Mosses: green fuzzy part you see isthe gametophyteRoot-like structures called rhizoidsanchor the moss & absorb water andnutrients from the soil.Has a long thin stalk with a capsuleon the end that contains spores.They live on tree trunks and rocks.
Hornworts look likeliverworts except thatthey have curvedstructures growingout of them. They livein moist soil mixed ingrasses.
VASCULAR PLANTSTwo main divisions of vascularplants:1. SPORE PRODUCERS(ferns, club mosses andhorsetails)2. SEED PRODUCERS
Ferns, club mosses and horsetailsneed moist surroundings so sporeswill survive and grow intogametophytes. When thegametophytes produce egg andsperm cells, there must be enoughwater nearby for fertilization tooccur.Most club mosses and horsetails havebecome extinct …
All other plants areseed plants. They havetwo types of vasculartissue (xylem andphloem) and use seedsto reproduce.
Cells of stemsare xylem, orphloem -located in longstrands calledvascularbundles.
woodyStems that are hard and stiff.These stems usually dont dieback to the ground during thewinter. These are stems we useto make furniture and houses.
herbaceousPlants withstems that areusually soft.These stems dieback to theground everyyear.
Two types of seed plants: GYMNOSPERMS:•Woody stems(conifers)• Produce naked•seeds not enclosed in anovary•Needle like leaves
REPRODUCTION IN GYMNOSPERMSConifers produce male and femalecones - sometimes cones are producedon separate trees
Male conesproduce pollenFemalesproduce oneovule at base ofcone
Pollen fallsfrom male onto female.In time spermand egg celljoin in ovule.Zygotedevelops intoembryo.
POLLINATION:Transfer of malereproductive structure Seed develops & cone size increases. Cones with immature seeds point up & conesto female reproductive with mature seedsstructure point down.
2nd typeof seed ANGIOSPERMS:plant •Herbaceous stems •Produce stems in enclosed fruit •two characteristics - produce flowers and fruit PARTS OF THE FLOWER:
The stigma is thesticky surface atthe top of the pistil;it traps and holdsthe pollen. Thestyle is the tube-like structure thatholds up thestigma. The styleleads down to theovary that containsthe ovules.
The stamen has twoparts: anthers andfilaments. Theanthers carry thepollen. These aregenerally yellow incolor. Anthers areheld up by a thread-like part called afilament.
Petals attractpollinators. The sepals arethe green petal-like parts at thebase of theflower. Sepalshelp protect thedeveloping bud.
Seeds develop once thesperm cells fertilize the eggcells.The seed provides a coveringto keep the young plant fromdrying out.All seeds have an embryo,stored food and a seed coat.
•The young plant that developsfrom the fertilized egg is calledthe embryo.•The embryo has the beginningsof the roots, stems and leaves.•The embryo uses the stored foodinside the seed to grow.•The stored food is in cotyledons.The outer part is called the seedcoat.
TWO TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMSDICOT: •Flowers have 4 or 5examples are petals or multiples ofroses, violets that numberand dandelions, •Leaves are wide withoak, maple, veins that branch offvanilla bean and each otherapple •Stems have bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a circle.
•Slender leavesMONOCOT: with veins thatExamples are run parallel likegrasses, corn, train trackswheat, rice, •Vascularlilies, tulips tissue is scattered randomly through stem
Life CycleA plants life cycledescribes how long aplant lives or how long ittakes to grow, flower,and set seed. Plants canbe either an annual,perennial, or biennial.
AnnualA plant that completes itslife cycle in one growingseason. It will grow,flower, set seed, and dieExamples: marigolds,tomatoes, and petunias.
Perennial A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years.Examples: daisies,chrysanthemums, androses.(think bushes!)
BiennialA plant that needs twogrowing seasons tocomplete its life cycle.Produces leaves oneseason, rests in winter andgrows flowers & seeds thenext season.Examples: parsley, carrots, & foxglove.
Plant Parts - RootsThe roots provide support -anchor the plant & absorbwater and nutrients neededfor growth. I’M A ROOT!
ROOT SYSTEMS Taproot system A root with a few branches that is very thick and swollen. Carrots & potatoes are example.
fibrous root systemSome plants have a rootsystem like this. It is abunch of very fine roots alltogether. Grass plants havefibrous roots.
Plant Parts - StemsStems carry water andnutrients taken up by theroots to the leaves. Theyalso provide support.Without stem, therewould be nothing to holdup leaves or flowers!
Plant Parts - LeavesLeaves are thefood makingfactories of greenplants. Leaves can be simple, made of a single leaf blade OR...
compound inwhich the leafblade is dividedinto separateleaflets