A study on training and development conducted at bharathi associates
INTRODUCTION<br />INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TOPIC<br />“A study on Training and Development at BHARATHI ASSOCIATES Pvt. Ltd., HASSAN”.<br />Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. <br />Training refers to the teaching/learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.<br />OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY<br /><ul><li>To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce.
To examine the impact of training on the workers.
To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.
To measure the differential change in output due to training
To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.
Training and development play vital and important role in any given organization in the modern day. Considering it, my study on training and development in Bharthi Associates gives me a scope to know in detail about the different techniques and method adopted by Bharthi Associates to train their employees very effectively and efficiently.
The problem statement included various factors such as knowing the training and development facilities to the employees and also to know what best effort has been put in by the firm to improvise it so that it can be utilized effectively and efficiently by the employees in the organization.
Bharthi Associates being a firm with very little number like 500 should give more concentration on its employees with regard to train them. Some amount of concentration has been given to the training of employees, however the consistency needs to be maintained in order to make sure all the employees are well knowledged and are in a better position to carry on their work with much more effectiveness in case of any unexpected issues or obstacles.
The development of any organisation depends on the employees. For organisational productivity training and development assumes great significance.
The study is conducted to know the level of knowledge and skills given to the employees in the organization.
This will help the management to know the satisfaction levels of employees and they can take measures to increase productivity.
This study may help the management students to prepare their own report.</li></ul>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY<br /><ul><li>DATA SOURCES:</li></ul>1. Primary Data:<br />The primary data was collected from the respondents by administering a structured questionnaire and also through observations, interviews and discussion with management team.<br />2 .Secondary Data:<br />Apart from primary data, the secondary data is being collected through Text book, records of Bharati associates Pvt. Limited, Journals from Library, Academic Reports, and Internet is used for the study.<br />SAMPLING:<br />Sample Population:<br />There are totally 500 employees working in the organization.<br />Sample Size:<br />Out of the total population, the sample taken among workers .i.e., 50 respondents.<br />Sampling Area:<br />The research was conducted at Bharati associates Pvt. Limited Hassan.<br />Sample Method:<br />The research was made by the survey in accordance to the convenience of the employees. So the sample type is convenient sampling.<br />TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS<br />Instrument:<br />A structured questionnaire is used, and the type of questions are dichotomous and likert scale.<br />Method:<br /> The research was conducted by using contact methods through Questionnaire, Interview and observation. The information was collected from both plant workers as well as from management staff.<br />Data Analysis Techniques:<br /><ul><li>The data is analyzed through Sample analysis technique. The data tool is percentage method.
Percentage method is used in making comparison between two or more criteria. This method is used to describe relationship.
Percentage of Respondents = No. of Respondents / Total no of Respondents X 100.</li></ul>LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY<br /> The present study is limited to many aspects. Providing information about Training and Development is the outcome of various variables. It is not possible to take in to consideration each and every criteria in this study.<br /><ul><li>Some of the information given by the respondents may be bias.
Could not able to collect the information from all the employees of organization because of busy schedule of employees.
The Questions that are asked being personal, some of them hesitated to answer it.
Analysis is done on the assumption that respondents have given correct information through the Questionnaires.
Due to the limitation of the time the research could not be made more detailed. </li></ul>2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE<br />2.1.1 Food Industry:<br />India is the world second largest producer of food next to China, and has the potential of being the biggest with the food and agricultural sector. In this respect, the country is endowed with a large production base for a variety of raw materials covering food crops, commercial crops and fibers due to its varied agro-climatic conditions.<br /> <br />India is world’s largest producer of cereals and milk; second largest producer of rice, wheat sugar, fruits, and vegetables; third in cotton; and seventh largest producer of fish. Also, India has the highest number of plants approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) outside the USA.<br />2.1.2 Food processing:<br />Processed food market is the most important segment of the food industry according for over 32 percent of the total food market. While India has on abundant supply of food, the food processing industry is still nascent: only two percent of fruit and vegetables; and 15 percent of milk are processed.<br />Despite this, the processed food industry ranks fifth in the country, representing 6.3 percent of GDP. It accounts for 13 percent of the country’s exports and 6 percent of total industrial investment. The industry size is estimated at US $70 billion, including US $22 billion of value added products. This sector has been attracting FDI across different categories. <br />2.1.3 Foreign Direct Investment:<br /> Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country’s food sector is poised to hit the US $-billion mark by 2010. In the last one year (2006) alone. FDI approvals in food processing have doubled. The cumulative FDI inflow in food processing has reached US $1.276 billion in March 2007, in which is 2.68 percent of total FDI inflows into the country.<br /> Many major multi-national companies like Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Britannia, Danone, Nestle, Cadbury, Lever’s Kelloggs, Heinz, International Best Food, Walls, Perfetti, Van Melle, etc have made their presence in India. At the same time many others are drawing their plans to enter or expand their presence in the country:<br /><ul><li>World’s largest beer company, Belgium-based InBev, is entering into a joint venture with the R K Japura group to market its flagship brands Stella Artois and Beck’s.
American giant Coca Cola plans to invest US $250 million in India in next three years.
The US-based private equity fund, new Vernon private equity limited (NVPEL) has decided to invest US $ 11 million in Kochi-based masala major, Eastern Condiments, the flagship company of Eastern Group.
America’s largest chocolate and confectionery-maker Hershey is acquiring 51 percent stake in Godrej Beverages & Food for US $54 million.</li></ul>The new wave in the food industry is not only about foreign companies arriving here attracted by the prospective size of the market. It is also about the migration of the made in India tag on food products traveling abroad. Indian food brands and fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) are now increasingly finding prime shelf-space in the retail chains of the US and Europe.<br />2.1.4 Food Retail:<br /> One of the segments of the food that has been experiencing a growing interest has been food retailing. At present, only 1 percent of the food items retailed In India flow through the organized retail channel. But this situation is expected to change due to the following reasons:- changing lifestyle, increasing number of nuclear and dual income families, changing consumer tastes, increasing disposable income among others.<br /> Some of the players that have shown a keen interest in these segments are Reliance, Tata, ITC Group, Lohias-promoted Indo Rama, Mumbai –based RK Hospitality, Kishore Bizana with his Big Bazaar, RPG group. Currently, the size of the domestic food retailing market is estimated to be US $6 billion.<br />2.1.5 US Food Industry Targeting India:<br /> Market sales of food and beverage retailing in the country have been placed at $135 billion and growing at about 4-5% per annum. INDIA has a nascent but rapidly transforming retail food industry that creates business opportunities not only for domestic products but also for overseas exporters.<br />International attention is now increasingly focused on the rapidly growing Indian food retail market. With the removal of quantitative restrictions on imports, Indian consumers can have access to food from around the world. The largely export-oriented US food industry is now targeting India for sales.<br />When combined with key demographic trends of a fast- expanding and wealthier middle class; changing food consumption patterns; a realistic prospect of continued robust economic growth over the medium term; and an increasing emphasis on infrastructure investment, it bodes well for aggressive US suppliers interested in entering one of the world’s potentially largest untapped market for consumer-ready food products.<br />Quoting industry experts, the report, intended essentially to inform prospective American suppliers business opportunities offered by India, has placed the market sales of food and beverage retailing in the country at $135 billion and growing at about 4-5 percent per annum.<br />Retailing is not yet a structurally organized industry in India, probably as a result of poverty, regional diversity (ethnicity, income levels, marketing system, purchasing behavior etc), and fragmented small agricultural production system, domestic policies that limit inter-state commerce and inadequate infrastructure, the report pointed out.<br />Market analysts believe that hypermarkets will determine the future of organized food retailing over the short-to-medium term, the report pointed out adding that traditional grocers are also gradually redefining themselves by increasing floor space, and introducing self-service format and value-added service such as credit and home delivery. <br />2.1.6 Opportunities for Food Processing Industry in India: <br /> In India agricultural and dairy sectors have achieved remarkable success over the last three and a half decades. Besides one of the world’s largest producers of food grains, India ranks second in the production of fruits and vegetables and first in milk production-providing much needed food security to the nation.<br />The accomplishments of the green and white revolutions have, however, not been matched by concurrent developments in supply chain management, and in new technologies for better processing, preservation, and storage of food. Pockets of shortages and near starvation, substantial wastages due to spoilage, quality deficiencies, and inadequate returns to the farmer are still very much in evidence.<br />Increased urbanization improved standards of living and the convenience needs of duel incomes families point to major potentialities in the food processing and marketing sectors. This is also evident from the presence of several global foods giants and leading Indian industrial enterprises in the country’s food processing sector, such as: Nestle India Ltd, Cadbury’s India Ltd, Kellogg’s India, Hindustan Lever Ltd, ITC-Agro, Godrej Foods and MTR Foods Ltd Besides, in the current globalized milieu, our surplus food production, as well as the increasing preference for Indian foods need to be leveraged to achieve economic, and strategic objectives through exports. The Food and Agriculture Integrated Development Action (FAIDA) report (1997) prepared by McKinsey has estimated that, driven by changing consumer preferences, the annual Consumption of ‘value-added’ foods alone would grow to Rs.2,25,000 crores by 2007-larger than the entire manufacturing sector! A more recent report has stated an absolute revenue increase of Rs.900 billion in food manufacturing between 1993 and 2000. This is in contrast with Rs.150 billion and Rs.300 billion in the pharmaceutical and IT industries, respectively.<br />Overall, the value of the Indian food industry has increased from Rs.3.09 trillion in 1993-94 to Rs.3.99 trillion in 2000-01. The segments with the largest growth potential have been identified as dairy, wheat, fruits and vegetables, and poultry. This report has also identified some of the major challenges for the emerging food industry in India. <br />2.1.7 Major challenges for the Indian food Industry:<br /><ul><li>Consumer education the processed foods can be more nutritious.
Low price-elasticity for processed food products.
Backward-forward integration from farm to consumer.
Developments of linkages between industry, government and institution.
Taxation in line with other nations.</li></ul>2.2 INDIAN AGRO INDUSTRY<br />2.2.1 Industry overview:<br /> The Indian agriculture industry is on the brink of a revolution that that will modernize the entire food chain, as the total food production in India is likely to double in the next ten years.<br /> As per recent studies the turnover of the total food market is approximately Rs.2, 50,000 crores (US $69.4 billion) out of which value-added food products comprise Rs.80000 crores (US $22.2 billion). The government of India has also.<br /> Approved proposal for joint ventures, foreign collaborations, industrial licenses and 100% export oriented unit envisaging an investment of Rs.9100 crores (US $ 4.80 billion) out of which foreign investment is over Rs.9100 crores (US $ 18.2 billion). The agricultural food industry also assumes significance owing to India’s sizable agrarian economy, which accounts for over 35% of GDP and employs around 65 percent of the population. Both in terms of foreign investment and number of joint-ventures / foreign collaborations, the customer food segment has the top priority. The other attractive features of the Indian agro industry that have the capacity to lure foreigners with promising benefits in deep sea fishing, aqua culture, milk and milk products, meat and poultry segments. <br />Excellent export prospect, competitive pricing of agricultural products and standards that are internationally comparable has created trade opportunities in the agro industry. This farther has enabled the Indian agricultural industry portal to serve as a means by avail the benefits of agro related buy sells trade leads and other business opportunities.<br /> This Indian agro industry revolution brings along the opportunities of profitable investment and agricultural-industry-india.com provides you the B2B platform with agro related catalogs, trade leads, exporters & importers directory etc. <br />2.2.2 Gherkins Industry:<br /> Gherkins, like other processed vegetables from the group of pickles, are mainly eaten together with meat products, either as a side-dish or as sandwiches.<br /> <br />Gherkins are available in different seasonings and size and reflect the various in taste of European consumer. The German “Gurken”, for example, are larger in size than the “Cornichons” available in France and are also marketed in slices. <br /> <br />The seasoning is “sweet-and-sour”, whereas the gherkins sold in France usually do not contain any added sugar and sold whole.<br /> There are six different sizes of gherkins available on the market, with the smaller size mostly available through retail outlets and the larger used in the food industry and the catering sector.<br /> Global Green, a subsidiary of Ballarpur industries Ltd (BILT) clocks a turnover of nearly Rs100 crore exporting gherkins and is on the constant lookout for innovations to add to its basket. <br />2.2.3 Gherkins Indian Scenario:<br /> India is the largest producers of Fruits and Vegetable in the world. Over the last three to four decades the productions of Fruits and Vegetable has seen rapid growth and also reflect a further boost in the coming years.<br /> Gherkins were first grown in India in the year 1990 with initial shipments made to Australia. Since then market expanded to Spain, Belgium, Holland and U.S.A through not many people may be aware of it, the origin of Cucumber is India.<br /> With the divers climate conditions available in India cultivation of Gherkins can be undertaken throughout the year. The availability of fertile land, adequate water and cheap labour in addition to round the year growing period had brought a natural transition of this crop from the developed countries of Europe and North America to India.<br />2.2.4 Origin:<br /> Cucumber was probably first pickled 4400 years ago in Mesopotamia. In India, pickles were well-known by the Vedic period. Cucumber –pickling might have spread through the Jewish Diaspora cucumber pickling was also known to the Ancient Greeks. Caesar’s soldiers ate pickled cucumbers as health aids, and many other brine-soaked foods were part of daily life in Ancient Rome. Cucumber pickling remained widespread across the Levant and the Maghreb, where it is still very popular today. <br />2.2.5 Global demand for gherkins on the rise:<br /> Gherkins general not found on Indian plates, gherkins – pasteurized cucumbers – are a major dietary constituent to many in central or eastern European countries.<br /> <br />It is said that on the Czech Republic, if one order for meat and vegetarian food, a slice of cow and two pickled gherkins would be served. Similarly, in France, pickled gherkins are most sought after. It is a small slim vegetable, about two inches long, not palatable with Indian diets but important enough to have journalists from Switzerland come to Karnataka’s gherkins-growing fields.<br />2.3 COMPANY PROFILE<br />2.3.1 INTRODUCTION<br />The Bharathi Associates is a recognized EOU manufacturing, processing, and supply of gherkins in bulk as also in retail packaging of two sizes.<br />Bharathi Associates is a partnership firm and a Nation concern of Bharathi Trading and industrial firm which is involved in various activities such as Coffee Curing and Exports, medical transcription, hospital, estate supplies and financing.<br />Bharathi Associates started its operation in 1997 with the main objective of manufacturing and exporting of Gherkins processed in brine, acid and vinegar solution. The factory is located at Boovanahally, on the national highway at the entry point to Hassan Taluk, Hassan-573201, Karnataka state which is 5km away from the Hassan city.<br />During the year 2006-07 BA exports 6500 MT for a value of 200 million. The organization has a ambitions plans for the current year 2007-08 has targeted total exports of 8000 MT for a value of RS 250 million. The organization has a committed qualified and capable operating team of 8 supervisors who performs under the guidance of top management. Organization also has causal employees who are also provided right work environment to ensure there well being and safety as also the product safety.<br />The firm got the EOU status in 1997 and started exporting its entire production to various countries. The firm forces a good demand for their product in oversees market in the ensuring years and planning to expand its business by purchasing new machinery for grading and culling of green gherkins which will increase the production capacity to cater the increasing oversees market dammed. <br /> <br />2.3.2 Nature of business carried:<br /> Bharathi Trading and industrial firm which is involved in various activities such as coffee curing and export, medical transcription, hospital, estate supplies and financing. Bharathi Associates deals with processing of gherkins and exporting them to countries like France, Germany and Russia etc. They process the products based on customer requirements.<br />2.3.3 Mission:<br /><ul><li>Customer is supreme.
Respond to changes for better.</li></ul>2.3.4 Strategy:<br /> Strategy is a plan an organization formulates to gain a substantial advantage over the competition. Strategy is the art of dividing and employing a system of activity that mobilize all resources towards valuable goals. It is the determination of basic long term goal and objective of an enterprise, and the adoption of course of action and the allocation of resources available for carrying out these goals.<br />2.3.5 Pricing Strategy:<br /> Price is an important element as it is revenue generating element of the organization. All the decisions related to pricing plays an important role because demand is inversely proportional to price. Price is a competitive weapon, price also determining to profitability of the company. As a result pricing has become an important managerial function of marketing.<br />2.3.6 Pricing strategy of Bharathi Associates:<br /><ul><li>Spot market analysis.
Consistent buyers have influence on the pricing: -
Consistent buyers or large buyers visits the field before the order and fixes the priced based on the situation i.e. demand etc.
Yield and supply of the crop also influences the price.</li></ul>2.3.7 Quality policy:<br />Bharathi Associates follows proven quality process winning accolades from customer worldwide:<br /><ul><li>Periodical analysis of pesticide residues, water.
Daily inspection and analysis of all ingredients at delivery point.
Half-hourly analysis of temperature inside the jars.
Analysis, tasting of finished product. Inspection of packaging materials. </li></ul>It will consultant ensure products quality and safety as per our customer requirements keeping in mind that the ultimate customers of our product are from all category and strives to continuously improve our process through the entire chain of production.<br />2.3.8 Product Profile:<br />The product of the firm is Gherkins.<br />These gherkins are processed according to different tastes. The processed gherkins are exported and they are sold in the foreign market under the below brand names;<br />Buyers nameBrand namesSamanDiavania, paterson, hutor, perikostok, bajavo.Ritzeal mishrachiVegda, Mikado, d vEurovissionlutikPromotionalGeos German exportsK classic, garteancurone.<br />2.3.9 Area of operation:<br /> The firm operates its gherkins business globally. The firm has built a strong marketing network by associating with few leading gherkins bottlers across the world to exclusively market the product. The company is exporting gherkins to Canada, France, Spain, Holland, Russia and Belgium. Major part of production is supplied to Russia and France.<br />2.3.10 Ownership Pattern:<br />Bharathi Associates is a partnership Firm. There are 10 partners of the firm.<br />The active partners are as follows;<br /><ul><li>Mr. G.L. Muddhe gowda
Mr.G.M.Vinod</li></ul>2.3.11 Management Team:<br />The management team of Bharathi Associats is headed by its chairman G.L.Muddegowda, a savvy and respected entrepreneur with several successful ventures in agro-processing, healthcare and medical transcription and now bpo to his credit.<br />Operations are headed by Mr. Vinod. A business management graduate, Vinod is in charge of agri-procurement, processing and marketing. He has rich experience of well over 20 years’ agri-based operations and agri-product processing and marketing.<br />Processing is driven by Mr.H.K.Mahendra a business management graduate who brings with him an experience of well over 15 years in the agri-processing industry.<br />2.3.12 Staff:<br />Bhrathi Associates Staff are classified as follows:<br /><ul><li> Technical staff.
In the first zone the jars are gradually heated up by spraying hot water and then dipped in to water box and as well as spraying of hot water from the top (Temp 92 to 96c). The time taken for this process will be 12.92 minutes.
In the second zone where the temperature is less than first zone (60 to 65c) the time taken for this procedure will be 6.46 minutes. And then the jar will be passed through third zone where the cold water sprayed this at room temperature and jars are cooled. The time taken for this procedure will be 8.62 minutes.
Laboratory:</li></ul> Bharathi Associates has established good laboratory facilities for enabling complete inspection and testing of all materials at appropriate stages incoming in process and final for the specified characteristics and parameters. Additionally finished product samples are sent to a competent external laboratory once in 3 months or in lesser frequency as demanded.<br />Bharathi Associates follows proven quality processes winning accolades from customers worldwide:<br /><ul><li>Periodical analysis of pesticide residues, water
Daily inspection and analysis of all ingredients at delivery point
Inspection of packaging materials</li></ul>Although all customers will testify to the quality of services, don't just take words for it.<br />Bharathi Associates would be delighted to provide FREE samples of world-class products so you get a taste of quality first-hand.<br />2.3.14 Responsibility:<br /><ul><li>Managing Director:
Inventory management and cost management of materials including dispatch.
Understanding requirements of customers and statutory and regulatory requirements.
Reviewing such requirement and meeting them on time as per specifications.
Seeking customer feedback and evaluating them to know their satisfaction level.
Handling and responding to customer complaints.</li></ul>2.3.15 Chart representing Organization Structure of Bharathi<br />Associates<br />Organization Structure<br />2.3.16 Chart Representing hygiene and Maintainence Department<br />2.3.17 Chart Representing Agricultural Department<br />2.3.18 Chart Representing Accounts and Personnel Department<br />2.3.19 Chart Representing Quality Assurance Department<br /> <br />2.3.20 ACCHIEVEMENTS: <br /><ul><li>Government of Karnataka State Award for the excellence in Exports</li></ul>Firm for the years below:<br /><ul><li>2000-2001
Best District Exporter Award of the year 2006-2007 by Federation of “Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry.”</li></ul>2.3.21 Future Growth and Prospects:<br /><ul><li>Firm has the plan to increase its production from 6000 bottles to 9000 bottles due to increase in demand.
Firm also has the plan to penetrate into other European markets.
Firm is planning to diversify its business and produce new products like chips, onion products etc.</li></ul>2.3.22 Competitors Information:<br /> The firm is facing the competition from 52 companies of the world. The major competitors are;<br /><ul><li>CALYPSO FOODS PVT LTD
GREEN AGRO-PACT</li></ul>2.3.23 Infrastructural Facilities:<br /> Bharathi Aassociats modern plant in Hassan, Karnataka, boasts some of the latest food processing equipment that includes:-<br /><ul><li>Grading machine, washing machine, conveyors, jar washer, preservative filling machine, metal detector, capping machine, pasteurizer, labeling machine, coding machine and a well equipment lab with facilities analysis. </li></ul>2.3.24 Objectives of the company:<br /><ul><li>Ensuring timely supply of product to customers.
Reducing rejections of gherkins at the incoming stage.
Minimum water and power consumption review frequency for above objective is once a year during April each year.</li></ul>2.3.25 SWOT ANALYSIS<br />A SWOT analysis consists of evaluating a company internal strength and weakness and its external opportunities and threats. The strategy must complement firm’s internal capability and external situation.<br />A scan of internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic planning process. Environment factors internal to the firm can be classified as Strength (S) and Weakness (W), and factors external to the firm can be classified as Opportunity (O) and Threat (T). Such analysis of internal and external factors is referred to as SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis has been useful tool for the industry. The process of utilizing the SWOT approach requires an internal survey of opportunities and threats of the organization. <br />The following are the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats of Bharathi Associates:<br />Strengths:<br /><ul><li>Lower cost of production: - As the labour available is cheap and are abundant.
Effective decision making process which involves all level of employees.
Bharathi associates have good employee employer relationship which is helping in smooth running of the firm.
Timely and effective service.</li></ul>Weakness:<br /><ul><li>Competition is faced in each and every segment, so there is no monopoly.
The product is new and not known to many people.
Agriculture depends on climatic condition.</li></ul>Opportunities:<br /><ul><li>The firm has an opportunity to introduce the product to local market in its own brand name.
The firm has the opportunity to diversify its business to some other product.</li></ul>Threats:<br /><ul><li>Competition from both foreign and domestic companies.
If the demand from the product in foreign countries falls the firm will have to suffer loss.</li></ul>3. LITERATURE REVIEW<br /> The review of literature is conducted to analyze various factors for the training and development at Bharathi Associates Ltd HASSAN. The book and articles of various authors are referred to find out the kind of methods which are suited for rating in job satisfaction level.<br /> The research as searched as many book on the training and development on collects the literature about the training and development. To analyze the effectiveness of the training and development in Bharathi Associates Ltd HASSAN. The information collected was confined to the journals published about the human resource management.<br /> The review of literature helped the research to conduct the survey in better and extensive manner. It should also help the research for finding and getting deeper into the topic. For this purpose and abstracting and indexing journals and published biographies and unpublished biographies are first to go.<br /> Human Resource Management function concerned with hiring, motivating and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human Resource views people as an important source or asset to be used for the benefit of organization, employees and the society. It is emerging as distinct philosophy of management aiming at policies that promote mutuality – mutual goals, mutual respects, mutual rewards and mutual responsibilities. The belief is that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn will yield both better economic performance and greater human resource development. <br />3.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT<br /> The role of human resource management in organisations has been evolving dramatically in recent times. The days of Personnel Department performing clerical duties such as record keeping, paper pushing and file maintenance are over. HR is increasingly receiving attention as a critical strategic partner, assuming stunningly different, far reaching transformational roles and responsibilities. Taking the strategic approach to human resource management involves making the function of managing human assets the most important priority in the organisations and integrating all human resource policies and programmes the frame-work of a company’s strategy. Effective utilisation of human resource can assist organisations in achieving competitive advantage.<br />3.2 SCOPE OF HRM<br /> The scope of HRM is very wide. Research in behavioural science, new trends managing knowledge workers and advances in the field of training have expanded the scope of HR function in recent years.<br /><ul><li>Personnel aspect:
This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, etc.
This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.</li></ul>3.3 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS<br /> HRM is the process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and attending to their labour relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns. ‘People or Personal aspects’<br />Conducting job analysis <br />Planning labour needs and recruiting job candidates<br />Selecting job candidates<br />Orienting and training new employees<br />Managing wages and salaries (Compensating) <br />Providing incentives and benefits<br />Appraising employees<br />Communicating (Interviewing, counselling, & Disciplining)<br />Training and developing<br />Building employee commitment<br />3.4 IMPORTANCE OF HR MANAGEMENT TO ALL MANAGERS: <br />Hire the wrong person for the job<br />Experience high turnover<br />Have people not doing the best<br />Waste time with useless interviews<br />Have your company cited under occupational safety laws for unsafe practices<br />Have some employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable<br />Allow a lack of training to undermine effectiveness<br />Commit any unfair labour practices<br />3.5 INTRODUCTION <br />3.5.1 Training and Development<br />If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there.<br />- Lewis Carroll in Alice's Adventure in Wonderland (1865).<br />“Give a man a fish, and you have given him meal. Teach man to catch fish, and you have given him a livelihood”. This ancient Chinese proverb seems to describe the underlying rationale of all training and development programme. No industrial organization can long ignore the training and development needs of its employees without seriously inhibiting its performance. Even the most careful selection does not eliminate the need for training, since people are not moulded to specifications and rarely meet the demands of their jobs adequately.<br />Poverty stricken India spends $45 billion on training each year. Expenditures of such magnitudes call for a periodic sharp look. Training in particular needs such scrutiny.<br />3.5.2 Training and Human Resource Management<br /><ul><li>The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization.
To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.
Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.</li></ul>3.5.3 Training<br /><ul><li>It refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges and polytechnics. Today it is often referred to as “professional development”.
Training is primarily concerned with preparing people for certain activities delineated by technology and by the organization and settings in which they work. Education helps students to choose their activities. Training helps participants to improve their performance. Education deals mostly knowledge and understanding. Training deals mostly with understanding, skill and action. Training embraces an understanding of the complex processes by which various factors that make up a situation interact.
Training is the most important activity or plays an important role in the development of human resources. To put the right man at the right place with the trained personnel has now become essential in today’s globalize market. No organization has a choice on whether or not to develop employees. Therefore training has nowadays become an important and required factor for maintaining and improving interpersonal and inter- group collaboration.
Human resource is the life blood of any organization. Only through well-trained personnel, can an organization achieve its goals.
Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.
A person's performance is improved by showing her how to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, a computer, a procedure for creating a product, or a method of providing a service.
Training is provided for the present job. This includes training new personnel to perform their job, introducing a new technology, or bringing an employee up to standards.
Training is mainly concerned with the meeting of two of these inputs -- people and technology. That is, having people learn to master a given technology.
</li></ul>3.5.4 Development<br />This term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of methods, e.g., orienting about a role, training in a wide variety of areas, ongoing training on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as a life-long goal and experience.<br />Training & Development is the field concerned with workplace learning to improve performance. Such training can be generally categorized as on-the-job or off-the-job. <br />On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that they will use when fully trained. On-the-job training is usually most effective for vocational work.<br />Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training is taking place. An advantage of off-the-job training is that it allows people to get away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given. This type of training is most effective for training concepts and ideas.<br />3.5.5 Definition of Training:<br /> Hesseling---- Defines training as a sequence of experience or opportunities designer modify behaviour in order to attain a stated objective’ <br /> Oatey---- Defines it as any activity which deliberately attempts to improve a person’s skill at a task.<br />3.5.6 Scope of training:<br /> Training can pave way for increasing quality both in the production and service sectors. Training can facilitate employee retention and faster customer service. If designed and delivered well it will facilitate achievement of organizational objective – the main purpose of organizational existence.<br />3.5.7 Importance of training:<br />Improves skills sets of an individual<br />Develops technical capabilities<br />Enhances competitiveness<br />Develops confidence<br />Increases organizations growth<br />Enhances overall competency of the organization<br />Improves quality of the workforce<br />Creates healthy work environment<br />3.6 METHOD OF TRAINING<br />3.6.1 Traditional method of training:<br />Traditional methods refer to methods of delivering training that have been around for many years.<br />3.6.2 Traditional methods of training are:<br />Presentation Methods<br />Hands-on-methods<br />Group Building Methods<br />3.6.3 Presentation Methods<br />Lecture<br />Audio-visual Techniques <br />3.6.4 Hands-on-methods<br />On-the-Job Training<br />Simulations<br />Case Studies<br />Business Games<br />Role play<br />Behavior Modeling <br />3.6.5 Group Building Methods<br />Adventure Learning<br />Team Training<br />Action Learning<br />3.6.6 Modern method of training:<br /><ul><li>Modern methods</li></ul>Modern methods of training are the improved versions of few traditional methods.<br />It is not compulsory that all the modern methods should consists of traditional methods.<br />Modern methods mainly include E-learning and use of technology in training. <br />3.7TYPICAL REASONS FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT<br /> Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g. <br /><ul><li>When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed.
To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort.
As part of an overall professional development program.
As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization.
To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system.
To train about a specific topic.</li></ul>3.8GENERAL BENEFITS FROM EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT<br /> There are numerous reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include: <br /><ul><li>Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training.
Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training </li></ul>3.9 DETERMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS<br />In order to determine the training needs of an organization the HRD manager should seek information on the following points:<br /><ul><li>Whether training is needed?
Too many low ratings on employee evaluation reports;
Many people using different methods to do the same job;
Excessive fatigue, fumbling, struggling with the job;
Bottlenecks and deadlines not being met;</li></ul>In many organizations the determination of training needs is predominantly done through observations. One common method for recording observations is the check- list of training needs. It provides for indicating by a “Yes” or “No” check.<br />3.9.2 Where training is needed?<br /> After determining the need for training the manager should determine where the organization training emphasis can and should be placed. This involves a detailed analysis of the following factors:<br /><ul><li>Structure of the organization,
Cultural milieu.</li></ul>3.9.3 Which training is needed?<br /> The last question to be answered by the personnel manager is about the type of training needed. This involves determining what knowledge, skills or attitudes each individual employee should develop to be able to perform his task in an effective way.<br />The three major skills which the employees of any organization need to successfully discharge their duties are: the conceptual skill, the human relations skill and the technical skill. Conceptual skill deals with ideas, technical skill with things and human skill with people.<br />3.10 WHAT IS GOOD TRAINING<br /> The three typical beneficiaries of a training programme are the managers and supervisors of trainees, trainees themselves and external customers. Each beneficiary has his own requirements and perception of what is good training. Thus, the senior managers and supervisors want training to be low in cost, to increase employees’ job performance, to improve their attitudes and morale and to be minimally disruptive to the work in terms of promotion or compensation. Trainees want the training to be of high quality which can be easily transferred to the job. They want the training venue to be more pleasant than the job venue and expect training work place to benefit them personally. Last, though not the least important are external beneficiaries who want the training to result into high – quality products and services, but do not want training to interfere with the fulfillment of their needs for example, a bank customer wants high quality customer service from tellers but does not want a ‘trainee’ teller to take a few moments longer than usual with a transaction. The HRD manager must address all the above needs of different beneficiaries throughout the training process.<br />3.11TRAINING PLAYS THE FOLLOWING ROLES IN AN ORGANIZATION<br />3.11.1 Increase in efficiency: <br />Training plays active role in increasing efficiency of employees in an organization. Training increases skills for doing a job in better way. Though an employee can learn many things while he is put on a job, but he can do much better if he learns how to do the job. This becomes more important especially in the context of changing technology because the old method working may not be relevant.<br />3.11.2 Increase in morale of employees: <br /> Morale is a mental condition of an individual or group, which determines the willingness to cooperate. High morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm voluntary conformation with regulations and willingness to cooperate with others to achieve organizational objectives. Training increases employee morale by relating their skills with their job requirements. Trained employees can see job in more meaningful ways because they are able to relate their kills with job.<br />3.11.3 Reduced Supervision: <br /> Trained employees require less supervision. They require more autonomy and freedom. Such autonomy and freedom can be given if the employees are trained properly to handle their jobs without the help of supervision.<br />3.11.4 Increased organizational viability and flexibility: <br /> Trained people are necessary to maintain organizational viability and flexibility. Viability relates to survival of the organization during bad days, and flexibility relates to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of its key personnel and making short-term adjustment with the existing personnel. Such adjustment is possible if the organization has trained people who can occupy the positions vacated by key personnel.<br />3.12 TRAINING PROCEDURE<br />3.12.1 Identify training needs: <br /> These are certain steps that are performed for training the employees. The first step is to identify T&D needs. In this step we arrange and obtain support for the contribution of T&D to organizational strategy. Then we identify organizational T&D needs. Thereafter we agree priorities for developing the T&D function. These sub steps are followed by identifying the current competence of individuals of individuals and agreeing individuals and group priorities or learning.<br />3.12.2 Design T&D strategies and plans: <br /> The second step is to design T&D strategies and plans. In this step first we identify resources required to implement a strategic plans and specify an operational plan that meets organizational requirements and further designing learning programs that meet learning needs and test, adapt and agree learning program designs.<br />3.12.3 Provide learning opportunities resources and support: <br /> The third step is to provide learning opportunities resources and support. In this we obtain and allocate resources to meet the requirement of Training and development plans. Then prepare and present demonstrations and information to co-ordinate and assist the preparation and delivery of learning opportunities.<br />3.12.4 Evaluate effectiveness of T&D:<br /> Fourth step in training is to evaluate the effectiveness of T&D, which involves plan setup, evaluate, and modify the learning plans. Then assess, co-ordinate, verify and identify previously acquired competence.<br />3.12.5 Support T&D advances and practice: <br /> The last step is to support T&D advances and practice. This includes evaluating and disseminating advances in T&D. Then we administer training facilities and after that establish and maintain information system.<br />3.13 BENEFITS OF TRAINING<br />3.13.1 Training benefits the organization in manifold ways: - <br /><ul><li>Benefits to organization: -
Leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes toward profit orientation.
Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.
Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co –ordination.
Makes organization policies, rules and regulations viable.
Makes the organization a better place to work and live.</li></ul> According to the questionnaire<br />Q1. Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this statement? <br />OpinionNo. Of RespondentsPercentageAgree26 52%Disagree 3 6%Somewhat Agree 14 28%Can’t Say 7 14%Total 50100%<br />24366384Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that organization considers training as a part of organization strategy. <br />Q2. How many training programmes will you attend in a year? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageLess than 1028 56%10 - 2012 24%20 – 40 6 12%More than 40 4 8%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that less than 10 training programmes are held in the organization.<br />Q3. To whom the training is given more in your organization? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageSenior staff 4 8%Junior staff 9 18%New staff 22 44%Based on requirement15 30%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that 44% of training is given to the new staff and 30% of training is given on the basis of requirement of the organization. <br />Q4. What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageTime 18 14%Money14 28%Lack of interest by staff11 22%Non-availability of skilled trainer 7 36%Total50100%<br />24366207<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that the important barrier to training and development in the organization is due to non-availability of skilled trainer.<br />Q5. What mode of training method is normally used in your organisation? <br />OpinionNo. of RespondentsPercentage Job rotation14 28%External training10 20%Conference/discussion 8 16%Programmed instruction18 36%Total50100%<br />243664962<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that about 36% of programmed instructions method of training is used in the organization. <br />Q6. Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with this statement? <br />opinionNo. of respondentsPercentageStrongly agree21 42%Agree18 36%Somewhat agree 8 16%Disagree 3 6%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that enough practice is given for employees during training sessions.<br />Q7. Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training. Do u agree with this statement?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageStrongly agree21 42%Agree17 34%Somewhat agree 9 18%Disagree 3 6%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart shows that employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training.<br />Q8. How long will it take to implement the trained process? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageLess than 1 month30 60%1-2 months15 30%2-4 months 5 10%More than 4 months 0 0%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart shows that it will take less than 1 month to implement the trained process. <br />Q9. How well the workplace of the training is physically organized? <br />OpinionNO. of RespondentsPercentageExcellent 6 12%Good34 68%Average10 20%Bad 0 0%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart shows that 68% of the workplace of the training is physically organized. <br />Q10. What are the conditions that have to be improved during the training sessions?<br /> <br />OpinionNO. of respondentsPercentageRe-design the job 816%Remove interference1734%Re-organize the work place 918%Upgrade the information of the material given during training1632%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that interference of others during the training sessions should be removed for the smooth flow of training sessions.<br />Q11.To perform other jobs in your organisation, what training or experience would you required? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageSafety awareness1428%Negotiation skills 612%Machine operations2244%Occupational health 816%Total50100%<br />243661964<br />Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that the 44% of training should be given on machine operations to perform job in the organization.<br />Q12.What are the general complaints about the training session?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageTake away precious time of employees1530%Too many gaps between the sessions 1428%Training sessions are unplanned 1632%Boring and not useful 510%Total50100%<br />24366-2363Interpretation:<br />The above chart indicates that the training sessions are unplanned for the training programme. <br />Q13. The time duration given for the training period is? <br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageSufficient22 44%To be extended 8 16%To be shortened 4 8%Manageable16 32%Total50100%<br />22462-611154Interpretation:<br />From the above chart the time duration given for the training period is sufficient.<br />Q14. Comment on the degree to which the training objective are met during the training sessions:<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageAll the objective are met16 32%Some objective are met14 28%Met according to the need20 40%None of the objective are met 0 0%Total50 100%<br />24366103<br />Interpretation:<br />From the above chart 40% of the training objectives are met according to the needs during the training sessions.<br />Q15.Was the promotion done by the management regarding the training and development was effective or not?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageExcellent16 32%Good22 44%Poor 0 0%Can’t say12 24%Total50100%<br />2476502304<br />Interpretation:<br /> From the above chart 44% of the promotion done by the management regarding the training and development was good.<br />Q16. Whether the training conducted by the management was on the job or off the job?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageOn the job33 66%Off the job 8 16%Both 9 18%Not applicable 0 0%Total50100%<br />24366-2215<br />Interpretation:<br />From the above chart 66% on-the job training method are used while 16% off-the job training method and 18% both method are used. <br />Q17. Does the training program influence the motivation level?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageHighly motivated22 44%Somewhat motivated28 56%Not at all motivated 0 0%Total50100%<br />2476502038<br />Interpretation:<br /> From the above chart 56% of the training program will influence the motivation level of the employee. <br />Q18. Does regular training sessions are arranged in your organization?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageYes45 90%No 5 10%Total50100%<br />Interpretation:<br />90% of the employees agreed that the regular training sessions are arranged in the organization. <br />Q19. How many promotion you have had after your training?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageOne32 64%More than one12 24%No promotion 6 12%Total50100%<br />524097-1875<br />Interpretation:<br />64% of the employees have got one promotion and 24% have got more than one promotion while 12% of the employees have not been promoted.<br />Q20. Do you feel training also contributes to personal growth of an employee?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageYes50100%No 0 0%Total50100%<br />524097738<br />Interpretation:<br />100% of the employees feel that training also contributes for the personal growth of the employees. <br />Q21. Do you feel training programs helped the company to achieve its objectives?<br />OpinionNo. of respondentsPercentageYes50100%No 0 0%Total50100%<br />243663264<br />Interpretation:<br />100% of the employees feel that the training programs helped the company to achieve its objective.<br />FINDINGS<br /><ul><li>Majority of employees are technically qualified, well experienced and between age group of 25-35, all this will increase the efficiency of employee.
The organization considers the training as a part of organization strategy.
Training program helped the organization to achieve its objective.
In the organization more training program are provided to the new staff and also as per the requirement.
Most of the time organization faces problems due to non-availability of the skilled trainer to train the employee.
Organization provides program based instruction for the training.
Management gives more importance for the timely supply of product to the customers.
In an organization employees are given enough practice during training session.
Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training.
Employees implement the training process with in less period of time.
Training objective is met according to the needs of the organization.
Most of the time training program is conducted on-the job.
Training will also contribute to the personal growth of the employee.
Proper training should be provided to handle the machines carefully.
Some of the time raw material will not be available on time.
Almost all employees are satisfied with uniform provided by the company.
Proper infrastructure facilities which can motivate the employees to perform better.
A company should implement their training programmes in a manner that 100% of their employees agree that their personal growth increases with training and development. </li></ul> <br />CONCLUSION<br />In today’s Corporate World, it is very important that the managers should plan, organize, direct and control the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of work force in order that the organization may accomplish its designed objectives. From this point of view, the work force is an instrument of the organization, and the HR manager provides and shapes that instrument. Hence, the HR managers must assist the organization in adopting the changes in mix and values. Thus, Global competition, customer focus and need for speed and flexibility have transformed the business equation. But to get the desired result, we must depend on HR to carry the day. We must select competent individuals, develop, motivate, retain and provide them with the organizational culture and process that will allow them to succeed.<br />I conclude that through proper training an employee can become multi skilled and this I have practically noticed through my analysis. Thus, training helps to develop knowledge, skill and attitudes necessary to perform job related task.<br />I have found out that because of the training employees are more able to perform their work very effectively. By imparting suitable training to employees the company achieves the target of: - <br /><ul><li>Low cost
Customer satisfaction</li></ul>BIBLIOGRAPHY <br />BOOKS:<br /> V.S.P.Rao, Human Resource Management, Second Edition<br /> Biswajeet Pattanaik, Human Resource Management, Third Edition<br /> Dr. Janakiram, Training and Development, Indian Text Edition<br />INTERNET AND WEBSITES:<br /> www.google.com<br /> www.bharathiassociates.com<br /> <br /> <br />ANNEXURE<br />Dear Sir/ Madam,<br />I am RANJITHA.P, IV semester M.B.A, student of HRIHE, HASSAN, doing my project work entitled “A study on training and development” At Bharathi Associates pvt. Ltd., Hassan.<br />So I request you to give me your valuable feedback on questionnaire. The information will be kept confidential and used for academic purpose only.<br />THANKING YOU,<br /> RANJITHA.P<br /><ul><li>Name:
Does Regular training sessions are arranged in your organization?</li></ul> 1) Yes [ ]2) No [ ]<br /><ul><li>How many promotion you have had after your training?</li></ul>1) One [ ]<br />2) More than one [ ]<br />3) No promotion [ ] <br /><ul><li>Do you feel training also contributes to personal growth of an employee?</li></ul> 1) Yes [ ]2) No [ ]<br /><ul><li>Do you feel training programs helped the company to achieve its objectives?</li></ul> 1) Yes [ ]2) No [ ]<br />