Organizational culture

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Organizational culture

  1. 1. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 1 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE“A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TAMILNADU NEWSPRINTAND PAPERS LIMITED, KARUR - TAMIL NADU.”Submitted ByMr. SARAVANAN.S(Reg.No.4711110036)Project Report Submitted toVinayaka Missions University, SalemIn partial fulfillment for award of the degree ofMASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(Batch 2011 -2013 Regular)Under the Guidance ofMr. B. RAJNARAYANAN M.B.A.,ASSISTANT PROFESSORFACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESVinayaka Mission’s Kirupananda Variyar Engineering CollegePeriya Seeragapadi, Salem – 636 308.MAY-2013
  2. 2. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 2 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGECERTIFICATEThis is to certify that this Project Report entitled “A STUDY ONORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TAMILNADU NEWSPRINT AND PAPERS LIMITED ” isindependent work of Mr. SARAVANAN.S, (Reg. No. 4711110036) in partial fulfillment ofrequirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration in VinayakaMissions University, Salem, during the period April 2013-May 2013 under my guidance andsupervision and the work has not formed the basis for the award of any degree,associateship, fellowship or any other similar titles.DEAN-FMS PROJECT SUPERVISOR(B.RAJNARAYANAN)Submitted for the Viva – Voce Examination held on ---------------------------------------in the Faculty of Management Studies.
  3. 3. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 3 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  4. 4. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 4 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEDECLARATIONI, Mr. SARAVANAN.S, hereby declare that the Project Report entitled “ASTUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TAMILNADU NEWSPRINT AND PAPERS LIMITED”submitted to Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the award of the degree of Maser of Business Administration, is a bonafide record of myoriginal work done by me under the guidance and supervision of Mr. B. RAJNARAYANAN,Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management Studies, VMKV Engineering College, Salem.Student signature with NamePlace:Date:
  5. 5. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 5 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEACKNOWLEDGEMENTI express my thanks to God, the guiding light of our life for granting me potency andcourage to complete this main project successfully.I express my deep sense of gratitude to our honorable founder and president,Dr. A. SHANMUGASUNDARAM, for his Sincere Endeavour in educating us in his premierinstitution.As well as my sincere thanks to the Principal, Dr. A. NAGAPPPAN, Professor andDean of FMS, Dr. C.S. RAMANIGOPAL for their full support to undergo this project.I express my sincere thanks to Head of the Department of FMS Mr. A. MANI, for hisextended support for completion of this project.I would like to thank Mr. K.S.SIVAKUMAAR, Deputy General Manager – HR forproviding me this opportunity to do my project in Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers Limitedand for guiding me to complete the project successfully.I express my sincere thanks and admirations to my internal guideMr. B. RAJNARAYANAN, Asst. Professor-FMS for his valuable guidance in this Endeavour.I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to all faculty members of ManagementStudies under whom I have worked during the period of my project.I also thank VMKV Engineering College Library for allowing me to use books forreference in the project preparation.It was their constant guidance and support which helped me in making my project asuccess, providing me with the theoretical and practical knowledge with regards to theDocumentation.Thank you very much
  6. 6. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 6 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEABSTRACTA study on Organizational Culture and Employees Commitment towards their workcarried out in Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers limited, Karur (TNPL). Survey data isobtained from 123 employees in the organization. This study shows the employeesperception in various categories, their attributes towards the organization culture andpositive relationship within the departments and employees. Organizational culturequestionnaire along with the employee’s attributes, perception and organizationalcommitment was used to gather the data for the study. Validity and reliability ofquestionnaire was determined before using it for data collection. This study aims todetermine the impact of organization culture and employees commitment to work in theorganization. Correlation analysis is conducted to find the impact on the mentioned factors.Organizational culture is one of the important factors of any organization. Theentire status of the organization depends on its culture. Organization culture can be a strongenabler or an insurmountable obstacle to implementing change in organizations. Mostorganization change efforts require some degree of culture shift. Yet changing anorganization’s culture continues to be a highly challenging and often elusive endeavor. Afterall, culture by definition provides stability, continuity, and predictability to organizationallife. The culture of any organization, although it can be variously defined, includes theshared norms and values that guide organizational participants’ behaviour. This study on“Organization Culture at TNPL” was undertaken to verify if the employees also shared thisperception, namely, that the changes that had been made in the organization had truly ledto improvements. In addition, the study also captured employee attitudes towards variousaspects of the organization.The major finding is that the employees of the TNPL are happy with theorganization. On most of the parameters the responses have been very positive. By thecorrelation analysis we can find that the inter-relationship between the departments werevery good and they have positive relationship. However, many of the respondents do feelpressure to perform, and some of them have not satisfied with appreciation and respectthey get in their work. The organization might need to look into the causes for these few,but important negative aspects. This study has been conducted and major findings had doneonly in four departments of the organization. In future this study can be elaborated to theother departments also. Through that the entire relationship and culture of TNPL could beidentified.
  7. 7. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 7 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE
  8. 8. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 8 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE OF CONTENTSSl. No Contents Page No.Title Page iCertificate from company iiCertificate from Institute iiiDeclaration by the student ivAcknowledgement vAbstract viList of Abbreviations viiCHAPTER – I:INTRODUCTION1.1. Introduction about Study 11.2. Industry profile 171.3. Company profile 201.4. Scope of the study 311.5. Statement of the problem 311.6. Need for the study 311.7. Objectives of the study 321.8. Limitations of the study 321.9. Chapterization 32
  9. 9. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 9 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGECHAPTER – II:REVIEW OF LITERATURE &CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKReview of Literature 33CHAPTER – III:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1. Type of Research 373.2. Sources of data 373.3. Collection of data- Method of data collection- Data collection tool37373. 4. Pre-testing 383.5. Sampling Techniquesa) Populationb) Sampling Elementc) Sample sized) Sampling method393939393.6. Statistical tools used in data analysis 39CHAPTER – IV:
  10. 10. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 10 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEDATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONData Analysis & Interpretation 41CHAPTER – V:FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS & CONCLUSION5.1. Findings 745.2. Suggestions 775.3. Conclusion 78ANNEXURE:Questionnaire 79BIBLIOGRAPHYLIST OF TABLESSl. No Table No. Particulars Page No.
  11. 11. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 11 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1 1A Elements of organization Culture 042 5.1Table showing age wise classification of respondents 413 5.2Table showing gender wise classification ofrespondents424 5.3Table showing classification of respondents based ontheir educational qualification435 5.4Table showing classification of respondents based ontheir work experience446 5.5Table showing classification of respondents based ontheir marital status457 5.6Table showing classification of respondents based ontheir department wise468 5.7Table showing opinion of the employees towardsworking conditions479 5.8Table showing opinion of the employees towardsphysical factors5310 5.9Table showing opinion of the employees towardssocial factors5511 5.10Table showing opinion of the employees towardsorganizational commitment factors57Table showing opinion of the employees towards 59
  12. 12. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 12 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE12 5.11 organizational culture factors13 5.12Chi-square-Table showing cross tabulation betweengender with work commitment of the employees6114 5.13Chi-square- Table showing cross tabulation betweenage with work commitment of the employees6315 5.14Chi-square-Table showing cross tabulation between educationalqualification with work commitment of theemployees6516 5.15Chi-square-Table showing cross tabulation between Experiencewith work commitment6717 5.16Chi-square-Table showing cross tabulation between MaritalStatus with work commitment of the employees6918 5.17 Correlation Table showing relationship between theorganizational factors7119 5.18 Summary of Chi-square tests 73
  13. 13. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 13 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGELIST OF FIGURESSl. No Particulars Page No.1 Framework of Organizational Culture 062 Levels of Organizational Culture 083 Factors involved in Workplace Culture 104 Process in the Organization Culture 12LIST OF CHARTSSl. No Chart. No. Particulars Page No.1 5.1 Chart showing age wise classification ofrespondents412 5.2 Chart showing gender wise classification ofrespondents423 5.3 Chart showing classification of respondents basedon their educational qualification434 5.4 Chart showing classification of respondents basedon their work experience445 5.5 Chart showing classification of respondents basedon their marital status456 5.6 Chart showing classification of respondents based 46
  14. 14. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 14 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEon their department wise7 5.7A Chart showing opinion of the employees on theirsalary488 5.7B Chart showing opinion of the employees on theirhousing allowances489 5.7C Chart showing opinion of the employees on theirother allowances4910 5.7D Chart showing opinion of the employees onsecurity of their job4911 5.7E Chart showing opinion of the employees on theirpromotion5012 5.7F Chart showing opinion of the employees onappreciation and recognition for their work5013 5.7G Chart showing opinion of the employees onpower and respect for them5114 5.7H Chart showing opinion of the employees ondeveloping their personal worth52ABBREVIATIONSTNPL-Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers LimitedOC-Organizational CultureWWF-World Wildlife Fund
  15. 15. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 15 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:The existence and emergence of organizations is not a new phenomenon. Butthe Study of organization is relatively of recent origin. Any study on Organization andits Manifestation should necessarily start with Fayol, Taylor and Bernard.Organizations are made of members who bring in their emotions, egos and complexpersonalities. Organization culture is the sum of all these personalities, which createsa common ideology or identity for the organization. Some aspects of organizationculture get created along the way, while most aspects are evolved by the founders andleaders of the organization stated in simple terms organizational culture is the culturethat exists in an organization. In the modern days, it is highly necessary to understandorganization culture, for various reasons – some of which are purely academic andothers for the benefit of organizations themselves. Culture influences people in goodand bad ways. Culture creates the identity for the organization itself. Vendors,customers, employees and other external agencies factor in the organization culture ofthese organizations when they make their business decisions. Organization culturealso helps the company to relate to these external entities. It helps the company togear up for ever increasing competition. Potential business partners study theorganization culture before making any strategic moves. Even valuation of business isinfluenced by the organization culture, as can be seen in mergers, acquisitions andtake overs. Organization culture is the confluence of various ideologies (brought byall its participants), beliefs, languages, customs and these collectively form guidelinesfor conformed behaviour. All implicit and explicit behaviours form the foundation fororganization culture. To observe the culture of an organization, one has to study thevisible signals and symbols along with invisible values, attitudes etc. For instance,1) Do most people of the organization belong to a particular sectionof the society?2) What are the merits and awards instituted in the company?3) What is the value system that is strongly carried out by membersof the organization?4) What are the guiding principles for the organization?
  16. 16. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 16 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEAnd answers to such questions generally describe the culture of theorganization. Apart from the visible signs and symbols, organization culture can alsobe seen in the value system instilled by the founder members as well as its leaders ofthe organization. Senior management is responsible for creating a viable organizationculture that suits the needs of the business and sends a meaningful message to all whomatter to the organization both internal and external. Hence, certain values areenforced by seniors by setting examples and by propagating with the help of symbolicbehaviours. This has a percolating effect in the organization and gets carried out to thelowest rung of the organization. Sometimes organization culture shapes itself with theentry of new employees. Values and beliefs get redefined and a new form oforganization culture emerges. Many a times, a controlling mechanism is to be in placeso that desired outputs are cultivated and undesirable outputs are weeded out.EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:The shared patterns of values, beliefs, assumptions (sources of behaviour) areevolved as a result of experimentation with behaviours at the time of inception of anorganization. Behaviours are actions or reactions to stimuli, internal or external;hence, while coping with internal and external issues, the organization attemptsdifferent forms of behaviour and receives positive or negative feedback. As a result, itperceives different behaviours as successful or unsuccessful to a varying degree andclassifies them as desirable, suitable or otherwise. The behaviour perceived asdesirable for the effectiveness, success or survival of the organization is reinforced;behaviour which is non-conforming is discouraged and blocked. The workable andgenerally accepted solutions reduce the initial uncertainty faced by all members of theorganization, which is a traumatic experience (Schien, 1985).These experiments are repeated to test the validity of behaviours, which onceestablished, is accepted by most participants of the organization; to the limits that itgets transformed into assumptions, values and beliefs. Psychological contracts arecreated and are relatively stable, acting as stabilizer of individual behaviour (Witte,Muijen, 1999). The individual beliefs and values of participants, more so, of thepeople with influence, is likely to affect the perceived desirable behaviours andperceived success of organization during the initial struggle and stabilizing period.Founders often start with a theory of how to succeed; they have a cultural paradigm intheir heads based on their experiences in the culture in which they grew up (Schien,
  17. 17. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 17 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1983). With the passage of time, these assumptions, values and beliefs become the‘sources of behaviour’ and guide and direct subsequent ‘manifestation of behaviour’and there is a convergence of norms. This is in line with O’Reilly & Chatman’s(1996) view that culture is “a system of shared values defining what is important, andnorms, defining appropriate attitudes and behaviours, that guide members’ attitudesand behaviours” and Schien’s (1985, 1992) definition of culture as “ a pattern ofshared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of externaladaptation and integral integration, that has worked well enough to be consideredvalid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive,think, and feel in relation to those problems” further arguing that values andbehaviour were more superficial representations of this underlying structure. Usingthis view, we can argue, then, that OC is a vehicle through which an organizationencompasses the behaviour variables and the sources of behaviour; and influencesthrough their interaction, behaviour outcomes in the organizational context.Once culture is formed, though intangible and invisible, this reflection of anorganization becomes obvious, and is experienced as its culture to an insider,stakeholder and an outsider who comes in contact with the organization. Literaturedoes not discuss if there is a difference in how an insider or stakeholder or an outsiderperceive and experience the culture of an organization. Culture researchers have beenmore concerned with the evolution of social systems over time (Pettigrew, 1979;Schien, 1985, 90); importance of a deep understanding of underlying assumptions(Kunda, 1992); individual meaning (Geertz, 1973; Pondy et al, 1983) and the insider’spoint of view of the organization (Denison, 1996). Since no organization can exist inisolation and is accountable to its internal as well as external associations,organizational culture is also likely to encompass the external environment which inturn will influence the behaviours and their outcomes in the environmental context.
  18. 18. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 18 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 1A): ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:COREBELIEFSVALUES FEARS BEHAVIOURNORMSINFRA-STRUCTURECore beliefscombine tocreate theorganizationsformula forsuccessIndividualchampionsValues are thepositive resultsthat flow fromthe core beliefsTenacityandRisk TakingFears are thenegativeresults ofignoring corebeliefs andviolating valuesManagementandMediocrityValues and fearscombine toform theboundaries ofnormativebehaviourIgnoreandExaggerateInfrastructureorganizes people,process andstructure toenforcebehaviouralnormsFreedomandRewardsOrganizational Culture1. Innovation and risk-taking2. Attention to detail3. Outcome Orientation4. People Orientation5. Team OrientationOrganizational Commitment1. Affective Commitment2. Continuance commitment3. Normative commitmentEmployees jobSatisfaction
  19. 19. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 19 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGECLASSIFICATIONS OF CULTURES:The classifications of the cultures are, Role Cultures–are highly formalized, bound with regulations andpaperwork and authority and hierarchy dominate relations. Task Cultures – are the opposite, the preserve a strong sense of the basicmission of the organization and teamwork is the basis on which jobs aredesigned. Power Cultures–have a single power source, which may be an individualor a corporate group. Control of rewards is a major source of power.A role culture has a typical pyramid structure. A task culture has flexiblematrix structures. A power culture has web –like communications structure. Culturalanalysis brings to centre stage a rich vein of behaviours and stands on its head muchof the conventional wisdom about organizations. Stories, legends, rituals and heroesare key elements of organizational functioning and may actually serve more importantobjectives than formal decision making. We need to consider in more depth thedifferent ways in which culture has been used in organization study. Wilson andRosenfield (1990) distinguish two schools of thought: The analytical school stresses the context and history of the organizationand how culture acts as a socializing force controlling the behaviour ofmembers. The applicable school view culture in terms of commitment to centralgoals and as a means of managing successful organizational change.
  20. 20. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 20 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEFIGURE 1: FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURETHE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:One of the principle problems in studying organizational culture stems from theontological status of the concept itself (Jones, 1983). Organizational researchers haveutilized a wide variety of culture definitions, but most empirical work has centred onthe view of culture as an enduring, autonomous phenomenon that can be isolated foranalysis and inter-organization comparison (Alexander, 1990). The intricate andcomplex nature of OC has led to differences and controversies about the definition,dimensions, measurement (Cameron and Quinn, 1999) and the context oforganizational culture. However, there is some consensus that organizational cultureis holistic, historically determined, and socially constructed, and involves beliefs andbehaviour, exists at a variety of levels, and manifests itself in a wide range of featuresof organizational life (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990; Pettigrew, 1990).Culture is expressed and transmitted through artifacts, stories, myths and symbols(Martin, 1982; Siehl and Martin, 1981; Wilkins, 1980; Pettigrew, 1979). Underlyingthese symbolic vehicles are patterns of basic assumptions (Schien, 1981, 1983; Dyer,Group Culture:PersonalWarm and CaringLoyalty and TraditionCohesion and MoraleEquityDevelopmental Culture:Dynamic andEntrepreneuralRisk TakerInnovation andDevelopmentGrowth and ResourceAcquisitionRewards Individual InitiativeHierarchical Culture:Formalized and StructuredRule EnforcementRules and PoliciesStabilityRewards Based on RankRational Culture:Pursuit of Goals andObjectivesTasks and GoalsAccomplishmentCompetition andAchievementRewards Based onAchievementEXTERNALINTERNALCONTROLFLEXIBILITY
  21. 21. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 21 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1982); a set of shared understandings, interpretations or perspectives (Van Maanen,1983; Louis, 1983) and expectations (Schwartz, Davis, 1981).Broadly, two schools ofthought exist about organizational culture whether it represents something anorganization ‘is’ or ‘has’. Accordingly, researchers have analysed the concept of OC,both as a root metaphor, i.e. organizations as expressive forms, and manifestations ofhuman consciousness (Cameron 1999; Smircich, 1983); and as an attribute, i.e.possessed by an organization and observable; and even as property (Linstead, 2001).This is because some researchers are concerned by what appears to them to be morefundamental issues of meaning and the processes by which organizational life ispossible which is in line with the view that an organization ‘is’ culture; while othersgive high priority to the principles of prediction, generalizability, causality, andcontrol drawing from the view that an organization ‘has’ culture (Smircich, 1983).Both approaches share the conception of organizations as organisms; existing withinan environment that presents imperatives for behaviour. However, literature is lesssanguine about the reciprocal evolution of culture through behaviour. Further, culturehas been generally accepted to be a phenomenon which is enduring and relativelystable, which is why organizations across the world need external change agents toaffect the cultural change intervention. We differ from this view and support therecent emerging views on culture describing it as a process and as a dynamicphenomenon of an organization.Efforts to arrive at a perfect definition of organization culture would be akin tothe attempts of the blind men in the Sufi story, who deciphered the elephant in theirown way by touching the different limbs of the animal. Kroeber and Parsons (1958) define organizational cultural as thetransmitted and created content and patterns of values, ideas and othersymbolic meaningful systems which shapes human behaviour. Bares and Posterwood (1979) define organizational cultural as a patternof behaviour handed down to members of a group by the previousgeneration. Deal and Kennedy (1982) define it in simplistic fashion, as the waypeople do things around the organization.Thus the meanings of organizational culture as viewed by the different scholarssuggest that organizational cultural is a pattern of basic assumptions, invented,discovered, or developed by a given group wherein the members learn to cope with its
  22. 22. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 22 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEproblems of external adaptation and internal integration. It has worked well enoughfor validity and therefore need to be taught to new members. In fine the Culture canbe expressed better by “OCTAPACE”.O - Openness (communication channel open in nature, free authority)C - Co-operation (cooperation between employer and employees)T - Trust (mutual trust among shareholders, management, & employees)P - Proactiveness (Thinking ahead of times)A - Authensity (exchange of ideas, thoughts, information)C - Collaboration (team collaborations)E - Exploration (explore continuously)From the above explanation, we can conclude that the organizational culture asan outcome of perception, is the result of interaction between the individuals and theenvironment, and hence is influenced by the nature of people involved as well as thesetting.FIGURE 2: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION CULTUREA pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved itsproblems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enoughto be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct wayto perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. While the deeper levels may
  23. 23. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 23 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEhave been somewhat invisible in the past, this may no longer be the case. As a resultof greater attention being directed at managing culture, organizations are recognizingthe importance of articulating and stressing their fundamental assumptions. This issimilar to what later happens with knowledge management – greater attentionbecomes directed at making the tacit knowledge within an organization more explicitand accessible. This suggests a general trend toward more explicitly managing whatpreviously was considered largely unmanageableTHE NEED FOR CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:The organizational culture needs change if there is an influx of inappropriateorganization behaviour or when there is an erosion of organization values. Therecannot be a culture change without the support of top management. Every departmenthas to make a conscious effort to manage the change process. Specific steps must beincorporated in the change plan with intermediate feedback mechanisms. Culturalchange takes a long period of time and its effects are seen over much longer periods.Hence it must be ensured that the cultural change process is attended to, keepingfuture in mind.Organizational Culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by membersthat distinguishes the organization from other organizations. This system of sharedmeaning is actually a set of key characteristics that the organization values.Organizational culture is a descriptive term which is concerned with how employeesperceive the characteristics of an organization’s culture, not with whether or not theylike them. This appraisal of the organization on its characteristics gives a compositepicture of the organization’s culture. This picture in turn becomes the basis forfeelings of shared understanding that members have about the organization, howthings are done in it, and the way members are supposed to behave. When culture isdefined as a system of shared meaning, it can be expected that individuals withdifferent backgrounds or at different levels in the organization will tend to describethe organization’s culture in similar terms.Organizational culture has been perceived to have greater impact on a range oforganizationally and individually desired outcomes. Fortune conducted a survey onthe most admired companies and it has indicated that the respondents believed thatcorporate culture was their most important lever in enhancing key capability.
  24. 24. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 24 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEResearch scholars have considered from earlier period onwards that organizationalculture affects such outcomes as productivity, performance, commitment, self-confidence, and ethical behaviour. More recent writers have reaffirmed thatorganizational culture does affect significantly an organization – employees’behaviour and motivation and its financial performance.FIGURE 3: FACTORS INVOLVED IN WORKPLACE CULTUREThere is very little empirical research is done on the outcomes of organizationalculture. Following are the few research papers which have studied organizationalculture and outcomes: Sheridan found an association between organizational culturalvalues and the rates at which new recruits voluntarily terminated their employment,and O’Reilly identified an association between the fit of organizational culture withemployee preferences for culture (the person-organization fit) and organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and turnover. National culture has the potentiality toinfluence the relation between the organizational culture and individual outcomes.Some researchers point out the necessity of broadening the study of organizationalphenomena beyond the boundaries.Just as an individual is known through his / her personality, organizationalculture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions,values, norms and tangible signs (artefacts) of organization members and their
  25. 25. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 25 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEbehaviours. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture ofan organization, Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express in clearterms, but everyone knows it, when they sense it. That is, only few facets of anorganization can be explained, but many facets still remain un-described andunexplained. While discussing the elements of organizational culture the HR issuessuch as employee engagement, ability, task identity, work-life balance are to beconsidered. Accordingly these become the parameters associated with majorvariables. While discussing the leadership issues in the context of organizationalculture, the concepts of transactional and transformational leadership, trust, empathyare taken care of. At the macro level learning orientation, absorptive capacity andvirtual corporate ship are also involved. Corporate culture which is synonymouslysame as organizational culture which can be looked at as a system with input, outputand through put with a feedback arrangement. The process is based on one’sassumptions, values and norms, e.g. values on money, time, facilities etc. Outputs oreffects of one’s culture e.g., organizational behaviours, technologies, strategies,products, services etc. is seen at the end part of the organization. The concept ofculture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-widechange. Practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best-possible plans,organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes, butalso changing the corporate culture as well.ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE- ITS CHANGES AND IMPLICATIONS OFCHANGES ON ORGANIZATION:Organizational culture comprising of the attitudes, experiences, beliefs andvalues of an organization ,has been defined as “the specific collection of values andnorms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control theway they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.From organizational values, develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectationsthat prescribe appropriate kinds of behaviour of the employees, in a particularsituation and control the behaviour of organizational members towards one another”.This implies the fact of necessity of cultural changes in an organization. In excellentorganizations, people constantly and unconsciously comply with the values andbeliefs of a common culture and it is this compliance that maintains the organization.Organizations develop cultures made up of values and beliefs about how people
  26. 26. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 26 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEshould behave. Employees associate these values and beliefs with the organization’ssuccess and don’t need to be tell what to do or what not to do to comply with theculture. As long as the culture remains relevant to the organization benefits –managers are relieved of much of the work associated with controlling or directingstaff. However, if the environment in which the organization is operating changes theculture, can become dysfunctional and at times, harmful also.FIGURE 4: PROCESS IN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS CONSTITUENTS:There are numerous ways of defining organization culture. One commonlyaccepted definition is as follows. It is a pattern of shared employee beliefs, values,behaviours and ways of doing and thinking about the organization. Such beliefs,values etc. are learned, shared and transmitted by and through organizationemployees. A More comprehensive definition “Organizational culture refers to asystem of shared meaning”. In every organization there are patterns of beliefs,symbols, rituals, myths and practices that have evolved over time. These in turn createcommon understanding among members as to what the organization is and how its• CONTROL• COMPETE• CREATE• COLLABOATEopen, fiendlyand sharingvaluesteamwork,participationand consensusdynamic,entrepreneurial andcreative.embracesinnovation,risk takingand being onthe leadingedgeStructured andFormal. Successmeans dependable,delivery, smoothscheduling and lowcostresults- driven,competitive, andgoal oriented.unified by emphasison winning,reputation andsuccess
  27. 27. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 27 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEmembers should behave. Hence following are generally considered on theconstituents of organizational culture,a) Individual initiativeb) Risk tolerancec) Directiond) Integratione) Management Supportf) Controlg) Identityh) Reward Systemi) Conflict tolerancej) Communication patternsThe first source of organizational culture is its founding fathers. Anorganizations current culture, customs, traditions are largely due to what has beendone before and also its success in doing so. I.e. Successful traditions, practicescontinue for more time. Founding fathers have a vision / mission when they establishan organization. Typically all organizations start as small organizations. (Example isthat of Infosys which started as group i.e. an organization of husband / wife and fewfriends and now is an organization of more than 1 lakh employees). Hence it isrelatively easy for founding fathers to disseminate their values and beliefs. Originalfounders have not only the idea of its creation, but also the means of fulfilling these.Thus the resultant culture is one of founders ideas / beliefs and the first employeesreaction to founders ideas / beliefs. Once it is created, the question of its managementarises.Following guidelines are useful in managing (i.e. planning, creating,sustaining) organizational culture. Formulate a clear strategic vision Display Top management commitment Model, culture change at the highest level Modify the organization to support organizational change (i.e.modifications in structure, HR resources, information and control system
  28. 28. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 28 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE Select and socialize new -comers and terminate deviants (When acultural change has to be brought in, it is necessary to remove suchpeople who cannot match with new values, beliefs; and it is alsonecessary to bring in such people who subscribe to organizations valuesand beliefs). Develop ethical and legal sensitivity: It is obvious that no culture shallexceed the limits set by ethics that they cherish and laws which theyhave to abide by.THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURAL CHANGE PROCESS:Before the change process can occur, there must be a “felt need for change” bykey leaders in the organization, to stir the organization out of its comfort zone. Wherethe culture is strongly moulded, de-stabilization may be needed to shake employeesout of their complacency and ‘feel’ the need for change. This de-stabilization alsohowever generates resistance to change. The transformational leader is usuallycapable of overcoming this resistance. Then do so as under. Initially they identify anddevelop the organization’s distinctive competencies and channel resources to wherethey can be most effective. This identification of competencies also allows theorganization to focus on its new markets and the organizational changes requireserving these markets. The organization is often restructured during this stage.As the change progresses, the leader enlists commitment to the change byassisting staff through the painful process of letting go of the old practices andadopting the new. They do so by, Involving them in the development of change strategies Demonstrating how the new vision will meet their individual needs (e.g.for job security, professional development) Modelling the new behaviours he / she needs them to adopt, and Using early successes in some parts of the organization to reinforcefurther changeSymbolic gestures such as public statements about the change, awards or parties tocelebrate or launch a new strategy can also be helpful at this stage. Finally the changeis institutionalized by building it into the management process, structure and rewardsystems of the organization.
  29. 29. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 29 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEMAKING BEST USE OF CULTURAL CHANGES:For the organizations, accepting the inevitability of cultural changes,following can be used as appropriate leverages: Performance: Performance related or competence related pay scheme;performance management processes; gain sharing; leadership training,skills development; Commitment: Communication, participation and involvementprogrammes; developing a climate of co-operation and trust; clarifyingthe psychological contract. Quality: Total quality programme, such as ISO 9000, 14000 etc. Customer service: Customer care programmes; Customer feedbackprogramme Team Work: Team building; Team performance management; Teamrewards. Organizational learning: Taking steps to enhance intellectual capital andthe organization’s resource based capability, by developing a learningorganization. Values: Gaining understanding, acceptance and commitment throughinvolvement in identifying values, performance management processand employee development interventions.FOR SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:In order that organizational culture change is smooth and also in order thatdirection is forward, certain pre-requisites are necessary, Formulate a clear picture of the firm’s new strategy and of the sharedvalues, norms and behaviours needed to make it work. Take a close look at the inner functioning of the organization anddetermine if culture change is necessary. Identify aspects of the current culture that could still be valid and otheraspects that need to be modified or changed. Communicate the change translated into goals, sub goals, activities andbehaviours.
  30. 30. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 30 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE Make changes from top down. The top management’s commitment mustbe seen and felt. Involve employees in the change process Check on the leadership and support process to overcome anxiety amongmanagers in giving up their earlier responses Monitor the progress from time to time; build momentum in terms ofinitial success. Defuse resistance. Despite this, expect certain causalities to occur (forexample, some employees may leave the organization)THE DIFFICULTIES IN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE:In excellent organizations, people unconsciously comply with the values andbeliefs of a common culture and it is this compliance that maintains the organization.Organizations develop cultures made up of values and beliefs about how peopleshould behave. Employees associate these values and beliefs with the organization’ssuccess and don’t need to be tell what to do or what not to do to comply with theculture. As long as the culture remains relevant to the organization benefits –managers are relieved of much of the work associated with controlling or directingstaff. However, if the environment in which the organization is operating changes, theculture can become dysfunctional and at times harmful also. Employees in adysfunctional culture will then use same old strategies to new problems denying theiruselessness and blaming external causes and other individuals for their failure. Leftuncontrolled, this behaviour can continue, until the culture causes the organization toextinguish rather than adapt. Many organizations are re-designed or restructured, onthe assumption that this is all that is needed to achieve major change. If theorganization has a dysfunctional culture, and the culture is left unchecked memberswill simply continue to act as they had under the old structure, regardless of their newresponsibilities and response requirements.
  31. 31. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 31 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILEPAPER INDUSTRY –AN OVERVIEW:Paper life started from the time of human being started their life in the world.Initially rocks, trees, palm leaves, metal sheets were used for communication. Silkclothes were used by kings to write important document. Paper owes its origin topapyrus a plant, in a delta of Egypt. The barks and leaves of this plant were wovenand pressed into a sheet to be used as writing material by ancient Egyptians.Paper Industry is one of the high priority industries having a bearing on thesocio economic development of the country. In India this industry plays a vital role inthe overall industrial growth and also provides a necessary medium to propel ourknowledge based economy forward in the new millennium. The PlanningCommission has therefore taken up an exercise to prepare a well-defined path for thedevelopment of the paper industry in the context of the overall objective of inclusivenational growth. A Working group on Pulp and Paper sector was accordinglyconstituted for the task of reviewing the progress made by the industry in the previousplan period (2007-2012) and for suggesting suitable interventions to accelerate thegrowth of the sector doing the 12th Plan (2012-17). The deliberations of the Grouphave shown that the expected increase in demand for paper in the country will requireconsiderable increase in the indigenous production base of the paper sector in the nextfifteen years. Clearly, this would require in-depth planning to address critical issuessuch as non-availability of fibrous resource, trained manpower, high input costs,technological obsolescence and lack of economies of scale. In order to examine theseissues in detail specific Sub-Groups were formed under the aegis of the WorkingGroup to come out with recommendations in the areas of Raw Materials, Recycled /Waste Paper, Technology, Energy & Environment and Human ResourceDevelopmentIt was first discovered in China and its origin was kept as secret by Chinese fora long time. After 40 years a paper mill was started at Harnault in France. Then the artof paper making slowly travelled West ward and reached Smarkand in West Asia. Theuse of and manufactures of paper gradually spread along the Southern shores ofregions through Spain all over India. The use of paper by a society is often taken as a
  32. 32. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 32 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEyardstick of its development. The need for documentation of knowledge and recordkeeping has long been perceived to be linked to the intellectual prowess of a nation.Such recording pre-dates most of the earliest known documentation on paper likesubstances. As time progressed, the need for cheaper means of documentation ofrecords was felt by civilizations. It was here that the Chinese made their first attemptto manufacture paper from plant resources. Historians believe that it was the Moghals,who introduced the traditional paper makers - the kagzi’s- in the country as theyexpanded their empire in IndiaThe paper production was mainly based on imported pulp supplemented bysundry raw material such as subaigrass, hemp, rags, jute waste, Separation of fibresand wastages from wood etc.Historical EvolutionThe handmade papers were produced by the influence of Arabs during theAkbar period. In 1800, a book was published describing the method of manufacturingpaper from wood pulp and vegetable.In 1812, William Cauvery started a paper mill at Saharanpur in West Bengalwith the raw material of rags, jute cuttings and waste paper. He introduced the firstfourdrinier type of machines. The Indian paper industry, which took birth in 1812,opened its first mill in Bengal. In 1867, the fourdrinier machine was transferred toRoyal paper Mill, because of lack of demand for paper. In 1879, the Upper CouperPaper mill was started in Lucknow. In 1895, the Indian paper Markers Associationwas established and it rendered the proud of service to the paper industry.The performance of the Indian paper industry is very much influenced by theinternational pulp and paper price. In 19thcentury the initial development and growthof paper industry was affected by the shortage of wood (soft wood), in the country. In1914, with the technology development, bamboo-based production of paper came upand it leads to a rapid growth of domestic industry.In 1947, there were less than 20 mills in India with an annual production of 1lakh tones. Today, the industry’s output is over 35 lakh tones from than 400 mills.
  33. 33. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 33 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEThe problem of starting the paper industry is availability of raw material costof meeting requirements and technological up-gradation. It is a worldwide practice inpaper industry that is to re-build and modify the paper making equipment’s with theview of improving both the production and the quality of paper. Also in Indiaobsolescence of plant and machinery is a great problem. Hence, without rebuildingand modernization, it will not be possible to avoid the future scarcity, to increase theproductivity and to achieve the economic growth.Thus the paper industry is one of the oldest but gradually considered as a majorpart of domestic in the world.
  34. 34. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 34 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1.3 COMPANY PROFILETNPL- AN OVERVIEW:TAMILNADU NEWSPRINT AND PAPERS LTD is popularly known asTNPL was promoted by the Government of Tamil Nadu for the manufacture of Newsprint (NP) & Printing and Writing Paper (PWP) using “bagasse”, a sugarcane residueas the primary raw material. Manufacturing quality paper for the past two and halfyears from bagasse is an index of the company’s technical competence. TNPL wasincorporated in 16thApril 1979 as a public Ltd. Company, under Indian CompaniesAct. TNPL was inaugurated in 20thMay 1986. TNPL is the largest commerciallysuccessful bagasse based plant in the world and a mill with the largest productioncapacity in India.TNPL exports about 1/5th of its production to more than 50 countries.Manufacturing of quality paper for the past two and half decades from bagasse is anindex of the company’s technological competence. A strong record in adoptingminimum impact best process technology, responsible waste management, reducedpollution load and commitment to the corporate social responsibility make thecompany one of the most environmentally compliant paper mills in the worldLocation:Registered office of the company is situated at Chennai and the factory islocated at Kagithapuram in Karur District of Tamil Nadu.Branch Office is at:a) Ahmedabadb) Bangalorec) Ernakulumd) Jaipure) Kolkataf) Mumbaig) Nagpurh) New Delhi
  35. 35. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 35 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEThe location of mill has the advantage in terms of business to the Sugar millssupplying bagasse, proximity to river Cauvery for sourcing water, Access to boardgauge railway track for transportation of coal and a well- developed roadinfrastructure.VisionTo be the market leader in the manufacture of “Eco-Friendly” world classpapers, adapting innovative technology.Mission Promote the usage of bagasse in the manufacture of News Print (NP)& Printing and Writing Paper (PWP). Minimize the environmental impact and become an environmentfriendly organization.NETWORKCORP.OFFICE FACTORY OFF-SITES WINDFARM1. Finance 1. Pulp mill 1. Appakudar 1. Devarkulam2. Secretarial 2. Paper Machine 2. Mohanur 2. Perungudi3. Marketing 3. Soda recovery 3. Pugalur4. Fixed Deposit 4. Energy 4. Pettavaithalai5. Environment 5. Kachrayapalayam6. R&D and Quality Control7. LogisticsSalient Features: Assisted by the World Bank Market leader of computer stationery segment and copier segment OIIS – Online Integrated Information System is used as mini ERP.
  36. 36. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 36 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETNPL Policies Quality Policy: ISO-9001 for Development ISO-2000 for Manufacture and Supply of News Print &Printing andWriting Papers. ISO-14001 for Environmental Protection.Environmental Policy:Policy issued for Eco- Friendly quality paper & Cleaner Environment.Energy Management Policy: Cost reduction in generation of steam, power and efficient utilization. Contribution of surplus power to State Grid.Occupational Health and Safety Policy: Minimization of hazards and risks.Safety Policy: Policy for implementation of safety and prevention of personal injury.TNPL has a clear defined safety policy. The policy specifies in detail theresponsibility for implementation of safety measures and statutory reporting system.Safety audit is conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the safety systems in position.Forestation Program:Captive Plantation – Under this scheme Govt. Waste land, temple lands,industrial lands, institutional lands are taken on lease basis and high yieldingpulpwood species are planted. During the year 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, TNPLraised pulp wood plantation in 1373 acres under captive plantation scheme.
  37. 37. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 37 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEFarm Forestry Schemes – Under this scheme, TNPL is assisting the farmers tohold unutilized degraded lands for raising pulpwood plantation. About 7956 acres areunder the farm forestry program as of March-2006 involving 1978 farmers in 9District of Tamil Nadu.TNPL – HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTTNPL firmly believes that Human Resource (HR) is the most preciousresource available in the company. Hence it is company’s endeavour to harness theHuman Resources through various training and skill developmental programmes andinnovative HR initiatives. Besides, TNPL has also instituted various employeewelfare measures to provide an ideal working environment and improve the quality ofwork life.TNPL is considered to be one among the top 25 companies as great places towork in India conducted by Business world and Grow talent company Delhi withGreat places to work institute of USA. TNPL is the only one and public sector to getsuch a rank.The company has the man power of around 1800 employees in all thebranches including all higher level authorities.Category of workers Work men Staff / charge men OfficersTraining and development:Employees are given in-house training on statutory provisions viz, safety, fire,first aid, etc. and general management programmes such a self-development, problemsolving, communications, team building, value engineering etc. And external trainingis also given by engaging renounced facilities from premier institutions. Based on thecompetency of workmen (COW) analysis nomination for executives to attendseminars, visits is also done. The training given covers 2390 man days with theexpenditure of more than Rs. 14.32 lakhs.
  38. 38. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 38 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEPerformance appraisal:Performance appraisal is an objective assessment of an individual’sperformance against well-defined benchmarks. The performance will be measured byfactors such as job, knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadershipabilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgement etc.In TNPL, For work men appraisal is done once in six months. For probationers appraisal is done once in 3 months. For rest of the employees it is done annually.Industrial Relations:Company maintains a harmonious and healthy relationship with trade unionsregarding wages and salaries. During the year 1999-2000, TNPL has maintained itstrack record of fostering harmonious industrial relation by redressing the grievancesof the employees, which paved the way for a congenial work environment.Employee Welfare activities A self-contained modern Township with 700 houses, Park, facilities forplaying indoor, outdoor and field games and places for religious worshiphas been established. Medical facilities. Entire medical expenditure is borne by the company if any of theemployees suffers from 7 ailments viz. Heart ailment, Cancer, KidneyTransplantation, Paralysis, Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Brain Surgery. In respect of ailments not falling above, 50% of medical expenditure ismet by the company for employees and their dependents. Comprehensive Health check-up for persons above 40 years of age. Group Personal Accident Insurance cover. Superannuation scheme for Executives. Interest subsidy upto 5% on Housing Loans. A Modern School providing educational facilities upto 12th standard. Community Hall.
  39. 39. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 39 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE Excursion trips for families of employees. A Modern Sports Stadium with 400 metre track and gymnasium. Sports and Recreation Clubs with Tennis, Shuttle, Volley Ball, BallBadminton Courts and indoor games. Air Rifle Shooting Range to train young children.Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)TNPL, as a responsible corporate citizen, has ingrained the philosophy ofCorporate Social Responsibility deeply into its value system. The company isconsistently taking various community welfare initiatives for the benefit of the peopleliving in the neighbouring villages. During the year 2008-09, the company has spentan amount of about Rs.1.60 crores for various CSR activitiesTNPL’S CSR activities cover different sectors such as:1. Education :A modern school providing educational facilities upto 12th Standard isfunctioning in the township catering to the educational needs of the children ofemployees and the children from the neighbourhood. Every year, the companyspends about Rs.1 crore in providing education to nearly 2,200 students. TNPLprovides free Scholarship to children belonging to the economically weakersection. TNPL also supports augmentation of educational facilities in variousGovernment schools in neighbouring villages, through Supply of note books andgiving financial assistance to meritorious children, building additional classrooms, providing furniture etc. The company has also provided computers tonumber of schools.2. Career and Knowledge Development :A Computer Training Centre has been set up to provide computer literacy tounemployed youth from the neighbouring villages. A Soft Skill DevelopmentCentre has been set up which conducts Typewriting classes both in English andTamil for unemployed youth from the villages. Training in sewing, apparelmaking and bee keeping is imparted to improve their employability.
  40. 40. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 40 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE3. Drinking Water:Everyday, 3, 00,000 litres of drinking water is supplied to residents in the 7neighbouring villages. Water tanks have been constructed and pipelines laid bythe company at a cost of Rs.35 lakhs.4. Medical and Public Health :TNPL regularly organizes Medical Camps in the neighbouring villages.Patients are screened for ailments and medicine is distributed free of cost forminor ailments. For major illness, financial assistance is given to the individuals.Blood donation camp is jointly organized by TNPL and the Blood Bank of theDistrict Govt. Hospital, Karur on a regular basis. In 2008, an eye camp wasorganized jointly by TNPL and Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai. 435 personsbenefited out of the camp.5. Infrastructure and Road Improvements :The company has constructed drains and retaining walls in the TNPL EffluentWater Lift Irrigation Society (TEWLIS) ayacut area by spending Rs.86 lakhs.Besides, several road improvement works have been done and public toiletsconstructed.6. Promotion of Sports and Recreation :District and State level athletic championships are hosted by the company.Youngsters from neighbouring villages are trained in various athletics disciplinesunder the supervision of coaches. In 2007-08, an amount of Rs.10 lakh was givento the District Administration, Karur for construction of Sports Complex in Karur.7. Live Stock and Cattle Care :Live Stock and Cattle Care Camps are held in neighbouring villages once in2 months. Medical and Para Medical staff from Department of Animal Husbandryand Veterinary Services, Tamil Nadu Govt. provide the specialist support. TNPLsponsors the event by meeting all the expenditure incurred in the camp.
  41. 41. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 41 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE8. Development of Tamil Language and Culture :By way of promoting Rural Art and Culture, cultural programmes bytraditional folklore artistes are held. Needy artistes are given financial assistance.Debates and symposium in Tamil are held regularly. Local artistes are providedassistance to promote Rural Art and Culture9. Greening the Environment :50,000 saplings of trees like Neem, Vagai, Rain tree, Bamboo etc., were plantedin the nearby Panchayat / Villages. An amount of Rs. 20 lakhs has been spent forthis purpose.10. Other Community Welfare Activities :The company through a tie up with Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore (TNAU),and regular farmers meet is being conducted to train thefarmers in scientific methods of cultivation and recent trends in farming.11. Talent-Expo :TNPL conducts “TALENT-EXPO” providing a platform to the students fromrural and semi urban areas to exhibit their multifarious talents.Awards & Merits Institute of company secretaries of India, New Delhi has awarded TNPL.with “ICSI national award of excellence in corporate governance -2004”.TNPL is the 1ststate public sector undertaking to receive such anprestigious award in public sector category. Special export award for 2003- 2004, that is the sixth consecutive yearfor the same. Certificate of excellence in quality, innovation, productivity. Government has given “trading house status” for TNPL. CII leadership and excellence in safety, health and environment 2002. Paper mill of the year 2001 – 2002. Government of India awarded TNPL with “National energy conservationaward for the year 2001”.
  42. 42. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 42 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE LIBA has awarded TNPL as the “Best corporate citizen 1999” and“Mother Theresa” award for customer friendly, eco-friendly, socialcommitment. A1 - Credit rating by ICRA limited Green award 2012 from Tamilnadu govtTag Line“TNPL – Paper Maker to the Nation”, “Paper of the New Millennium”, “Eco –Friendly”LogoPaper of the new millenniumWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF) entered into pact with TNPL to permit the use of‘Panda’ logo in TNPL’s branded products for the symbolic commitment toenvironment.
  43. 43. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 43 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEProduct Mix and its ApplicationsPrinting & Writing Paper (PWP)VarietiesGSM (Gram perSquare Meter) Application1) TNPL offset printing 54-80 Note Book, Computer stationery,Share applications, writing paper& multi colour printing2) TNPL ElegantPrinting54-80 Label printing, diaries, annualreports,Multi colour printing & computerStationery.3) TNPL Ultra whiteMapiltho60-80 High bright and quality, multicolourPrinting, calendars, diaries.4) TNPL Copier 75-80 Photocopying & inkjet printing5) TNPL Copy Crown 80 Laser, digital printing, businessLetterheads & documents.6) Cream Wove 50-80 Share application forms, bustickets,Ballet paper, lottery tickets.7) Radiant Printing 54-80 Accounts books, letter pads,quality note books, multi-colourprinting.8) Hi- Tech Mapiltho 54-80 Leaflets, magazine covers, officeandComputer stationery, high qualitynote booksNew Print (NP)VarietiesGSM (Gram perSquare Meter) Application
  44. 44. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 44 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1) Standard News Print 45-49 Newspaper printing for speedweb off set machines.2) Hi-Bright NewsPrint49 Newspaper, magazine printingInvolving text and multi-colourWork.Paper SizesA10, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7.
  45. 45. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 45 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:The study helps the organization, To understand the causes of the performance problems and create betterwork environment.. To understand how to assess the effectiveness of motivational practicesin organization. To focus on today’s turbulent, often chaotic environment, commercialsuccess depends on employees making use of their talents in full. The management can enhance the professional perception of theemployees. Can change the negative behaviour pattern of the employees.1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:Organizational culture problem is the common problem across all organizations.The problems can include poor communication, inconsistency and ambiguity.Companies with concerns about their structure and organization can use employeeevaluations to get feedback from their personnel. Employees may not communicatewell with each other and could feel uncomfortable to share their ideas, suggestionsand concerns. Employees may feel that company focuses too much on income andpushes them to work long hour and forces them overstretch to get the work done.Employees may have trouble following people they do not respect, or taking ordersfrom supervisors who do not appear to know what they are doing. If leadership isweak, inconsistent, or disreputable, it can contribute to organizational cultureproblems. This study will help to know the employees perception about theorganization and opinion of them for improving organization a much better place towork.1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY:People are affected by the culture in which they live. Similarly, an individualworking for any organization with a firmly established culture will be taught thevalues, beliefs, and expected behaviours of that organization. There is at least somesound evidence that variations in cultural values may have a significant impact onemployee turnover and possibly employees’ job performance. Hence the study of
  46. 46. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 46 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEorganizational culture is important for the understanding and practice oforganizational behaviour.1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To study the general profile of employees and understand the workingenvironment of TNPL. To study the variations in employees perception with regard to theirorganizational culture in TNPL. To assess the relationship between the organizational culture andworking environment in TNPL. To measure the impact on organisational culture and level of workcommitment among the employees in TNPL1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: The study is allowed to conduct only in four departments becauseorganizational environment is very busy. With limited interaction with employees the survey results are presentedin this report, however a more comprehensive interpretation of resultsstill rests with the organisation Time was limited for a deep study analysis of the organization. Some employees reluctant to share the information. Responses collected from workers who are in day shift. So unable to getthe opinion from employees doing night shift.1.9 CHAPTERIZATION:This project report divided into five chapters. First chapter provides informationabout introduction to the project, background information about industry andcompany profile, project objectives, need, scope and limitations of the study. Secondchapter deals with review of literature and conceptual framework of the project.Chapter three focuses on research methodology that includes data collection methods,statistical tools used, sampling techniques used and pre-testing conducted on theproject. Fourth chapter deals with data analysis that is collected from survey andinterpretation of the results. Fifth chapter concludes with recommendation,suggestions and conclusion.
  47. 47. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 47 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEREVIEW OF LITERATUREFew aspects of organizational studies have such diverse and fragmentedliterature as organizational culture (OC). Dominated by psychologists in mid 50s, thefield of organization studies had a micro-orientation; early 80s saw advancement ofthe theoretical concept of OC. By mid 90s, scholars realized they were focusing moreon “B” than “O” of micro-OB, more collaboration was required of occupationalsociologists, organizational theorists and psychologists, developing amultidisciplinary field that encompasses micro and macro perspectives andparadigms. This is perhaps the reason for the outburst of attention to organizationalculture studies as it provides for a combined macro and micro analysis. It is alsobelieved that after ‘strong’ and ‘excellent’ cultures were found to have significantpositive associations with success of American and Japanese firms (Deal & Kennedy,1982; Peters and Waterman, 1982; Ouchi, 1981), there was proliferation of interest inOC.The term ‘culture’ has different meanings. For example, Kroeber et al (1952)compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture” from literature. While its presence insociology and anthropology is ubiquitous and almost as old as the disciplinesthemselves, the introduction of ‘organizational culture’ to the field of organizationalstudies is generally credited to Pettigrew in 1979 (Detert et al, 2000). Since then,researchers have dealt with a range of questions from what is culture, who shares it,how did it come to be, what is it composed of, how are its parts structured, how itworks, conditions for culture to exist, conditions for culture to affect organizationalefficiency as well as other organizational variables; to why and how do we changeculture, in what way can culture contribute to controlling an organization, how can wemeasure culture, in what terms can we describe culture, the cultural change and thecultural difference in various contexts like national, occupational, positional, industry,firm, and its subunits, cross-cultural management in multinationals, mergers andalliances and cultural conflicts.Pettigrew, in 1979 defined ‘culture’ as the system of publicly and collectivelyaccepted meanings operating for a given group at a given time, an important practicalconsideration in an extended stream of time, events, people, and processes with anexample of sequence of social dramas where in each drama provided a clear point ofdata collection. Williams(1980) theoretical model is based on an assumption of
  48. 48. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 48 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEsociety being in a state of constant cultural change and negotiation. In any particularperiod there is a central, effective, and dominant system of meanings and valueswhich are not merely abstract but which are “organized and lived”. The residualculture is the still practiced residue of previous social formations (e.g. certainreligious values, notions from a rural past, and notions from a colonial past) that areoften retained in order to make sense of the dominant culture. The emergent culture,he explains are the new meanings, values, practices, and experiences which arecontinually being created, some of which are incorporated into the dominant cultureand some of which are not. This theory supports our proposition of a dynamic culture,and environment, influencing the interaction of both behaviours and values andthereby affecting a cultural change.Hofstede (1980) published a cross-cultural report exploring the differences inthinking and social action that exist between members of 40 countries between 1968and 1972 and called it ‘national culture’. He argued that people carry mental programsdeveloped early in the family during early childhood and reinforced in schools andorganizations, and they contain a component of national culture. Though providing astarting point for understanding national cultures, the study has come under criticismfor using a comparative logic in a heterogeneous setting at a time when quantitativecomparisons of organizational cultures within a single cultural context were seen asunfounded (Denison, 1996).Martin, Siehl (1983) suggested that while organizational culture is used totransmit top management’s interpretations of the meaning of events throughout theorganization, generate commitment to their practices and control behaviour, threesubcultures may exist, ‘enhancing’, ‘orthogonal’ and ‘counterculture’. Culturalmechanisms can also be used to undermine top-management objectives, which shecalled ‘counter-culture’. In addition to serving integrative functions, cultures canexpress conflicts addressing need for differentiation among organizational elements,the conflicting subcultures. Thus, Martin extended the OC concept by explaining howparallel cultures could exist within an organization and their understanding could helpin conflict-management. Further implications are that as new generations and newentrants become a part of the organization, they will not only influence the dominant,but also the parallel forms of existing cultures.Barley (1983) offered semiotics as one avenue for conceptualizing andanalysing occupational and organizational cultures to address issues of what the
  49. 49. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 49 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEculture is composed of, how are its parts structured and how it works. Trice and Beyer(1984) described specific rites and ceremonials as manifestations of culture; rites ofpassage, of degradation, of enhancement, of renewal, of conflict reduction and ofintegration and that it may help to focus researchers’ attention on behaviours andoccurrences that they otherwise might have overlooked. If semiotics representsculture, or at least is the visible part of culture, numerous examples from the corporateworld about change of symbols e.g., company logos, statements of vision andmission, etc. in such case would only reflect a change in values and beliefs, whichneed not be the result of a conscious change intervention but a natural growthphenomenon.Wilkins and Ouchi, 1983 called culture as ‘clan’ and that goal congruence andpresence of a general paradigm in the interest of the collective helps clan control togovern organizations efficiently under conditions of ambiguity, complexity, andinterdependence of transactions; market and bureaucracy form of governance wouldbe more efficient where the level of complexity or uncertainty is relatively low ormoderate. Organizational culture can be a source of sustained competitive advantageif it is valuable, rare and imperfectly imitable (Barney 1986). These themes can moreexplicitly be explained with the environmental context.Paul Reynolds (1986) adopted a more utilitarian perspective and argued thatstatements about organizational culture should reflect differences related to industries,technical or task requirements and that to expect the same cultural systems to fostersuccess in all industries seems inaccurate. Given the multidirectional nature of theconcept, Meyerson (1987) identified three perspectives of OC research: ‘integration’,‘differentiation’ and ‘fragmentation’. The integrationist perspective positions cultureas an integrating mechanism, the normative glue; differentiation emphasizes thatdifferent groups in organization embrace different and even incompatible beliefs,values and assumptions; fragmentation perspective acknowledges that ambiguity is aninevitable aspect of organizational life and organizational situations exist in which itis not appropriate to identify consistency of values and basic assumptions.Detert et al (2000) presented another synthesis on OC in terms of eightdimensions of organizational culture, on the basis of truth and rationality in theorganization, the nature of time and time horizon, motivation, stability change/innovation, personal growth, orientation to work, task, and co-workers, isolation vs.collaboration, and responsibility and orientation and focus-internal and/or external
  50. 50. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 50 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEand how these dimensions corresponded to the values and beliefs of TQM.. Daymon(2000) applied a multi-perspective analytical framework to explore organizationmembers experiences as they adjusted to, and strove to shape, working life in a newtelevision station. The paper suggests that culture formation is a fluid, on-goingprocess whereby cohesion, division and ambiguity continuously intertwine.Zheng et al (2009) in a recent framework propose that as the organization goesthrough its life stages of start-up, growth, maturity, and revival, organizational cultureevolves through corresponding mechanisms of inspiration, implantation, negotiation,and transformation. This framework also contributes to the literature on the dynamicview of culture and suggests that human resource development professionals need tobe perceptive of the life stages of their organizations and intentionally leveragedifferent cultural mechanisms to respond to critical organizational needs.
  51. 51. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 51 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE3.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH:The type of research is descriptive research and the primary data was collectedwith a structured questionnaire based on the careful investigation of organizationalculture in the organization. A structured questionnaire has predetermined informationto find out facts and to bring out varied opinion rating scale which was the intention.3.2 SOURCES OF DATA:Primary source includes interview with project guide, referring journals andresearch studies. Secondary source collected from previous projects done in theorganization, articles, magazines and websites.3.3 COLLECTION OF DATA:Method of data collection:Data collected in the form of questionnaire and personal interview withemployees. Questionnaire includes several factors in scaling order to know theemployees opinion.Data collection tool:Survey method and data from articles were used as the tools for datacollection. The HR executive has helped for collection of data from primaryand secondary sources.3.4 PRE-TESTING- TEST OF RELIABILITY:It has to do with the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure. It isconsidered that, when the outcome of a measuring process is reproducible then thescale is reliable. Reliable measuring scales provide stable measures at different timesunder different conditions. Thus reliability can be defined as the degree to which themeasurements of a political instrument are free from errors and as a result produceconsistent results. However in certain situations, poor data collection methods giverise to low reliability. The quality of data collected can become poor if therespondents do not understand the questions properly and give irrelevant answers tothem.
  52. 52. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 52 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEDetermining the reliability of a scale is somewhat different from determiningthe validity of a scale. Unlike validity, reliability is a precisely defined mathematicalconcept. Reliability is measured on a scale of 0 to 1, where higher values representgreater reliability.The most popular of these reliability estimates is Cronbach’s alpha,Where, α= Cronbach’s alphaK= Number of items in a scaler= Mean inter item correlation.From the equation, one can see that α increasing r as well with increasing K.Calculating Cronbach’s α is the most commonly used procedure to estimatereliability. It is highly accurate and has the advantage of only requiring a singleapplication of the scale. For example, 10 items that have an average inter itemcorrelation of only 0.2 will produce reliability of 0.714. However the benefit ofadding additional item decreases as the scale grows larger and mostly disappears after20 items.In this project the reliability test has been conducted and the table is shownbelow. The calculated alpha value is 0.851. The value shows the internal consistencyof Cronbach’s alpha is acceptable.3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:A process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number ofobservations will be taken from a larger population. The methodology used to samplefrom a larger population will depend on the type of analysis being performed, but willinclude simple random sampling, systematic sampling and observational sampling.CronbachsAlphaNo. ofItems.851 20
  53. 53. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 53 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEa) POPULATION:The total number of employees working in TNPL is around 2000 in variouscategories and in various departments.b) SAMPLING ELEMENT:Sampling element chosen from Employees belongs to Human resource,Marketing, Purchase and Accounts department.c) SAMPLE SIZE:A Sample size of 123 employees was taken for the study from the fourdepartments.d) SAMPLING METHOD:Convenient sampling method was selected for this project. Questionnairedistributed to employees of selected four departments among variousdepartments in the organization. The sample is selected because they areconvenient. This is one of non-Probability Sampling Method.3.6 STATISTICAL TOOLS USED IN DATA ANALYSIS:a) Chi-Square Test:A test that uses the chi-square statistic to test the fit between atheoretical frequency distribution and a frequency distribution of observed datafor which each observation may fall into one of several classes.Degrees of freedom= (Rows-1) (Column-1)b) Frequency tables with Bar cone charts were used.X2= Σ(observed value-Expected value)2(Expected value)
  54. 54. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 54 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEc) Correlation and Regression Analysis:Correlation coefficient:A measure that determines the degree to which two variables movements areassociated. The correlation coefficient is calculated as:Correlation =NΣXY-(ΣX)(ΣY)√[ NΣX²-(ΣX)²] √[NΣY2-(ΣY)²]
  55. 55. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 55 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.1TABLE SHOWING THE AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS:Classification of AgeNumber ofrespondents PercentageBetween 20 - 30 Years 59 48.030 - 40 Years 31 25.2Above 40 Years 33 26.8Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 48% of the respondents are in the age group of 20-30 years. 25.2% of the respondents are in the age group 30-40 years. 26.8% of the respondents are in the age group more than 40 years.0102030405060Between 20-30 Years 30 - 40 Years Above 40 Years59(48%)31(25.2%)33(26.8%)CHART 5.1AGE
  56. 56. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 56 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.2TABLE SHOWING GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTSClassification of GenderNumber ofrespondents PercentageMale 77 62.6Female 46 37.4Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 62.6% of the respondents are male. 37.4% of the respondents are female.01020304050607080Male Female77(62.6%)46(37.4%)CHART 5.2Gender
  57. 57. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 57 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.3TABLE SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIREDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION WISEClassification of EducationalQualificationNumber ofrespondents PercentageSchool Level 1 .8Diploma Level 14 11.4Graduation Level 70 56.9Post-Graduation 38 30.9Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 0.8% of the respondents are in school level. 11.4% of the respondents are in diploma level. 56.9% of the respondents are in graduation level. 30.9% of the respondents are in post-graduation level.0102030405060701(0.8%)14(11.4%)70(56.9%)38(30.9%)CHART 5.3Educational Qualification
  58. 58. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 58 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.4TABLE SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ONTHEIR WORK EXPERIENCEClassification of ExperienceNumber ofrespondents PercentageLess than 5 Years 56 45.55 - 10 Years 27 22.010 - 15 Years 9 7.3More than 15 years 31 25.2Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 45.5% of the respondents have experience less than 5 years. 22% of the respondents have experience between 5-10 years. 7.3% of the respondents have experience between 10-15 years. 25.2 of the respondents have experience more than 15 years.0102030405060<5 years 5-10 Years 10-15 Years > 15 Years56(45.5%)27(22%)9(7.3%)31(25.2%)CHART 5.4Experience
  59. 59. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 59 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.5TABLE SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BASED ONTHEIR MARITAL STATUSClassification of MaritalStatusNumber ofrespondents PercentageSingle 12 9.8Married 110 89.4Others 1 .8Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 9.8% of the respondents are single 89.4% of the respondents are married 0.8% are the other respondents020406080100120Single Married Others12(9.8%)110(89.4%)1(0.8%)CHART 5.5Marital Status
  60. 60. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 60 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.6TABLE SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIRDEPARTMENT WISEClassification of DepartmentNumber ofrespondents PercentageHuman Resource 48 39.0Materials 35 28.5Accounts 29 23.6Marketing 11 8.9Total 123 100.0INTERPRETATION: 39% of the respondents are from human resource. 28.5% of the respondents are from materials. 23.6% of the respondents are from accounts. 8.9% of the respondents are from marketing.05101520253035404550HumanResourceMaterials Accounts Marketing48(39%)35(28.5%)29(23.6%)11(8.9%)CHART 5.6Department
  61. 61. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 61 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.7TABLE SHOWING OPINION OF EMPLOYEES TOWARDS WORKINGCONDITIONSSl.No Factors Good Not so good poor1 SALARY88(71.5%)26(21.1%)9(7.3%)2 HOUSING ALLOWANCES 80(65%)33(26.8%)10(8.1%)3 OTHER ALLOWANCES75(61%)39(31.7%)9(7.3%)4 SECURITY OF JOB100(81.3%)15(12.2%)8(6.5%)5 PROMOTION77(62.6%)26(21.1%)20(16.3%)6APPRECIATION & RECOGNITIONOF WORK82(66.7%)29(23.6%)12(9.8%)7 POWER & RESPECT68(55.3%)45(36.6%)10(8.1%)8DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALWORTH70(56.9%)42(34.1%)11(8.9%)This table shows that respondent’s opinion towards the working conditions in theorganization in various categories.
  62. 62. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 62 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERPRETATION: 71.5% of the respondents are feeling good with their salary. 21.1% of the respondents are not happy with their salary. 7.3% of the respondents are feeling the salary was poor.INTERPRETATION: 65% of the respondents are feeling good with their Housing Allowances. 26.8% of the respondents are not happy with their Housing Allowances. 8.1% of the respondents are feeling the Housing Allowances was poor.0102030405060708090Good Not so Good Poor88(71.5%)26(21.1%)9(7.3%)CHART 5.7ASalary01020304050607080Good Not so Good Poor80(65%)33(26.8%)10(8.1%)CHART 5.7Bhousing allowances
  63. 63. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 63 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERPRETATION: 61% of the respondents are feeling good with their Other Allowances. 31.7% of the respondents are not happy with their Other Allowances. 7.3% of the respondents are feeling the Other Allowances was poor.INTERPRETATION: 81.3% of the respondents are feeling secure in their Job Security. 12.2% of the respondents are not happy with their Job Security. 6.5% of the respondents are feeling their Job Security was poor.01020304050607080Good Not so Good Poor75(61%)39(31.7%)9(7.3%)CHART 5.7COther Allowances0102030405060708090100Good Not so Good Poor100(81.3%)15(12.2%)8(6.5%)CHART 5.7DSecurity of the Job
  64. 64. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 64 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERPRETATION: 62.6% of the respondents are feeling good in their Promotion Facilities. 21.1% of the respondents are not happy with their Promotion Facilities. 16.3% of the respondents are feeling their Promotion Facilities was poor.01020304050607080Good Not so Good Poor77(62.6%26(21.1%)20(16.3%)CHART 5.7EPromotion0102030405060708090Good Not so Good Poor82(66.7%29(23.6%)12(9.8%)CHART 5.7FAppreciation &Recogonition of work
  65. 65. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 65 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERPRETATION: 66.7% of the respondents are feeling good for the Appreciation andRecognition for them by the Organization 23.6% of the respondents are not happy the Appreciation andRecognition for them by the Organization. 9.8% of the respondents are feeling Appreciation and Recognition forthem by the Organization was poor.INTERPRETATION: 55.3% of the respondents are feeling good for the Power and Respect forthem given in the Organization 36.6% of the respondents are not happy the Power and Respect for themgiven in the Organization 8.1% of the respondents are feeling Power and Respect for them given inthe Organization was poor010203040506070Good Not so Good Poor68(55.3%)45(36.6%)10(8.1%)CHART 5.7GPower and Respect
  66. 66. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 66 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGEINTERPRETATION: 56.9% of the respondents are feeling Development of their PersonalWorth in the organization is good. 34.1% of the respondents are feeling Development of their PersonalWorth in the organization is not good. 8.9% of the respondents are feeling Development of their PersonalWorth in the organization is poor.010203040506070Good Not so Good Poor70(56.9%)42(34.1%)11(8.9%)CHART 5.7HDevelopment of PersonalWorth
  67. 67. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 67 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.8TABLE SHOWING OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES TOWARDS PHYSICALFACTORSSl.No Factors StronglyAgreeAgree Neutral Disagree StronglyDisagree1 You feel comfortable withworking environment60(48.8%)48(39.0%)15(12.2%)0(0)0(0)2 The quality of material providedby the organization to performyour job is good68(55.3%)42(34.1%)13(10.6%)0(0)0(0)3 New technologies andmethodologies introduced in thework52(42.3%)61(49.6%)10(8.1%)0(0)0(0)4 The organization providingappropriate and adequate training50(40.7%)61(49.6%)12(9.8%)0(0)0(0)5 You can talk freely and openly toyour colleagues about issues,problems in the organization53(43.1%)51(41.5%)11(8.9%)5(4.1%)3(2.4%)INTERPRETATION: 48.8% of the respondents strongly agree, 39% respondents agree and15% respondents neither agree nor disagree with regard to thecomfortable with the working environment. 55.3% of the respondents strongly agree, 34.1% respondents agree and10.6% neither agree nor disagree with regard to the quality of materialprovided by the organization. 42.3% of the respondents strongly agree, 49.6% respondents agree and8.1% neither agree nor disagree with regard to the new technologies andmethodologies introduced in the organization.
  68. 68. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 68 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE 40.7% of the respondents strongly agree, 49.6% respondents agree and9.8% neither agree nor disagree with regard to training provided by theorganization. 43.1 of the respondents strongly agree, 41.5% respondents agree, 8.9%respondents neither agree nor disagree, 4.1% respondents disagree and2.4% respondents strongly disagree with regard to talking freely aboutissues with colleagues.
  69. 69. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 69 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.9TABLE SHOWING OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES TOWARDS SOCIALFACTORSSl.No Factors StronglyAgreeAgree Neutral Disagree StronglyDisagree1 You receive proper appreciationfor your work49(39.8%))40(32.5%)26(21.1%)5(4.1%)3(2.4%)2 Cordial relationship with yoursub-ordinates56(45.5%)43(35.0%)19(15.4%)3(2.4%)2(1.6%)3 Your attitude towards workbecome more positive57(46.3%)59(48.0%)7(5.7%)0(0)0(0)4 The organization is willing tolisten to feedback from employees55(44.7%)42(34.1%)18(14.6%)5(4.1%)3(2.4%)5 Your roles and jobs are quite clear 69(56.1%)41(33.3%)10(8.1%)1(0.8%)2(1.6%)INTREPRETATION: 39.8% of the respondents strongly agree, 32.5% respondents agree,21.1% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 4.1% respondentsdisagree, and 2.4% strongly disagree with regard to appreciation for thework. 45.5% of the respondents strongly agree, 35% respondents agree, 15.4%respondents neither agree nor disagree, 2.4% respondents disagree, and1.6% strongly disagree with regard to cordial relationship with the sub-ordinates.
  70. 70. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 70 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE 46.3% of the respondents strongly agree, 48% respondents agree, and5.7% respondents neither agree nor disagree with regard to Positiveattitude towards work. 44.7% of the respondents strongly agree, 34.1% respondents agree,14.6% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 4.1% respondentsdisagree and 2.4% strongly disagree with regard to listening feedbackfrom employees. 56.1% of the respondents strongly agree, 33.3% respondents agree, 8.1%respondents neither agree nor disagree, 0.8% respondents disagree, and1.6% strongly disagree with regard to having clear ideas about roles andgoals.
  71. 71. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 71 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.10TABLE SHOWING OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES TOWARDSORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT FACTORSSl.No Factors StronglyAgreeAgree Neutral Disagree StronglyDisagree1 Intention to leave the job & searchfor job alternatives24(19.5%)26(21.1%)51(41.5%)15(12.2%)7(5.7%)2 Employee organization high onmorale, team work &Participation in decision making48(39.0%)47(38.2%)21(17.1%)2(1.6%)5(4.1%)3 Are you satisfied in the job 58(47.2%)51(41.5%)13(10.6%)1(0.8%)0(0)4 Education , status, position areinvolved in commitment ofdecision making in organizations59(48.0%)40(32.5%)22(17.9%)2(1.6%)0(0)5 Organizational structure &processes influence, commitmentamong employees61(49.6%)38(30.9%)20(16.3%)2(1.6%)2(1.6%)INTERPRETATION: 19.5% of the respondents strongly agree. 21.1% respondents agree,41.5% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 12.2% respondentsdisagree and 5.7% respondents strongly disagree with regard to intentionto leave the job & search for job alternatives. 39% of the respondents strongly agree. 38.2% respondents agree, 17.1%respondents neither agree nor disagree, 1.6% respondents disagree and4.1% respondents strongly disagree with regard to high morale, teamwork & participation in decision making among employees. 47.2% of the respondents strongly agree. 41.5% respondents agree,
  72. 72. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 72 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE10.6% respondents neither agree nor disagree and 0.8% respondentsdisagree with regard to satisfaction in the job. 48% of the respondents strongly agree. 32.5% respondents agree, 17.9%respondents neither agree nor disagree and 1.6% respondents disagreewith regard to Education , status, position are involved in commitmentof decision making in organizations. 49.6% of the respondents strongly agree. 30.9% respondents agree16.3% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 1.6% respondentsdisagree and 1.6% respondents strongly disagree with regard toOrganizational structure & processes influence, commitment amongemployees.
  73. 73. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 73 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGETABLE 5.11TABLE SHOWING OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES TOWARDS CULTUREFACTORSSl.No Factors StronglyAgreeAgree Neutral Disagree StronglyDisagree1 Your organization culture iscompetitive44(35.8%)39(31.7%)31(25.2%)5(4.1%)4(3.3%)2 You are proud to work in theorganization55(44.7%)44(35.8%)18(14.6%)3(2.4%)3(2.4%)3 The work has become moreinteresting63(51.2%)46(37.4%)13(10.6%)1(0.8%)0(0)4 You have been informedabout all management policies57(46.3%)41(33.3%)22(17.9%)3(2.4%)0(0)5 You are happy with yourleadership abilities56(45.5%)38(30.9%)23(18.7%)3(2.4%)3(2.4%)INTERPRETATION: 35.8% of the respondents strongly agree, 31.7% respondents agree,25.2% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 4.1% respondentsdisagree and 3.3% respondents strongly disagree with regard tocompetitive organization culture. 44.7% of the respondents strongly agree, 35.8% respondents agree,14.6% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 2.4% respondentsdisagree and 2.4% respondents strongly disagree with regard to proud towork in the organization.
  74. 74. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 74 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGE 51.2% of the respondents strongly agree, 37.4% respondents agree,10.6% respondents neither agree nor disagree, and 0.8% respondentsdisagree with regard to having interesting work. 46.3% of the respondents strongly agree, 33.3% respondents agree,17.9% respondents neither agree nor disagree, and 2.4% respondentsdisagree with regard to have knowledge about management policies. 45.5% of the respondents strongly agree, 30.9% respondents agree,18.7% respondents neither agree nor disagree, 2.4% respondentsdisagree and 2.4% respondents strongly disagree with regard toleadership abilities.
  75. 75. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN TNPLFMS 75 VMKV ENGINEERING COLLEGECHI-SQUARE TESTTABLE 5.12TABLE SHOWING THE CROSS TABULATION BETWEEN GENDER WITHWORK COMMITMENT OF THE EMPLOYEESH0: There lies no significant difference between Gender and Work CommitmentH1: There lies significant difference between Gender and Work CommitmentWORK COMMITMENTTOTALLOW<=31MEDIUM31-40HIGH>40GENDER MALE 3574.5%2460.0%1850.0%7762.6%FEMALE1225.5%1640.0%1850.0%4637.4%TOTAL 47100%40100%36100%123100%

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