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Modals

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Modals and Their Use

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Modals

  1. 1. Modals and Their Use
  2. 2. Modals 1) What are modals? 2) How are modals used? 3) Why are modals important?
  3. 3. What are Modals?  Modals are words which are used to add meaning to another verb.  The basic modals are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should and must.  There are other words which behave like modals. Examples: ought to, need and have to.
  4. 4. How Are Modals Used?  Firstly, modals can only be used together with another verb in the infinitive / base / root form, without 'to'. Examples: Jon must go home immediately after school. You should return the book to the shelves after reading it. Could you lend me a pencil, please?
  5. 5. How Are Modals Used?  All modals can refer to present and future time. Only some of them can refer to past time. Examples:  When I was in school, you could get a bowl of noodles for twenty cents. I do not think you can still do so now. (could refers to past time; can refers to present time)  Students who enrolled in the computer course will need to bring their own laptops next week. (will refers to future time) What “time” does ‘would’ refer to?
  6. 6. How Are Modals Used?  Past and present relations  The modals that only refer to past time are sometimes seen as past forms of the other core modals. Present Time Modals Past Time Modals can could will would may might shall should
  7. 7. How Are Modals Used?  Politeness We often use the past forms to be more polite or formal, or less direct. Less Polite / Informal / More Direct More Polite / Formal / Less Direct Can you get me a glass of water, please? Could you get me a glass of water, please? Will you mind helping me return the book to Jason? Would you mind helping me return the book to Jason?
  8. 8. Why Are Modals Important?  Modals are used to express many different meanings, such as:  Advising: I think you should take the job.  Asking for permission: May I take this seat?  Possibility: We could do it by Friday, if you wanted.  Obligation: “Dad says I have to practise if I want to get on the team,” said Saul. An obligation is something you feel you have to do as it is your duty or responsibility to do so.
  9. 9. UsesofModals Modal Meaning Example Can / could to express ability I can speak a little Russian. Ruby could see it from her bedroom window can to request permission Can I open the window? might to express possibility “I reckon it might be,” Mr Buckley said slowly. may to express possibility I may be home late. may to request permission May I sit down, please? must to express obligation must to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old. should to give advice You should stop smoking. would to request or offer Would you like a cup of tea? would in if-sentences If I were you, I would say sorry.
  10. 10. REVIEW
  11. 11. REVIEW I 1. Read the sentences and fill in each blank with an appropriate word of your own. 2. Write your answer on a piece of paper. 3. Do not advance to the next page before finishing.
  12. 12. REVIEW 1. Modals are used to express __________________. (1) possibility (2) obligation (3) advice (4) All the above & more 2. Modals are used with infinitive _______________. (1) nouns (2) adjectives (3) verbs (4) everything
  13. 13. REVIEW 3. ALL modals can take the __________________ time. (1) present only (2) present & past (3) present & future (4) present, past & future 4. Which of the following sentences is/are more formal and polite? (1) Sara will stay with you if you wish. (2) Sara would stay with you if you wish. (3) Ali, can you lend Chee Meng your comics? (4) Ali, could you lend Chee Meng your comics?
  14. 14. HOW WELL DID YOU DO? 1. Modals are used to express (4) advice, possibility, obligations and more. 2. Modals are used with infinitive (3) verbs. 3. All modals can take the (3) present and future time. 4. The more polite and formal sentences are: (2) Sara would stay with you if you wish. & (4) Ali, could you lend Chee Meng your comics?
  15. 15. PRACTICE
  16. 16. PRACTICE 1 1. Read the sentences and fill in each blank with an appropriate modal. 2. Write your answer on a piece of paper. 3. Do not advance to the next page before finishing.
  17. 17. PRACTICE I Fill in the blanks with can, may, must, will, Mom: Wake up, Tom. It’s time to get ready for school. Tom: I don’t feel well. __________ I not go to school today? Mom: You don’t feel feverish. You __________ go to school. Tom: (Groans and goes to the bathroom) Hmm… a hot towel __________ help give me feverish. Mom: Breakfast is ready! Hurry or you ___________ be late! Tom: Coming! (Softly) I __________ have a better chance with Dad.
  18. 18. PRACTICE Ia ANSWERS Fill in the blanks with can, may, must, will, Mom: Wake up, Tom. It’s time to get ready for school. Tom: I don’t feel well. __________ I not go to school today? Mom: You don’t feel feverish. You ____________________ go to school. Tom: (Groans and goes to the bathroom) Hmm… a hot towel __________ help give me a temporary fever. Mom: Breakfast is ready! Hurry or you ___________ be late! Tom: Coming! (Softly) I __________ have a better chance with Dad. Can must / have to should/may will may / might
  19. 19. PRACTICE 1 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal. Jim __________ you be visiting Alan? Gopal Why? What’s wrong with him? Jim I am not too sure. I think he __________ have met with an accident. Gopal Anyway, __________ we drop by his place later? Jim I __________ ask my parents first. Gopal I am sure they __________ allow you to go. How soon __________ you let me know? Jim In half an hour? I __________ call them as soon as I am done here. Gopal Sure! I __________ wait for your good news.
  20. 20. PRACTICE 1b ANSWERS Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal. Jim __________ you be visiting Alan? Gopal Why? What’s wrong with him? Jim I am not too sure. I think he __________ have met with an accident. Gopal Anyway, __________ we drop by his place later? Jim I __________ ask my parents first. Gopal I am sure they __________ allow you to go. How soon __________ you let me know? Jim In half an hour? I __________ call them as soon as I am done here. Gopal Sure! I __________ wait for your good news. Will might/could shall must will can will/shall will / shall
  21. 21. PRACTICE II 1. Read the sentences and fill in each blank with an appropriate word of your own. 2. Write your answer on a piece of paper. 3. Do not advance to the next page before finishing.
  22. 22. EXIT CARD  3 things you have learnt about modals  2 questions you still have on the use of modals  1 aspect of the lesson you liked

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