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Genesis 1 In The Beginning



The Six Days of Genesis

Biblical wisdom and scientific understanding reunited.

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The Six Days of Genesis

  1. 1. The Six Days of Genesis Biblical Wisdom and Scientific Understanding Reunited
  2. 2. Presentation created by Sarah Salviander, Ph.D., © 2016 SixDay Science, LLC. Inspired by The Science of God by Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D. This presentation may not be copied, in whole or in part, without written permission by SixDay Science, LLC.
  3. 3. Since the time of Aristotle, scientists mostly believed that the universe was eternal and uncreated. Matter and motion are eternal. Therefore the world is eternal.
  4. 4. An eternal universe was difficult to reconcile with Genesis. “In the beginning…” –Genesis 1:1
  5. 5. That’s where things remained for 2,300 years, but it all began to change at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1915, German-born physicist, Albert Einstein, published his most famous work—the general theory of relativity— and it would lead to a great revolution in science.
  6. 6. I want to know His thoughts. The rest are details. Einstein was known for pithy remarks. He once famously said…
  7. 7. One of those “thoughts” was a theory of gravitation expressed in a concise collection of equations called the Einstein field equations. Gµυ + Λgµυ = Tµυ 8πG c4
  8. 8. It was elegant, but Einstein wasn’t sure the equations could be solved. However, physicists almost immediately began to solve them and learn all sorts of interesting things about the universe.
  9. 9. Belgian priest and cosmologist, Georges Lemaître, discovered something shocking about the universe in his solution to the equations. The universe can expand or contract!
  10. 10. Lemaître vigorously pursued the idea of an expanding universe. He called it “the hypothesis of the primeval atom.” It would eventually become the big bang theory, and for that reason he’s known as the father of the big bang.
  11. 11. This was the first serious scientific challenge to the millennia-old idea that the universe is static and eternal. It was later supported by observations made by an American astronomer named Edwin Hubble.
  12. 12. You probably recognize the name—the Hubble Space Telescope is named after him.
  13. 13. Hubble observed that other galaxies are moving away from the Milky Way, and that the further away they are, the faster they’re moving away. This was strong evidence for an expanding universe.
  14. 14. Incidentally, there are several references to an expanding universe in scripture. “He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in.” —Isaiah 40:22
  15. 15. 15 We are still experiencing that expansion. In fact, the rate of expansion is increasing with time.
  16. 16. a beginning past If galaxies are moving further away from each other with time, they must have been closer together in the past. This implies a beginning for the universe.
  17. 17. “big bang” past British astrophysicist, Fred Hoyle, was the first to call it the “big bang.” He thought the universe was eternal, and was very skeptical of the big bang.
  18. 18. One of the main predictions of big bang theory was that there would be leftover radiation from the “bang.” The leftover radiation was discovered in the 1960s. Lemaître learned of it shortly before he died.
  19. 19. Two American physicists, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, discovered the leftover radiation.
  20. 20. At first, they thought the signal was an error, and maybe even due to pigeon droppings on the equipment. But it was real, and turned out to be one of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time.
  21. 21. This is a sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the WMAP satellite.
  22. 22. The leftover radiation from the big bang forms a uniform background of microwave energy pervading the entire universe. This is what the sky looks like in microwave light. This is a sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the WMAP satellite.
  23. 23. Back in the days of analog television, antennas could pick up this background energy. About 1% of this static was leftover energy from the big bang.
  24. 24. The evidence for the big bang was overwhelming. However, a lot of scientists hated it, including the late biologist, John Maddox, who was a long-time editor of the prestigious journal, Nature. Big bang theory is philosophically unacceptable.
  25. 25. For some people, the big bang was too close to Genesis for comfort. After London journalists heard about evidence for the big bang in 1961, newspapers published headlines that read “The Bible was right” and “’How it all began’ fits in with Bible story.”
  26. 26. Prior to Lemaître and Hubble, scientists mostly agreed with Hoyle and Maddox that the universe was eternal—no beginning, no end, no need for God. So, Genesis was in conflict with mainstream science and philosophy for about two thousand years.
  27. 27. With the big bang, science finally accepted that the universe had a beginning, just as Genesis says. Prior to Lemaître and Hubble, scientists mostly agreed with Hoyle and Maddox that the universe was eternal—no beginning, no end, no need for God. So, Genesis was in conflict with mainstream science and philosophy for about two thousand years.
  28. 28. However, other serious conflicts between scripture and science seem to remain.
  29. 29. The Bible claims the universe and all life on Earth was created and developed in six days, followed by about 6,000 years since Adam. Science provides evidence that the universe is billions of years old. Problem 1
  30. 30. The Bible has plants growing on Earth before the Sun appears. Problem 2
  31. 31. The Bible says Adam was the first human, but science has evidence of humans living long before Adam appeared 6,000 years ago. Problem 3
  32. 32. Is this proof that the Bible is still hopelessly at odds with science?
  33. 33. The answer might surprise you. Is this proof that the Bible is still hopelessly at odds with science?
  34. 34. The truth is, there is no conflict between science and scripture. As was the case with the big bang, science is just taking a long time to catch up with the wisdom of the Bible.
  35. 35. This idea was echoed by the late NASA astrophysicist, Robert Jastrow, when he said...
  36. 36. For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountain of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries. “ “
  37. 37. U Six days is ridiculous. Billions of years is heretical. And yet, at first glance, Genesis and science couldn’t seem to disagree more.
  38. 38. The truth is, both are correct. Genesis is literally true and the universe is billions of years old.
  39. 39. The key to resolving this apparent discrepancy is understanding that time described in Genesis is special. Let’s look at the evidence.
  40. 40. 1When the contemporary Western calendar tells us it is October 1st of the year 2016, it will be the start of the year 5777 according to the Jewish calendar. A naïve interpretation is that it has been 5777 years since the creation of the universe; however, the Jewish calendar does not include the first six days of Genesis. The first six days are set apart, as though there were something special about them.
  41. 41. 2Time described in Genesis differs from time described in the rest of the Bible, once Adam appears.
  42. 42. 2 Before Adam Blocks of events occur, and then we’re told a day passes. There is no special connection between the events and the passage of time. After Adam The passage of time is tied directly to earthly events.
  43. 43. 3Genesis describes time going forward. Why does this matter? Humans can only perceive the events of the universe after they have happened, not while they are happening —we are always looking backward in time. But there is a subtle clue that the events in Genesis are not described in the usual human way.
  44. 44. 3 Compare these two passages: Genesis 1:5: And there was an evening and a morning, one day. (cardinal) Genesis 1:8: And it was evening and morning, a second day. (ordinal) Many English translations incorrectly give the day in Gen 1:5 in the ordinal form: “a first day.” In Hebrew, it’s in the cardinal form: “one day.” Nahmanides explains the meaning: In relating the events of Genesis starting with the cardinal “one day,” we infer there are not yet any other days with which to compare it. By the second day, there is already a first day, so Genesis uses the ordinal form. Genesis describes events going forward in time, which is not the way we perceive them.
  45. 45. 4Prior to the creation of Adam on Day 6, God is the only one watching the clock.
  46. 46. There are non-scriptural clues, as well. The ancient biblical scholar Nahmanides intuited that the six days of creation contain “all the secrets and ages of the universe.” How can days contain ages of the universe, unless there is something special about them?
  47. 47. Five clues that Genesis time is special 1.  The first six days are not included in the Jewish calendar. 2.  Events before and after Adam are described differently. 3.  Genesis describes time going forward. 4.  Only God was watching the clock before Adam. 5.  The days of creation contain “all the secrets and ages of the universe.” 5
  48. 48. Together, these clues strongly suggest Genesis 1 is told solely from God’s perspective. The Bible switches to an earthly perspective, but only after Adam appears on Day 6.
  49. 49. So, how do we use this to relate six literal 24-hour days with a universe that is 14 billion years old?
  50. 50. Time is not absolute. In order to relate Genesis time to earthly time, we go back to Einstein.
  51. 51. Time is flexible. It can be stretched so that it flows at different rates. Differences in the flow of time are only noticeable when you compare one frame of reference with another—this is why it’s called relativity.
  52. 52. A frame of reference is like a point of view. In physics, it refers to things that are experiencing the same conditions, like the same velocity and gravity.
  53. 53. For example, the subway train on the right and everyone on it are in the same frame of reference, because they’re all going the same velocity—the velocity of the train. The people on the platform are in a different frame of reference, because they are stationary with respect to the moving train.
  54. 54. Differences in the flow of time depend on… Relative speed Relative gravity The stretching of space as it expands
  55. 55. Relative speeds stretch out the flow of time. If we place a clock on a fast-moving jet and an identical clock next to a person on the ground, the person on the ground will observe the clock on the jet to tick slower relative to his clock. Relative speed
  56. 56. Ticks faster Ticks slower
  57. 57. Gravity stretches out the flow of time. If we place a clock on the surface of the Earth and an identical clock on a satellite in orbit around the Earth (where gravity is not as strong as on the surface), the clock on the satellite will tick faster than the Earth clock. Relative gravity
  58. 58. Ticks faster Ticks slower
  59. 59. The difference in the flow of time is tiny but measurable even between the top and bottom of a skyscraper. For people at the top, where gravity isn’t as strong, time flows slightly faster relative to the people on the ground floor, where gravity is slightly stronger. Relative gravity
  60. 60. Ticks faster Ticks slower
  61. 61. The stretching of space as the universe expands stretches out the flow of time. The more the universe expands, the more the ticks of the cosmic clock slow down relative to earlier times when the universe was not as stretched out. The stretching of space
  62. 62. Faster Slower
  63. 63. You may be wondering if the stretching of time has actually been observed. The answer is yes! Many times, in fact. Here are a few examples… §  Muon decay in the Earth’s atmosphere demonstrates stretching of time due to relative velocity. §  Spectra from the Sun’s surface demonstrate stretching of time due to relative gravity. §  Distant supernovae demonstrate stretching of time due to the stretching of space.
  64. 64. “For a thousand years in your sight are as a day that passes, like a watch in the night.” –Psalm 90:4 Interestingly, the Bible contains hints of awareness of relativity.
  65. 65. To relate Genesis time to earthly time, only the stretching of space matters. However, keep in mind that relative speed and gravity do not account for the difference between 6 days and 14 billion years. Those examples just serve to show that the stretching of time is real and measurable.
  66. 66. Criticisms of Dr. Schroeder’s model are often based on the false assertion that the model relies on differences in gravity and/or velocity. It does not. The model only relies on the stretching of time due to the stretching of space.
  67. 67. Let’s see if the stretching of time from an expanding universe can account for the difference between what scripture says and what science says.
  68. 68. To do this, we use light as a cosmic clock.
  69. 69. To do this, we use light as a cosmic clock. But first you need to understand a little about waves to see how this works.
  70. 70. wavelength wavelength A wave is characterized by its wavelength, the distance between two peaks or two troughs.
  71. 71. It’s also characterized by frequency, the number of waves going past an arbitrary point per second. The longer the wave, the lower the frequency.
  72. 72. short wavelength high frequency long wavelength low frequency
  73. 73. We will use the frequency of light as the beat of our cosmic clock.
  74. 74. We use the frequency of the light wave to calculate the passage of time. The frequency of light is the beat of the cosmic clock: tick...tick...tick…tick...tick…tick... Every )me a wave crest passes this point, the clock beats once.
  75. 75. Every )me a wave crest passes this point, the clock beats once. The greater the wavelength, the lower the frequency and the more slowly the clock will tick: tick.....tick.....tick..…tick.....tick.....
  76. 76. Remember, humans don’t appear until Day 6, so it’s God alone who is observing the events during the first six days and measuring the ticks on the Genesis clock. For God alone, a day is 24 hours. Let’s put all of this together with Genesis.
  77. 77. How do we know each day is literally 24 hours from God’s perspective? Mostly from context in scripture (e.g. Exodus 20:8-11). Great biblical scholars like Rashi and Nahmanides also believed the days were literal 24-hour days.
  78. 78. Now we just need to establish some things about God’s frame of reference. This will help us choose a cosmic clock that relates Genesis time to earthly time.
  79. 79. God, as the transcendent creator of the universe, must have a perspective that encompasses the entire universe, so we need the cosmic clock to do the same.
  80. 80. The cosmic clock must start ticking at the beginning of Day 1. We can ignore it once Adam appears on Day 6, when Genesis switches to an earthly perspective. The cosmic clock must be able to relate differences in the passage of time at different moments in the history of the universe.
  81. 81. Five requirements for the cosmic clock 1.  Must uniformly encompass the universe in its entirety. 2.  Must start ticking at the beginning of Genesis Day 1. 3.  Must relate differences in the passage of time at different moments in the history of the universe. Does such a thing exist? 3
  82. 82. Yes! We’ve already encountered it: the leftover radiation from the big bang. This is the cosmic background radiation. It’s also called the cosmic microwave background (CMB), since it’s in the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  83. 83. The CMB is the only light that has existed since the beginning of the universe. It is measurable, it is very uniform, and it pervades the entire universe. It is the perfect cosmic clock.
  84. 84. The stretching of space Remember: it is only the stretching of space that affects the cosmic clock. The stretching of space as the universe expands stretches out the flow of time. The more the universe expands, the more the ticks of the cosmic clock slow down relative to earlier times when the universe was not as stretched out. The stretching of space
  85. 85. Faster Slower
  86. 86. Space stretches as the universe expands, pulling things away from each other.
  87. 87. Light waves also stretch as the universe expands… …causing the cosmic clock to tick slower.
  88. 88. This has been observed with distant exploding stars. A supernova going off when the universe was half its present age appears to take twice as long to fade as a contemporary supernova.
  89. 89. It appears to take twice as long to fade, because the expansion of the universe has stretched the light from the supernova by a factor of two by the time it reaches us.
  90. 90. 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 time (days) brightness 0 20 40 60 80 100 The change in brightness of a nearby supernova over the course of several days. The change in brightness of a supernova several billion light- years away takes noticeably longer.
  91. 91. So, what does this stretching of space and time mean for our cosmic clock?
  92. 92. At the instant the big bang occurred, the entire universe was packed into a tiny speck of space. That speck expanded in an enormous burst of energy. The stretching of space stretched the energy left over from the big bang— the cosmic microwave background.
  93. 93. These cosmic light waves traveling through space since the big bang have been stretched by the same amount that the universe has stretched since the beginning.
  94. 94. This means time has been stretched by the same amount that space has been stretched.
  95. 95. Consider what happened every time the universe doubled in scale...
  96. 96. Consider what happened every time the universe doubled in scale...
  97. 97. …the distance between waves crests of light—and hence the duration between the ticks of the cosmic clock —also doubled.
  98. 98. When the universe doubled in size, time slowed down by a factor of 2. When the universe quadrupled in size, time slowed down by a factor of 4.
  99. 99. When the universe increased in scale by a million, time slowed down by a factor of 1,000,000. You get the idea.
  100. 100. We’re now ready to understand how the six days of creation contain “all the secrets and ages of the universe.” 100
  101. 101. We just need to know by how much the universe—and therefore time— has stretched since the beginning until now. But to know how much time has stretched, we need to know when time began.
  102. 102. A peculiar property of time is that it is experienced only by things that have mass. Einstein’s special theory of relativity tells us that anything traveling at the speed of light experiences no time at all. Such things exist in an eternal state of “now.” Light thus experiences no time. Anything with mass, on the other hand, can never travel at the speed of light, so it always experiences time.
  103. 103. Contrary to common misconception, matter was not created with the big bang. Space, time, and energy (in the form of light) came into existence immediately with the big bang. Matter formed soon after according to Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2, which says that matter and energy are interchangeable.
  104. 104. But just after the big bang, the universe was so hot that matter could just as easily turn back to energy. Once the universe expanded and cooled enough for matter to remain— a condition referred to as “quark confinement”—time grabbed hold.
  105. 105. Quarks are fundamental particles—the basic building blocks of matter. This means that, unlike particles such as protons and neutrons, they can’t be broken down into smaller pieces. Quarks were the first particles to be made from the energy of the big bang. They comprise, among other things, the protons and neutrons that all ordinary matter is made of. proton quarks
  106. 106. Let’s relate this to what Genesis says.
  107. 107. Genesis 1:1-2 says: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty…
  108. 108. Nahmanides comments that Genesis 1:1-2 means the universe was initially filled with “the prime matter of the heavens and all it would contain and the prime matter of the earth and all that it would contain.” Even though Nahmanides wrote this statement over 700 years ago, using nothing but his knowledge of scripture, it could have come from a modern physics textbook. 108
  109. 109. Physicists have identified quarks as the first form of matter and the fundamental building blocks of all ordinary matter. In other words, they are the “prime matter.” The cosmic clock therefore starts ticking at the moment that prime matter is created, the moment of quark confinement.
  110. 110. The universe has expanded by a factor of about one trillion since quark confinement. The frequency of light traveling through the universe since that time—the cosmic microwave background— has been stretched by the same amount. That means the cosmic clock ticks a trillion times slower today than at the beginning of Genesis Day 1.
  111. 111. So, what does all this mean for the age of the universe?
  112. 112. 14 billion years ÷ 1 trillion ≈ 6 days
  113. 113. Actually, 14 billion years divided by one trillion equals 5.1 days. The cosmic clock should stop ticking with the creation of Adam about halfway through Day 6, so it should be about 5.5 days total. The math involved in relating universal time to earthly time is more complicated than the simple division operation above, because the rate of expansion of the universe has not been strictly constant. When corrected for acceleration in the rate of expansion, the result works out to almost exactly 5.5 days. (There is also some discrepancy that results from not knowing the precise age of the universe in Earth years.)
  114. 114. That is a rather amazing claim by itself. But our ultimate goal is to map cosmic time onto the Genesis account of creation. To do this, we first need to brush up on some math.
  115. 115. As the universe expanded after the big bang, its scale and the ticks of the cosmic clock were becoming ever closer to those of the present time. Working from the simple assumption that the universe has expanded at an approximately constant rate, each doubling of the scale of the universe took twice as long as the one before it.
  116. 116. This is expressed as an exponential relationship: A = Ao e-kt This is a variation of the well-known compound interest formula.
  117. 117. Let’s apply this formula to Genesis and cosmic time.
  118. 118. Genesis Day Start of Day (years ago) End of Day (years ago) Duration (years) 1 14.1 billion 7.0 billion 7.1 billion 2 7.0 billion 3.4 billion 3.4 billion 3 3.4 billion 1.6 billion 1.8 billion 4 1.6 billion 680 million 890 million 5 680 million 230 million 450 million 6 230 million ~ 6,000 230 million Genesis time and Earth time (including accelerated expansion):
  119. 119. 1 2 3 4 5 6 This is a visualization of the duration of the Genesis days in relation to each other. Each day is approximately half as long as the one before it.
  120. 120. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.0 10.70 12.5 13.4 13.9 14.1 The numbers on top represent the end-of-day age of the universe in billions of years.
  121. 121. This takes care of the seeming problem between the biblical timeline for the universe and the scientific one. The universe and all life on Earth was created and developed in six days, but solely from God’s point of view. This is fully compatible with the scientifically determined age of the universe of billions of years from our earthly perspective. Problem 1
  122. 122. Now that we have a timeline, let’s compare what Genesis and science say happen on each of the days.
  123. 123. Day One: Genesis 1:1-5 The Bible says: God creates the universe; God separates light from dark. Science says: The big bang marks the creation of the universe; light breaks free as neutral atoms form; galaxies start to form.
  124. 124. Day Two: Genesis 1:6-8 The Bible says: The heavenly firmament forms. Science says: The disk of the Milky Way galaxy forms; the Sun, a disk star, forms.
  125. 125. Day Three: Genesis 1:9-13 The Bible says: Oceans and dry land appear; the first life, plants appear; Kabbalah holds that this is only the start of plant-life, which develops further during the following days. Science says: The Earth has cooled and liquid water appears 3.8 billion years ago followed almost immediately by the first forms of life; bacteria and photosynthetic algae.
  126. 126. Day Four: Genesis 1:14-19 The Bible says: The Sun, Moon, and stars become visible in heavens. Science says: Earth’s atmosphere becomes transparent when photosynthesis produces an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Once Earth's atmosphere is transparent, the Sun, Moon, and other celestial objects are visible from the surface of the Earth.
  127. 127. Day 4 is often seen as a problem, because Genesis appears to claim that plants were growing before the Sun was made. However, Jewish scholarly tradition holds that the Sun was made on Day 2 with the other stars in the firmament, and provided light to the Earth’s surface as soon as the Earth formed. In terms of the science, the Sun finally became fully visible from the Earth’s surface on Day 4, along with other stars in the sky and the Moon, after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) caused the Earth’s atmosphere to become transparent.
  128. 128. This eliminates the problem of plants growing on Earth before the Sun appears. The Sun is made before plants, but becomes apparent later. Problem 2
  129. 129. Day Five: Genesis 1:20-23 The Bible says: The first animal life swarms abundantly in waters; followed by reptiles and winged animals. Science says: The first multicellular animals suddenly appear, the waters swarm with animal life having the basic body plans of all future animals, and winged insects appear.
  130. 130. Day Six: Genesis 1:24-31 The Bible says: The appearance of land animals; mammals; and humankind. Science says: A massive extinction destroys 90% of life. The land is repopulated by mammals; hominids appear, followed by humans.
  131. 131. Day 6 is often confusing to readers who assume that “human” and “hominid” are synonymous. However, contrary to popular misconception, the Bible has no problem with the fossil records of early humankind. The ancient biblical commentators accepted the existence of hominids, who were physically identical to Adam and his sons but lacked one all-important feature: the human soul. These hominids possessed the animal spirit (nefesh in Hebrew) but not the human soul (neshama). The great biblical commentator, Maimonides, called these beings “mere animals in human shape and form.” [The Guide for the Perplexed, Part II: Chapter VII]
  132. 132. In the original Hebrew language, Genesis 2:7 says “... and the adam became to a living soul." Nahmanides argues that the grammatically superfluous “to” is an important clue: God chose a pre-existing hominid and endowed it with a neshama—“communicating spirit” in Hebrew—to make it fully human. This implies that humans are distinguished from the hominid animals by their ability to communicate spiritually with their Creator. In other words, it doesn’t matter if human bodies are biologically related to those of cavemen or apes. The part of us that is in the image of God is the spiritual, not the physical.
  133. 133. There is no problem with the biblical claim that Adam was the first human. He was. But the Bible also has no problem with pre-Adam hominids who existed many years before Adam. Problem 3
  134. 134. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.0 10.70 12.5 13.4 13.9 14.1 Now we can add key events to the visual timeline.
  135. 135. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.0 10.70 12.5 13.4 13.9 14.1 Sun and Earth form Big bang Milky Way begins to form First plant life GOE Sun, Moon, stars appear Now we can add key events to the visual timeline. First human ancestors
  136. 136. As powerful as all this is, none of it proves God’s existence. It does, however, show two important things.
  137. 137. U Six days is ridiculous. Billions of years is heretical. 1.  It disproves the claim that science and the Bible are irreconcilably at odds.
  138. 138. 2.  It shows that Genesis is the most tremendous record of the natural history of the universe ever written.
  139. 139. Genesis 1 makes at least 26 scientifically testable statements about the origins of the universe and the emergence of life. All 26 are compatible with modern science and in the correct order. This amazing feat was accomplished 2,500 years before the dawn of modern science. For more discussion of this, go to
  140. 140. It has taken many centuries for science to catch up to the wisdom of the Bible. Science is still catching up. We may not currently understand the basis for everything in scripture, but the truth of Genesis should support our faith in the written word of God.
  141. 141. When I consider your heavens,        the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars,        which you have set in place, what is man that you are mindful of him,        the son of man that you care for him? You made him a little lower than the heavenly beings        and crowned him with glory and honor. You made him ruler over the works of your hands;        you put everything under his feet: all flocks and herds,        and the beasts of the field, the birds of the air,        and the fish of the sea,        all that swim the paths of the seas. O LORD, our Lord,        how majestic is your name in all the earth! The Astronomer’s Psalm (Psalm 8:3-9)
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Biblical wisdom and scientific understanding reunited.


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