taken up by theroots to the leaves. Theyalso provide support.Without ste...
Plant Parts - LeavesLeaves are thefood makingfactories of greenplants. Leaves can be simple, made of a single leaf blade  ...
compound inwhich the leafblade is dividedinto separateleaflets
Joins leaf to main stem
Joins leaf to main stem
LEAF CELLS
Leaf Functions:Leaf cell
Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom
Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom
Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom
Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom
Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom
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Naturalists at Large: Plant kingdom

  1. 1. THE PLANT KINGDOM
  2. 2. 7 Basic needs of plants: *temperature *light *water *air *nutrients *time *room to grow
  3. 3. All plants:*eukaryotes and autotrophic.*Most live on land and have away to obtain water.* Many have a waterproof layercovering their leaves called thecuticle - prevents water loss.
  4. 4. Life Cycle of Plants Two stages: Sporophyte - the plant produces spores Gametophyte - the plantproduces 2 kinds of sex cells (gametes) sperm cells and egg cells
  5. 5. Two major divisions of plants Vascular Plants -those that havevascular tissues(tubes that transportwater throughoutthe cell
  6. 6. Nonvascular Plants- those that haveno vascular tissuesand must becompletelyconnected to theground
  7. 7. The three kinds ofnonvascular plants aremosses, liverwortsand hornworts.
  8. 8. MOSS
  9. 9. Mosses: green fuzzy part you see isthe gametophyteRoot-like structures called rhizoidsanchor the moss & absorb water andnutrients from the soil.Has a long thin stalk with a capsuleon the end that contains spores.They live on tree trunks and rocks.
  10. 10. LIVERWORTS
  11. 11. LiverwortsLiverworts grow flatalong the ground onmoist rocks and soilalong streams. Theylook like a human liver.
  12. 12. HORNWORTS
  13. 13. Hornworts look likeliverworts except thatthey have curvedstructures growingout of them. They livein moist soil mixed ingrasses.
  14. 14. VASCULAR PLANTSTwo main divisions of vascularplants:1. SPORE PRODUCERS(ferns, club mosses andhorsetails)2. SEED PRODUCERS
  15. 15. Ferns, club mosses and horsetailsneed moist surroundings so sporeswill survive and grow intogametophytes. When thegametophytes produce egg andsperm cells, there must be enoughwater nearby for fertilization tooccur.Most club mosses and horsetails havebecome extinct …
  16. 16. All other plants areseed plants. They havetwo types of vasculartissue (xylem andphloem) and use seedsto reproduce.
  17. 17. Cells of stemsare xylem, orphloem -located in longstrands calledvascularbundles.
  18. 18. xylem cells:movewater inplants.
  19. 19. phloem cells:move fooddown thestem to otherparts of theplant.
  20. 20. TWO TYPES OF STEMS:
  21. 21. woodyStems that are hard and stiff.These stems usually dont dieback to the ground during thewinter. These are stems we useto make furniture and houses.
  22. 22. herbaceousPlants withstems that areusually soft.These stems dieback to theground everyyear.
  23. 23. Two types of seed plants: GYMNOSPERMS:•Woody stems(conifers)• Produce naked•seeds not enclosed in anovary•Needle like leaves
  24. 24. REPRODUCTION IN GYMNOSPERMSConifers produce male and femalecones - sometimes cones are producedon separate trees
  25. 25. Male conesproduce pollenFemalesproduce oneovule at base ofcone
  26. 26. Pollen fallsfrom male onto female.In time spermand egg celljoin in ovule.Zygotedevelops intoembryo.
  27. 27. POLLINATION:Transfer of malereproductive structure Seed develops & cone size increases. Cones with immature seeds point up & conesto female reproductive with mature seedsstructure point down.
  28. 28. 2nd typeof seed ANGIOSPERMS:plant •Herbaceous stems •Produce stems in enclosed fruit •two characteristics - produce flowers and fruit PARTS OF THE FLOWER:
  29. 29. The stigma is thesticky surface atthe top of the pistil;it traps and holdsthe pollen. Thestyle is the tube-like structure thatholds up thestigma. The styleleads down to theovary that containsthe ovules.
  30. 30. The stamen has twoparts: anthers andfilaments. Theanthers carry thepollen. These aregenerally yellow incolor. Anthers areheld up by a thread-like part called afilament.
  31. 31. Petals attractpollinators. The sepals arethe green petal-like parts at thebase of theflower. Sepalshelp protect thedeveloping bud.
  32. 32. Seeds develop once thesperm cells fertilize the eggcells.The seed provides a coveringto keep the young plant fromdrying out.All seeds have an embryo,stored food and a seed coat.
  33. 33. •The young plant that developsfrom the fertilized egg is calledthe embryo.•The embryo has the beginningsof the roots, stems and leaves.•The embryo uses the stored foodinside the seed to grow.•The stored food is in cotyledons.The outer part is called the seedcoat.
  34. 34. TWO TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMSDICOT: •Flowers have 4 or 5examples are petals or multiples ofroses, violets that numberand dandelions, •Leaves are wide withoak, maple, veins that branch offvanilla bean and each otherapple •Stems have bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a circle.
  35. 35. •Slender leavesMONOCOT: with veins thatExamples are run parallel likegrasses, corn, train trackswheat, rice, •Vascularlilies, tulips tissue is scattered randomly through stem
  36. 36. Life CycleA plants life cycledescribes how long aplant lives or how long ittakes to grow, flower,and set seed. Plants canbe either an annual,perennial, or biennial.
  37. 37. AnnualA plant that completes itslife cycle in one growingseason. It will grow,flower, set seed, and dieExamples: marigolds,tomatoes, and petunias.
  38. 38. Perennial A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years.Examples: daisies,chrysanthemums, androses.(think bushes!)
  39. 39. BiennialA plant that needs twogrowing seasons tocomplete its life cycle.Produces leaves oneseason, rests in winter andgrows flowers & seeds thenext season.Examples: parsley, carrots, & foxglove.
  40. 40. Plant Parts - RootsThe roots provide support -anchor the plant & absorbwater and nutrients neededfor growth. I’M A ROOT!
  41. 41. ROOT SYSTEMS Taproot system A root with a few branches that is very thick and swollen. Carrots & potatoes are example.
  42. 42. fibrous root systemSome plants have a rootsystem like this. It is abunch of very fine roots alltogether. Grass plants havefibrous roots.
  43. 43. Plant Parts - StemsStems carry water andnutrients taken up by theroots to the leaves. Theyalso provide support.Without stem, therewould be nothing to holdup leaves or flowers!
  44. 44. Plant Parts - LeavesLeaves are thefood makingfactories of greenplants. Leaves can be simple, made of a single leaf blade OR...
  45. 45. compound inwhich the leafblade is dividedinto separateleaflets
  46. 46. Joins leaf to main stem
  47. 47. Joins leaf to main stem
  48. 48. LEAF CELLS
  49. 49. Leaf Functions:Leaf cell

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